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Encyclopedia > Burma Plate
The Burma Plate, showing boundaries with the India Plate (the Sunda Trench) and the Sunda Plate (through the Andaman Sea)
The Burma Plate, showing boundaries with the India Plate (the Sunda Trench) and the Sunda Plate (through the Andaman Sea)

The Burma Plate is a small tectonic plate or microplate located in Southeast Asia, often considered a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. The Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands, and northwestern Sumatra are located on the plate. This island arc separates the Andaman Sea from the main Indian Ocean to the west. Image File history File links Neic_slav_fig72narrow. ... Image File history File links Neic_slav_fig72narrow. ... Image:Tectonic plates. ... Sunda Plate ... The Andaman Sea is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar and west of Thailand; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Eurasian plate is shown in green on this map. ... Satellite photo of the Andaman Islands. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of India. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the 3rd largest island of Indonesia after Kalimantan and New Guinea. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... The Andaman Sea is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar and west of Thailand; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...


To its east lies the Sunda Plate, from which it is separated along a transform boundary, running in a rough north-south line through the Andaman Sea. This boundary between the Burma and Sunda plates is a marginal seafloor spreading centre, which has lead to the opening up of the Andaman Sea (from a southerly direction) by "pushing out" the Andaman-Nicobar-Sumatra island arc from mainland Asia, a process which began in earnest approximately 4 million years ago. Sunda Plate ... In plate tectonics, a transform boundary (also known as transform fault boundary, transform plate boundary, transform plate margin or conservative plate boundary) is said to occur when tectonic plates slide and grind against each other along a transform fault. ... Age of oceanic crust. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ...


To the west is the much larger India Plate, which is subducting beneath the eastern facet of the Burma Plate. This extensive subduction zone has formed the Sunda Trench. Image:Tectonic plates. ... Subduction zones mark sites of convective downwelling of the Earths lithosphere. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...


Tectonic history

In models of the reconstructed tectonic history of the area, the generally northwards movement of the Indo-Australian Plate resulted in its substantive collision with the Eurasian continent, which began during the Eocene epoch, approximately 50-55 million years ago (Ma). This collision of the India Plate portion with Asia began the orogenic uplift which has formed the Himalaya mountains. The Indo-Australian plate is shown in dull orange on this map. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... It has been suggested that Geographic Realms be merged into this article or section. ... The Eocene epoch (56-34 Ma) is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in the Cenozoic era. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Annum is a Latin term meaning year. ... Orogeny is the process of mountain building, and as such is both a tectonic structural event, a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events happen within a time frame, affect certain regions of rocks and crust, and cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


As the India Plate drifted northwards at a relatively rapid rate of an average 16 cm/yr, it also rotated in an counter-clockwise direction. As a result of this movement and rotation, the convergence along the plate's eastern boundary (the Burma-Andaman-Malay region) with Eurasia was at an oblique angle. Portrayal of shifting continents The concept of continental drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. ... Oblique can mean one of several things: In linguistics, oblique case. ...


The transform forces along this subduction front started the clockwise bending of the Sunda arc; sometime during the late Oligocene (ca. 32 Ma) further faulting developed and the Burma and Sunda microplates began to "break off" from the larger Eurasian plate. The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ...


After a further series of transform faulting, and the continuing subduction of the India Plate beneath the Burma plate, backarc spreading saw the formation of the marginal basin and seafloor spreading centre which would become the Andaman Sea, a process well-underway by the mid-Pliocene (3-4 Ma). The Pliocene epoch (formerly Pleiocene) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...

Western Sunda Arc and Trench showing tectonic and seismic activity.
Western Sunda Arc and Trench showing tectonic and seismic activity.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (612x792, 63 KB)Western Sunda Arc and Trench showing tectonics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (612x792, 63 KB)Western Sunda Arc and Trench showing tectonics. ...

Recent tectonic activity

On December 26, 2004, a large portion of the boundary between the Burma Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate slipped, causing the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. This megathrust earthquake had a magnitude of 9.0. Over 1200 km of the boundary underwent thrust faulting and shifted an average of 15 m, with the sea floor being uplifted several meters. This rise in the sea floor generated a massive tsunami that killed approximately 275,000 people along the coast of the Indian Ocean. December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami hits Thailand The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. ... A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ... The moment magnitude scale (a successor to the Richter scale), was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A thrust fault is a particular type of fault, or break in the fabric of the Earths crust with resulting movement of each side against the other, in which one side is pushed up relative to the other and somewhat over it. ... The Metre (or Meter) is the base fundamental unit of length in the metric measurement system as defined originally by the French Academy of Sciences during the French Revolutionary–Napoleonic war era, and subsequently adopted by various successive International Standards Committees as the utility, elegance, and self-consistency of the... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ...


References

  • Curray, JR. 2002 Chapman Conference on Continent - Ocean Interactions within the East Asian Marginal Seas. Tectonics and History of the Andaman Sea Region (abstract). URL accessed on September 08, 2005. pdf

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Hindu : Sci Tech : Of quakes and killer waves (1102 words)
It is a typical convergent plate boundary where the Indian plate moving at a rate of 5 cm a year relative to the Burma plate came together, collided and the Indian plate dived (subducted) under the Burma plate.
"The Burma plate is an elongated plate with a width of 700-800 km and a length of nearly 2000 km," Dr. Chadha said.
Scientists have shown that the Indo-Burma plate margin is a region of compression as the Australian plate is rotating counter clockwise in to the Indian plate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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