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Encyclopedia > Burmese Chinese

The Burmese Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 緬甸華人; pinyin: Miǎndiàn huárén; Burmese: Image:Bscript thayotlumyo.png; MLCTS: ta. rut lu myui:) are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population (1,078,000), this figure may be underestimated because of intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar, and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to declare themselves as Bamar when applying for birth certificate or national identification card). Traditionally, the Chinese have dominated the Burmese economy, although many enterprises today are co-owned by the military. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Image File history File links Bscript_thayotlumyo. ... This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ... Overseas Chinese are Chinese people who live outside China. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... Myanmar has a mixed economy. ...

A bonchaung (Chinese Buddhist temple) in Latha Township, Yangon
A bonchaung (Chinese Buddhist temple) in Latha Township, Yangon

Contents

Image File history File links Bonchaungyangon. ... Image File history File links Bonchaungyangon. ...

Sub-ethnic groups

Generally, the Burmese Chinese in Lower Burma are divided into three main groups. The first consists of Cantonese-speakers (Burmese: eingyi to, lit. short-sleeved shirts) who arrived from Guangdong Province. The largest group consists of Hokkien-speakers (Burmese: eingyi shay, lit. long-sleeved shirts), who came from Fujian Province. The third consists of Hakka-speakers (Burmese: zaka, lit. mid-length sleeve ). The Hokkien and Cantonese comprise 45% of the ethnic Chinese population.[1] Hakkas are further subdivided into those with ancestry from Fujian Province and Guangdong Province, with each called ein-gyi shay ha-ka and eingyi to haka respectively. The groups have different stereotypical associations. The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese, the Hokkiens are stereotypically wealthier, occupying high positions in the economy, and having connections to the government. The tayoke kabya are of Bamar and Chinese heritage. Kabya are often children of Chinese fathers and Bamar (Burman) mothers. They have a tendency to follow the customs of the Chinese more than of the Burmese. A large portion of Chinese have some kabya blood because Burmese citizenship can only be acquired by immigrants through intermarriage with persons of Bamar descent. Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: Fújiàn; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Hakka is one language in the family of languages known as Chinese. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ...


There are Chinese groups distinct from the Hokkien or Cantonese speaking Tayok Lu-myo of Lower Burma. These are the Panthay and Kokang of Upper Burma, mainly speakers of a Mandarin dialect of the Southwestern Mandarin branch, most akin to Yunnanese. The mountain-dwelling, farming Kokang and the largely trading Muslim Panthay are long considered separate local nationalities rather than a Chinese diaspora community. Combined, they form 21% of Burmese Chinese.[1] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... Mandarin, or Beifanghua (Chinese: 北方話; Pinyin: Běifānghuà; literally Northern Dialect(s)), or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; Pinyin: Guānhuà; literally official speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Also known as Huguang (湖广), it is the varient of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken south of the Yangtze River, and east of the Tibetan Plateau. ... Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Nationality is, in English usage, a legal relationship existing between a person and a state. ...


Language

The Burmese Chinese typically speak Burmese as their mother tongue. Hokkien has quickly disappeared as a mother tongue among Burmese Chinese, while Cantonese has been well-preserved in Myanmar. For three decades, Ne Win's ban on Chinese-language schools caused declining numbers of Mandarin speakers. The Panthay and Kokang typically speak Mandarin Chinese as a first language. Chinese schools are growing in number today, because of the importance of Mandarin Chinese (note: often Standard Mandarin, the national language of Mainland China and Taiwan, as distinctive from the Southwestern Mandarin dialect of the Upper Burma, Kokang and Panthay). Mandarin and English are considered to be languages of the elite. Hokkien can refer to: The Hokkien (dialect): a Chinese dialect, often called Minnan or Minnanhua (Southern Min), a member of the Min dialect branch, similar to Taiwanese A transliteration of the name of the Fujian province of China. ... Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语]], Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: Yuèyǔ, lit. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... Also known as Huguang (湖广), it is the varient of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken south of the Yangtze River, and east of the Tibetan Plateau. ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


History

The earliest records of Chinese migration were in the Song and Ming dynasties.[1] In the 1700s, Ming Dynasty princes settled in Kokang (the northern part of present-day Myanmar). Chinese traders, however, would typically travel as far as the capital city as well as northern towns on the Irrawaddy such as Bhamo. Some of them stayed and started a Chinese community at Amarapura, and when King Mindon Min moved his capital to Mandalay in 1859, the Chinese were the only community that decided to stay behind. Their descendents, many intermarried into the host society, remain important and respected citizens of Amarapura. Another wave of immigration occurred in the 1800s under the British colonial administration. Britain encouraged immigration of Indians and Chinese to its colonial possessions, and such incentives with opportunities for work and enterprise and for accumulating wealth attracted many Chinese. They came to Burma via Malaysia.[1] The Chinese quickly became dominant in the highly lucrative rice and gem industries. Many became merchants and traders owning both wholesale and retail businesses. Their success was reflected in the popular Burmese expression, "Earn like the Chinese, save like the Indian, and don't waste money like the Bamar". They integrated well into Burmese society not least because they were from the same kind of racial stock and fellow Buddhists, implicit in the nickname pauk hpaw (lit. sibling)[2]. The Chinese are arguably the only other race the Bamar historically have a high regard for, not just for their ancient and uninterrupted civilisation but for their skills and intellect as well. The Song Dynasty (Chinese: ) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... The Ayeyarwady River (Burmese: ; formerly known as the Irrawaddy River) flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Bhamo is a city in Kachin State in Myanmar, located 186 km south from the capital of Myitkyina. ... Amarapura (City of Immortality) is a city in the Mandalay division of Myanmar, situated 11 km to the south of Mandalay. ... Mindon Min (Burmese: ; 1808–1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death and is one of the most popular and revered Kings of Burma. ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


During the 1950s, Myanmar was one of the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China as a nation. However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards (FRC), which declared that they were citizens of China. A similar discrimination policy was set up for Indians. When the Chinese Communists expelled the Kuomintang, many fled to Myanmar and Thailand over the borders of Yunnan Province. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan [3]; those who managed to stay prospered. The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


In 1962, Ne Win led a coup d'état and declared himself head of state. Although a kabya himself, he banned Chinese-language education, and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave. Ne Win's government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China.[3] When Ne Win implemented the "Burmese Way to Socialism", a plan to nationalize all industries, the livelihoods of many entrepreneurial Chinese were destroyed and some 100,000 Chinese left the country.[3] All schools were nationalized, including Chinese-language schools. Throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government. Many Burmese Chinese left the country during Ne Win's rule, largely because of a failing economy and widespread discrimination. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: WúchÇŽn JiÄ“jí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of Yangon, Mandalay, Taunggyi, Bago, and their surrounding areas. According to Global Witness, 30 to 40% of Mandalay's population consists of ethnic Chinese. Although there are Chinatowns (tayoke taan) in the major cities, the Chinese are widely dispersed. The northern region of Myanmar has seen an influx of mainland Chinese immigrant workers, blackmarket traders and gamblers. In the Kachin State, which borders China in three directions, Mandarin Chinese is the lingua franca. Yangon (Burmese: , population 4,082,000 (2005 census), formerly Rangoon), is the largest city of Myanmar (formerly Burma) and its former capital. ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ... A view of Taunggyi Taunggyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), is the capital of Shan State, Myanmar. ... Bago is a division of Burma. ... Global Witness is an international NGO that highlights the links between natural resource exploitation, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide. ... In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ... Kachin State (Jingphaw Mungdan), is the northernmost state of Myanmar. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ...


Education

Typically, the Burmese Chinese have placed a high importance on education. However, the lack of Burmese citizenship has prevented many Burmese Chinese from pursuing Ph.D.s and medical degrees. During the Ne Win era, persecution of minorities caused an exodus of the highly educated workforce. Those emmigrating from Burma who held tertiary degrees were forced to pay a tax prior to leaving. Many Chinese left for the United States, Great Britain, and other western countries. This has caused dire problems for the Burmese economy as the current workforce is less well-educated not least due to the failing education system. Many Burmese Chinese study overseas, particularly in Thailand and Singapore.[4] Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


Culture

Religion

The majority of Burmese Chinese practise Theravada Buddhism, incorporating some Mahayana Buddhist and Taoist beliefs, such as the worship of Kuan Yin. Chinese New Year celebrations, as well as other Chinese festivals, are subdued and held privately. Clan associations are often the only places where the Chinese culture is embraced. There is a small minority of Panthay or Chinese Muslims (回教華人; ပန္‌းသေးလူမ္ယုိး, lit. "little flowers"), most of whom live in Mandalay. Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Taoism (sometimes written as and actually pronounced as Daoism (dow-ism)) is the English name for: Dao Jia [philosophical tao] philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi [Lao Tzu] and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi; a family of organized... Kuan Yin (觀音; Pinyin: Guān YÄ«n) is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. ... Chinese New Year decoration in Londons Chinatown Hand-painted Chinese New Years poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to peoples homes, Lijiang, Yunnan, China. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ...


Naming

According to publications of Longsei Tang, a clan association based in Yangon, the ten most common Chinese surnames in Yangon are:

  1. Li (李)
  2. Peng (彭)
  3. Shi (時)
  4. Dong (董)
  5. Min (閔)
  6. Niu (牛)
  7. Bian (邊)
  8. Xin (辛)
  9. Guan (關)

Burmese Chinese traditionally have Chinese names and Burmese names. Given names in various Chinese dialects are often transliterated into the Burmese language, using rough equivalents. For example, a Burmese Chinese person named 'Khin Aung' may have the Chinese name of 慶豐 (pinyin: Qìngfēng), with '慶' (pinyin: qìng) corresponding to 'Khin', and '豐' (pinyin: fēng) corresponding to 'Aung'. However, variations of transcription do exist (between dialects), and some Burmese Chinese do not choose to adopt similar-sounding Burmese and Chinese names. Because the Burmese lack surnames, many Burmese Chinese tend to pass on portions of their given names to future generations, for the purpose of denoting lineage. 李 Lǐ Li, Lee or Ly is a common transliteration of several Chinese family names. ... Dong (è‘£ in pinyin: DÇ’ng; Cantonese Romanization: Tung) is a common Chinese family names. ... The Chinese name is made up of a family name (姓), which is always placed first, followed by a generation name and personal name as part of the given name (名). In addition to the given name, many Chinese have various kinds of nicknames. ... The Burmese language is the official language of Myanmar. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... A given name specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ...


Notable Burmese Chinese

  • Aung Gyi [3] - leading army dissident and Ne Win's former deputy/co-conspirator in the 1962 coup
  • Aw Boon Haw (Hakka) - Inventor of Tiger Balm
  • Eike Htun[5] (Kokang) - Managing director of Olympic Construction Co. and deputy chairman of Asia Wealth Bank, two large conglomerates in Myanmar
  • Khun Sa (Kokang) - Major Southeast Asian druglord
  • Khin Nyunt[6] - Former Prime Minister (2003-2004) and Chief of Intelligence (1983-2004) of Myanmar
  • Lo Hsing Han (Kokang) - Major Southeast Asian druglord
  • Steven Law (also known as Tun Myint Naing; Kokang) - Managing director of Asia World Company, a major Burmese conglomerate and son of Lo Hsing Han
  • Ne Win (Hakka)[7] - Leader of Burma from 1960s to 1980s
  • San Yu (Hakka) - President of Burma in the 1980s
  • Serge Pun[8] - Proprietor of Yoma Bank, a major banking chain in Myanmar
  • Taw Sein Ko[9] - eminent Director of Archaeology (1901-1915)
  • Thakin Ba Thein Tin[3] - Communist leader from the 1970s to the 1990s

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Khun Sa (born 1933) is a Burmese warlord and ex-leader of the Shan United Army. ... General Khin Nyunt (born October 11, 1939 in Kyauktan, Burma) was the Prime Minister of Myanmar and the chief of intelligence of the Myanmar Army. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lo Hsing Han is an infamous Burmese drug trafficker, with financial ties to Singapore. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... U San Yu (1919 - 28 January 1996) was the former President of Burma, now Myanmar from 1981 to 1988. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Mya Than (1997). Leo Suryadinata: Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. ISBN 0-312-17576-0.
  2. ^ Aung, Pho Thar. "Tango with China", The Irrawaddy, 2003-09-16. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  3. ^ a b c d e Martin Smith (1991). Burma - Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books, 153-154,225-226,98,39.
  4. ^ Win, Htet. "The Road To Riches?", The Irrawaddy, 2004-07. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  5. ^ Backman, Michael. "Burma's banking meltdown goes unnoticed beyond its borders", The Age, 2003-03-30. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  6. ^ Kuppuswamy, C.S. (2004-09-11). MYANMAR: The shake- up and the fall out.. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 22 May 2006.
  7. ^ Leong, S.T. (1997). Migration and Ethnicity in Chinese History. Stanford University Press.
  8. ^ Backman, Michael. "Burma's banking meltdown goes unnoticed beyond its borders", The Age, The Age, 2003-03-30. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
  9. ^ Strachan, Paul (1989). Pagan - Art and Architecture of Old Burma. Kiscadale.

The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ဧရာဝတီ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ဧရာဝတီ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ...

See also

Kokang was a traditional Burmese state. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Overseas Chinese are Chinese people who live outside China. ... British Chinese, or, alternatively, Chinese British, Chinese Briton, British Born Chinese (abbreviated as BBCs) are overseas Chinese born or naturalized in the United Kingdom. ...

External links

  • Newidea! Myanmar information Web Site
  • Myanmar Overseas Chinese Student Association
  • Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (Chinese-language only)
  • Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission, R.O.C.
  • Chronology of Chinese-Burmese Relations of The Irrawaddy

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