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Encyclopedia > Burundi
Republika y'u Burundi
République du Burundi
Republic of Burundi
Flag of Burundi Coat of arms of Burundi
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Iterambere"  (Kirundi)
"Unité, Travail, Progrès"  (French)
"Unity, Work, Progress" 1
Anthem
Burundi bwacu
Capital
(and largest city)
Bujumbura
3°30′S, 30°00′E
Official languages Kirundi, French
Demonym Burundian
Government Republic
 -  President Pierre Nkurunziza
Independence from Belgium 
 -  Date July 1, 1962 
Area
 -  Total 27,830 km² (145th)
10,745 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7.8%
Population
 -  2005 estimate 7,548,000 (94th)
 -  1978 census 3,589,434 
 -  Density 271/km² (43rd)
533.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2003 estimate
 -  Total $4.517 billion² (142nd)
 -  Per capita $739 (163rd)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $799 million[1] (162nd)
 -  Per capita $90 (182nd)
HDI (2004) 0.384 (low) (169th)
Currency Burundi franc (FBu) (BIF)
Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .bi
Calling code +257
1 Before 1966, "Ganza Sabwa".
2 Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates.

Burundi (IPA: /buɾundi/), officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Africa. It is bordered by Rwanda on the north, Tanzania on the south and east, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the west. Although the country is landlocked, much of its western border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika. The country's modern name is derived from its Bantu language, Kirundi. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Image File history File links Blason_du_Burundi. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Burundi was adopted on March 28, 1967. ... The Coat of Arms of Burundi, adopted in 1966, consists of a shield surrounded by three spears. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Burundi bwacu (Beloved Burundi) is the national anthem of Burundi. ... Image File history File links LocationBurundi. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Burundi, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Bujumbura, estimated population 300,000 (1994), is the capital of Burundi. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... List of Rulers and Heads of State of Burundi (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Kingdom of Burundi Republic of Burundi Affiliations:- See also:- Burundi Heads of Government of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi (Urundi) Colonial Heads of Burundi (Ruanda-Urundi) Lists of... Pierre Nkurunziza is elected President of Burundi on August 19, 2005. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... Issued sometime in 1963-1964, the Burundi issues very few coins in its past. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .bi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Burundi. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Great Lakes of Africa are a series of lakes in and around the Great Rift Valley. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu vs. ... Introduction Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ...


Geographically isolated, facing population pressures and having sparse resources, Burundi has the lowest GDP per capita in the world, arguably making it the poorest country on the planet.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Burundi

The earliest inhabitants of the area were the pygmoid Twa. They were largely replaced and absorbed by Bantu (Hutu) tribes during Bantu migrations. Burundi is one of the few countries in Africa, along with its closely linked neighbour Rwanda, to be a direct territorial continuation of an ancient African state. ... The Twa, also known as Batwa, are a pygmy people who were the oldest recorded inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of central Africa. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ...


Burundi existed as an independent kingdom from the sixteenth century. In 1903, it became a German colony and passed to Belgium in World War I. It was part of the Belgian League of Nations mandate of Ruanda-Urundi in 1923, later a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority following World War II. The origins of Burundi monarchy are veiled in myth. According to some legends, Ntare Rushatsi, founder of the original dynasty, came to Burundi from Rwanda in seventeenth century; other, more reliable sources, suggest that Ntare came from Buha, in the south-east, and laid the foundation for his kingdom in the Nkoma region. This page contains two version of the list of Kings of Burundi, the traditional version and the modern genealogy. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian League of Nations Mandate and then UN trust territory from 1924 to 1962 when it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Until the downfall of the monarchy in 1966, kingship remained one of the last links that bound Burundi with its past.


From independence in 1962, until the elections of 1993, Burundi was controlled by a series of military dictators. These years saw extensive ethnic violence. In 1965 Hutu extremists attempted to wipe out ethnic Tutsi at Busangana in the central province of Muramvya. In 1972, 1988, and 1993, the Tutsi minority was victim of a genocide at the hands of Hutu extremist organisations such as UBU (Umugambwe w'Abakozi b'Uburundi or Burundi Workers Party), PALIPEHUTU, FRODEBU, and more recently the now ruling CNDD-FDD. In 1993 Burundi held democratic presidential elections which were won by the Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU). FRODEBU leader Melchior Ndadaye became Burundi's first Hutu President, but a few months later he was assassinated by a group of Tutsi army officers. The killing was a pretense for the ruling party FRODEBU to start a new genocide against the Tutsi minority. Hutu extremists massacred thousands of Tutsi civilians. Years of instability followed until 1996, when former president Pierre Buyoya took power in a coup. In August 2000, a peace deal was agreed by most of Burundi's political groups. Unfortunately, it made no distinction between political parties and genocidal forces, as both were allowed to play a role in the national institutions. The deal laid out a timetable for the restoration of democracy. After several more years of genocide against the Tutsi minority, a cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD. In April of that year, FRODEBU leader Domitien Ndayizeye had replaced Buyoya as President. Yet the most extreme Hutu group, PALIPEHUTU-FNL (commonly known as "FNL"), continued to refuse negotiations. In August 2004, the group massacred 152 Congolese Tutsi refugees at the Gatumba refugee camp in western Burundi. In response to the attack, the Burundian government issued arrest warrants for the FNL leaders Agathon Rwasa and Pasteur Habimana, and declared the group a terrorist organisation. However, the arrest warrants were never effected. On the contrary, a few months later, the UN representative to Burundi went to meet the two men in Nairobi, Kenya. The Front for the Democracy in Burundi (Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi, Frodebu) is a political party in Burundi. ... Melchior Ndadaye Melchior Ndadaye (March 28, 1953 – October 21, 1993) was the first elected president of Burundi. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Pierre Buyoya Major Pierre Buyoya (b. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Domitien Ndayizeye (born May 2, 1953 in Murango, Kayanza Province) is a former president of Burundi. ... The village of Gatumba lies on the western side of Burundi, near to the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


In May 2005, a cease-fire was finally agreed between the FNL and the Burundian government, but fighting continued. Renewed negotiations are now under way, amid fears that the FNL will demand a blanket amnesty in exchange for laying down their arms. A series of elections, held in mid-2005 were won by the former Hutu rebel National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD). On September 7, 2006, a second ceasefire agreement was signed. The Republic of Burundi held several elections in 2005. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The National Council for the Defense of Democracy–Forces for the Defense of Democracy (NCDD–FDD) was the most significant rebel group active in the Burundi Civil War and became a major political party in Burundi. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Genocide and mass killings

There was a well prepared genocide against Hutu population in Burundi in 1972 and an estimated 500,000 Hutu and moderate Tutsi died. Those who participated in that genocide are free after the current government of Burundi continue to urge all the people to forgive each other on all of the killings. There have been other mass killings against the Hutu population in Burundi, like in 1988, when the government struck innocent civilians in the region of Ntenga and Marangara in Burundi. In 1993, Burundi's first democratically elected Hutu president, Melchior Ndadaye, was assassinated by Tutsi extremists. His assassination was followed by a long civil war that killed both Hutu and Tutsi. A 1996 UN report into Ndadaye's assassination and its aftermath[2], concluded that "acts of genocide against the Tutsi minority were committed in Burundi in October 1993". The report also implicated senior figures in Burundi's Tutsi-dominated army in the assassination. In Burundi, both Hutu and Tutsi civilians have been targets of mass killings and acts of genocide organized by the state and by armed militia groups. The current government is made up of both Hutu and Tutsi. The Military is made up of both former Hutu rebels and former Tutsi government soldiers. The restoration of a multi-ethnic, multi-party democracy has seen renewed expectations of an end to Burundi's conflict. The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Melchior Ndadaye Melchior Ndadaye (March 28, 1953 – October 21, 1993) was the first elected president of Burundi. ...


Politics

Pierre Nkurunziza, president of Burundi.
Pierre Nkurunziza, president of Burundi.
Main article: Politics of Burundi

The politics of Burundi take place in a framework of a transitional presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Burundi is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Senate and the National Assembly. The President has officially called a cease-fire between the two warring parties in the civil war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (519x603, 128 KB) Pierre Nkurunziza, president of Burundi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (519x603, 128 KB) Pierre Nkurunziza, president of Burundi. ... Pierre Nkurunziza is elected President of Burundi on August 19, 2005. ... In November 1995, the presidents of Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zaire announced a regional initiative for a negotiated peace in Burundi facilitated by former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... List of Rulers and Heads of State of Burundi (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Kingdom of Burundi Republic of Burundi Affiliations:- See also:- Burundi Heads of Government of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi Colonial Heads of Burundi (Urundi) Colonial Heads of Burundi (Ruanda-Urundi) Lists of... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Senate is the upper chamber of Parliament in Burundi. ... The National Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament in Burundi. ...


Decades of ethnic violence makes the achievement of political and social harmony difficult, as is evident in the reports of seminars of ministers of religion and teachers on the prospects for a 'nonkilling society' conducted in 2005-2006 by Fondation chirezi Fondation Chirezi (FOCHI) is a local non-governmental organisation established in the African Great Lakes Region by Floribert Kazingufu Kasirusiru (Flory Zozo). ...


Provinces, communes, and collines

Burundi is divided into 17 provinces, 117 communes, and 2,638 collines. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Burundi is divided into 17 provinces: Bubanza Bujumbura Mairie Bujumbura Rural Bururi Cankuzo Cibitoke Gitega Karuzi Kayanza Kirundo Makamba Muramvya Muyinga Mwaro Ngozi Rutana Ruyigi Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Burundi ... Communes of Burundi Burundi is subdivided into 117 communes. ... The Communes of Burundi are divided into 2,639 collines. ... Burundi is divided into 17 provinces: Bubanza Bujumbura Mairie Bujumbura Rural Bururi Cankuzo Cibitoke Gitega Karuzi Kayanza Kirundo Makamba Muramvya Muyinga Mwaro Ngozi Rutana Ruyigi Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Burundi ... Communes of Burundi Burundi is subdivided into 117 communes. ... The Communes of Burundi are divided into 2,639 collines. ...


The provinces are:

The capital city, consists on burumbi rural. Bubanza is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Bujumbura Mairie is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Bujumbura Rural is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Bururi is one of the seventeen provinces of Burundi. ... Cankuzo is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Cibitoke is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Gitega is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Karuzi is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Kayanza is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Kirundo is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Makamba is the southernmost province of Burundi. ... Muramvya is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Muyinga is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Mwaro is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Ngozi is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Rutana is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ... Ruyigi is one of the 17 provinces of Burundi. ...


Geography

Map of Burundi
NASA photo of the Bujumbura region.
NASA photo of the Bujumbura region.
Satellite image of Burundi and the surrounding region.
Satellite image of Burundi and the surrounding region.
Satellite image of Burundi, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Burundi, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Main article: Geography of Burundi

Burundi is a landlocked country with an equatorial climate. Called "The heart of Africa" it lies on a rolling plateau, with Lake Tanganyika in its south west corner. The average elevation of the central plateau is 5,600 feet, with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Karonje, at 2 760 m [2], lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The southeastern and southern borders are at roughly 4,500 feet (1,370 m). A strip of land along the Ruzizi River, north of Lake Tanganyika, is the only area below 3,000 feet (915 m): this area forms part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the Great Rift Valley. Map of Burundi. ... Map of Burundi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 168 KB) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 168 KB) NASA World Wind screenshot. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (845x980, 122 KB) Satellite image of Burundi in February 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (845x980, 122 KB) Satellite image of Burundi in February 2003. ... Image File history File links Burundi_sat. ... Image File history File links Burundi_sat. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E Map references: Africa Area: total: 27,830 km² land: 25,650 km² water: 2,180 km² Land boundaries: total: 974 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The Ruzizi River flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ...


The land is mostly agricultural or pasture, the creation of which has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss. Deforestation of the entire country is almost complete due to overpopulation, with a mere 600 km² remaining and an ongoing loss of about nine percent per annum[3]. There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of montane rainforest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Rurubu National Park to the north east (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This article is about national parks. ... The Kibira National Park straddles four provinces in Burundi and has an area of 40 000 ha. ... Nyungwe Forest National Park is a national park in southwestern Rwanda, located south of Lake Kivu on the border with Burundi. ... The Rurubu River is a river in central Africa. ...


The farthest headstream of the Nile is in Burundi. Although Lake Victoria is commonly considered to be the source of the Nile, the Kagera River flows for 429 miles (690 km) before reaching Lake Victoria. The source of the Ruvyironza River, an upper branch of the Kagera River, is at Mount Kikizi in Burundi. The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... The Kagera River is a river is a remote source of the Nile. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Burundi

Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for 58% of GDP in 1997. Coffee is the nation's biggest revenue earner with 78% of all exported goods. Other agriculture products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas (of which Burundi is one of the world's ten largest producers), manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Besides agriculture, other industries include light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing. The currency is the Burundian franc (BIF). Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ... The franc (ISO 4217 code is BIF) is the currency of Burundi. ...


Burundi is the poorest country in the world, in terms of GDP per capita: US$90 as of 2007. The economy is supported by foreign aid from Western Europe and other parts of the world. In 2000 this amount reached US$92.7 million. 68% of the population lived below the poverty line in 2002. The country's estimated gross domestic product (GDP) was US$700 million in 2001. According to the World Food Programme, the majority of children aged under 5 (56.8%) suffer from chronic malnutrition. [4] USD redirects here. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... WFP redirects here. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


Demographics

As of July 2006, Burundi is projected to have an estimated population of 8,090,068, approximately half of whom are aged 14 or less. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country. Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin; most of the remaining population are Tutsi, with a minority of Twa (Pygmy), and a few thousand Europeans and South Asians. The population density of around 315 people per square kilometre (753/sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, behind only Rwanda. The Twa are thought to be the original inhabitants of the area, with Hutu and then Tutsi settlers arriving in the 1300s and 1400s respectively. Demographics of Burundi, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Twa, also known as Batwa, are a pygmy people who were the oldest recorded inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of central Africa. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...


The largest religion is Roman Catholicism (62%), followed by indigenous beliefs (23%) and a minority of Protestants (5%) and Muslims (10%). However, The Anglican Church of Burundi [5] claims over 10% of the population as members and recent reports indicate the Christian population may be as high as 90% with most of the remainder being Muslim. [6]. Care should therefore be taken with these statistics. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The official languages are Kirundi and French, although Swahili is spoken along the eastern border. Kirundi (also written Rundi) is a Bantu language (D62 in Guthries classification) spoken by some 6 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. ... This article is about the language. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Burundi
The drummers of Burundi perform around the world.

The culture of Burundi is based on local tradition and the influence of its neighbors, though its prominence has been hindered by the civil unrest. Most Burundians live in rural areas as extended families in hilltop compounds called rugos. Arranged marriages are not uncommon, with the groom’s family sometimes paying a bride price. City residents often take a siesta, and most businesses will be closed in the early afternoon. The culture of Burundi includes: Music of Burundi List of writers from Burundi Football in Burundi Categories: Africa-related stubs ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster An arranged marriage is a marriage that is established before involving oneself in a lengthy courtship, and often involves the arrangement of someone other than the persons getting married. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... A painting of a young woman taking a siesta. ...


Traditional drumming is an important part of Burundian cultural heritage, as indicated by the world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi. Traditional dance often accompanies the drumming, which is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. Burundians also adhere to a strong oral tradition which relays history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Cattle herders engage in kivivuga amazina, an improvisational poetry contest in which they boast their abilities or accomplishments. The Royal Drummers of Burundi is a percussion ensemble from Burundi. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Football is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games. Many Burundians celebrate Christian holidays and Burundian Independence Day, though the largest celebration occurs on New Year’s Day with feasting and traditional drumming and dancing. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... A foldable, wooden Mancala board Mancala (Arabic: , manqalä) is a family of board games played around the world, sometimes called sowing games or count and capture games, which comes from the general gameplay. ... New Years Day is the first day of the year, in the Gregorian calendar, falling exactly one week after Christmas Day of the previous year. ...


See also

This is a list of topics related to Burundi. ... The Association des Scouts du Burundi, the national Scouting organization of Burundi, was founded in 1940, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1979. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 343 (1995) Telephone system: primitive system domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998) Radios... Fondation Chirezi (FOCHI) is a local non-governmental organisation established in the African Great Lakes Region by Floribert Kazingufu Kasirusiru (Flory Zozo). ... Burundis relations with its neighbors have often been affected by security concerns. ... Military of Burundi Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary Gendarmerie Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,344,177 (2000 est. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ...

References

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The Background Notes series is a collection of works by the United States Department of State. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html#Econ
  2. ^ [1]

Further reading

  • Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide René Lemarchand and Lee H. Hamilton

External links

Find more information on Burundi by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Government
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  • allAfrica - Burundi
  • East African Business Week business news for Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda
  • IRIN News for Burundi, from the United Nations
  • Agence Burundaise de Presse (ABP) (in French)
  • Radio Isanganiro Burundi's independent radio station, one of the few independent sources of daily news in Burundi. You can listen online in French and Kirundi.
  • umuco.com Burundian-run news site, with detailed news and analysis, mainly in French
  • Burundi Réalités News and analysis, French&English
  • Burundi Agnews info News and analysis, Kirundi&French&English
Overviews
Directories
Tourism
  • Burundi travel guide from Wikitravel
  • L'Afrique.com - Photographs of and articles about Burundi
Other
  • Burundian Human Rights Organisation "Ligue Iteka" - with up-to-date news in English and French
  • Human Rights Watch reports on Burundi
  • Woodrow Wilson Center Reports on Burundi
  • Human Rights Watch special report on the August 2004 Gatumba massacre
  • Links to political analyses from 1998 on by the International Crisis Group
  • Reuters Alertnet - Burundi humanitarian news
  • Burundi's location on a 3D globe (Java)
  • Updated humanitarian news from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
  • Transcend Africa Network to bring peace to regions of Africa
  • UNESCO Nairobi office on HIV/AIDS in Burundi
  • UNESCO Nairobi office on education in Burundi
  • UNESCO Nairobi Office - Fact Book on Education For All, Burundi 2006
  • Canadian Cultural Profiles Project, Burundi
  • More detailed map from UNHCR
Geographic locale
International membership and history

  Results from FactBites:
 
Burundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1768 words)
Burundi is a landlocked country with an equatorial climate.Called "The heart of Africa" it lies on a rolling plateau, with Lake Tanganyika in its south west corner.
The farthest headstream of the Nile is in Burundi.
As of July 2006, Burundi is projected to have an estimated population of 8,090,068, approximately half of whom are aged 14 or less.
Burundi (09/06) (3110 words)
In the 16th century, Burundi was a kingdom characterized by a hierarchical political authority and tributary economic exchange.
Burundi is heavily dependent on bilateral and multilateral aid, with external debt totaling $1.2 billion in 2003.
Burundi is a member of various international and regional organizations, including the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the African Union, and the African Development Bank, and became a member of COMESA, the free-tariff zone of eastern and southern Africa, in 2004.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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