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Encyclopedia > Burma

Pyi-daung-zu Myan-ma Naing-ngan-daw
Union of Myanmar
Flag of Burma
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemKaba Ma Kyei
Capital Naypyidaw
19°45′N 96°6′E / 19.75, 96.1
Largest city Yangon (Rangoon)
Official languages Burmese
Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine, Tamil
Demonym Burmese
Government Military junta
 -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe
 -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General Maung Aye
 -  Prime Minister General Thein Sein
 -  Secretary-1 of the State Peace and Development Council Lt-Gen Thiha Thura Tin Aung Myint Oo
Establishment
 -  Bagan 1044–1287 
 -  Small Kingdoms 1287–1531 
 -  Taungoo 1531–1752 
 -  Konbaung 1752–1885 
 -  Colonial rule 1886–1948 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 4 January 1948 
Area
 -  Total 676,578 km² (40th)
261,227 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.06
Population
 -  2005–2006 estimate 55,390,000 (24th)
 -  1983 census 33,234,000 
 -  Density 75/km² (119th)
193/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $93.77 billion (59th)
 -  Per capita $1,691 (150th)
HDI (2007) 0.583 (medium) (132nd)
Currency kyat (K) (mmK)
Time zone MMT (UTC+6:30)
Internet TLD .mm
Calling code +95
1 Some governments recognize Rangoon as the national capital.
2 Estimates for this country takes into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Burma,[1] officially the Union of Myanmar (Burmese: , pronounced [pjìdàunzṵ mjəmà nàinŋàndɔ̀]), is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Image File history File links Myanmar_long_form. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The flag of Burma (also called Myanmar) was adopted on January 3, 1974 upon the declaration of a socialist republic in Burma by Ne Win. ... The Coat of arms of Myanmar is used in all official government documents, including publications. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Kachin language redirects here. ... The Shan language is related to the Thai language and is commonly called Tai-Yai, or Tai Long. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: ; IPA: ; abbreviated SPDC) is the official name of the military regime of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ... Senior General Than Shwe (Burmese: သန္‌​းေရ္ဝ္ဟ; IPA: ; born February 2, 1933) is the military dictator of Myanmar (Burma), serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Tatmadaw and chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Myanmar is a high-ranking official in the government of Myanmar (or Burma). ... General Thein Sein is the prime minister of Myanmar. ... Lieutenant-General Thiha Thura Tin Aung Myint Oo (born in 27 May 1950) is Secretary-1 of State Peace and Development Council from Myanmar. ... The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ... Bagan (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), formerly Pagan, formally titled Arimaddanapura (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Myanmar. ... The Toungoo dynasty (1486-1752) was one of the most powerful post-Bagan Burmese kingdoms, over which seven kings reigned for a period of 155 years. ... The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The kyat (ISO 4217 code MMK) is the official currency of Myanmar. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .mm is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Myanmar. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... +95 can mean: +95, the ITU country code for Union of Myanmar. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Myanmar_long_form. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


After the First Burmese War, the Ava kingdom ceded the provinces of Manipur, Tenassarim, and Arakan to the British. [2]Rangoon and southern Burma were incorporated into British India in 1853. All of Burma came directly or indirectly under British India in 1886 after the Third Burmese War and the fall of Mandalay.[2] Burma was administered as a province of British India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony. The country became independent from the United Kingdom on 4 January 1948, as the "Union of Burma". It became the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" on 4 January 1974, before reverting to the "Union of Burma" on 23 September 1988. On 18 June 1989, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) adopted the name "Union of Myanmar" for English transliteration. This controversial name change in English, while accepted in the UN and in most countries, is not recognised by opposition groups and a few nations, such as the United Kingdom. The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... AvA is a film in post-production directed by the rock group Angels and Airwaves. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The Third Anglo-Burmese War or The Third Burmese war lasted from 1885 to 1887. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... SLORC, or the State Law and Order Restoration Council was the name of the military government of Myanmar between September 1988 and November 1997. ... UN redirects here. ...


The country is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, and India on the northwest, with the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. One-third of Burma's total perimeter, 1,930 kilometers (1,199 mi), forms an uninterrupted coastline. Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Burma's diverse population has played a major role in defining its politics, history and demographics in modern times, and the country continues to struggle to mend its ethnic tensions. Its political system remains under the tight control of SPDC, the military led government, since 1992, by Senior General Than Shwe. The military has dominated government since General Ne Win led a coup in 1962 that toppled the civilian government of U Nu. The country's culture, heavily influenced by neighbours, is based on Theravada Buddhism intertwined with local elements. Country name: conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma Data code... The military of Myanmar, officially known as Tatmadaw (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ) is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of Union of Myanmar. ... Senior General Than Shwe (Burmese: သန္‌​းေရ္ဝ္ဟ; IPA: ; born February 2, 1933) is the military dictator of Myanmar (Burma), serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Tatmadaw and chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Prime Minister U Nu U Nu (otherwise known as Thakin Nu; May 25, 1907 - February 14, 1995) was a Burmese nationalist and political figure. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Buddhism in Burma (or Myanmar) is predominantly of the Theravada tradition or the southern school. ...

Contents

The name of the country

Main article: Names of Burma

The name "Myanmar" is derived from the local short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw,[3] the name used by the regime currently in power in the country. While the etymology of the name is unclear, it has been used since the 13th Century[4] primarily as a reference to the Myanma ethnic group. Until the mid-19th century, rulers in the region identified themselves with the areas that they ruled. For example, the 18th Century king, Alaungpaya alternately referred to himself as the ruler of Tampradipa and Thunaparanta, Ramanadesa, and Kamboza (all alternate names of places in the Irrawaddy Valley) in correspondence with the East India Company.[5] The Court of Ava was the first to use this name to refer to its kingdom in the mid-19th Century, when its power was declining, when the kingdom was confined to the Irrawaddy Valley which was predominantly Myanma in character, and at a time when the Myanma ethnic identity first began to develop a political identity.[5] In older English documents the usage was Bermah, and later Burmah, possibly from the Portuguese Birmania which is thought to be a corruption of the Indian word for Burma, Bama.[citation needed] Burma is known as Birmanie in French, Birmania in both Italian and Spanish, and Birmânia in Portuguese. Alaungpaya 1711-15 May 1760 was a Burmese king who established the Konbaung Dynasty (Heavens platform) in the early 18th century. ... The British East India Company, popularly known as John Company, was founded by a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600. ...


Confusion among English speakers on how to pronounce 'Myanmar' gives rise to pronunciations such as IPA: /ˌmjɑnˈmɑr/, /ˈmjɑːnmɑr/, /ˌmaɪənˈmɑr/, /ˈmiːənmɑr/ and /miˈɑːnmɑr/.[6][7][8]


On 18 June 1989, the Burmese military junta passed the "Adaptation of Expressions Law" that officially changed the English version of the country's name from Burma to Myanmar, and changed the English versions of many place names in the country along with it, such as its former capital city from Rangoon to Yangon (which represents its pronunciation more accurately in Burmese though not in Arakanese). This prompted one scholar to coin the term "Myanmarification" to refer to the top-down programme of political and cultural reform in the context of which the renaming was done.[9] The action was strictly an executive act, not based on any statutory authority, and the government did not hold a national referendum to have the Burmese electorate ratify the name change.[3] Within the Burmese language, Myanma is the written, literary name of the country, while Bama or Bamar (from which "Burma" derives) is the oral, colloquial name.[citation needed] In spoken Burmese, the distinction is less clear than the English transliteration suggests. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... SLORC, or the State Law and Order Restoration Council was the name of the military government of Myanmar between September 1988 and November 1997. ... Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... The Rakhine people (Burmese: ; formerly Arakanese) are a sub-ethnic group of the Bamar. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ...


The renaming proved to be politically controversial on several grounds. Opposition groups continue to use the name "Burma", since they do not recognize the legitimacy of the ruling military government nor its authority to rename the country in English. [10] Various non-Bamar ethnic groups choose to not recognize the name because the term Myanmah has historically been used as a label for the majority ethnic group rather than for the country.[5][11][12]


Various world entities have chosen to accept or reject the name change. The United Nations accepts the name Myanmar, since the UN allows its members states to be known by any name they choose. However it has not been recognized by many Western governments such as the United States, Australia, Canada or the United Kingdom, which continue to use "Burma", while the European Union uses "Burma/Myanmar" as an alternative. China has not agreed to change its translations and continues to use 缅甸,Japan uses the name Myanmar (ミャンマー) but calls the people Burmese (ビルマ人), France continues to use Birmanie, and most other countries continue to use their traditional translations.[13][14][15]. UN redirects here. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Use of "Burma" and its adjective, "Burmese", remains common in the United States and Britain. Many news organizations, such as the BBC, The Financial Times, The Times, Voice of America, USA Today, ITN, Sky News, Bangkok Post and others still use these forms[16] [17]. MSNBC, ABC, NBC, CBS, The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and others use "Myanmar" as the country name and "Burmese" as the adjective. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation also refers to both names in their news articles. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Financial Times building The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... ITN may refer to: Independent Television News In the news, a section on the Main Page of English Wikipedia This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Sky News is a 24-hour British domestic and international television news channel that started broadcasting on 5 February 1989 as part of the then four-channel Sky Television service, as well as a hourly news radio service in the UK. Broadcast of a 24-hour radio service is due... The Bangkok Post is a broadsheet English-language daily newspaper published in Bangkok, Thailand. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Look up ABC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the television network. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Burma

Burma, which has a total area of 678,500 square kilometers (261,970 sq mi), is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, and the 40th-largest in the world (after Zambia). It is somewhat smaller than the U.S. state of Texas and slightly larger than Afghanistan.[citation needed] Statistics Geographic coordinates: 22°00′N 98°00′E Map references: Southeast Asia Area: total: 678,500 km² land: 657,740 km² water: 20,760 km² Land boundaries: total: 5,876 km border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


It is located between Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and Assam, Nagaland and Manipur of India to the northwest. It shares its longest borders with Tibet and Yunnan of China to the northeast for a total of 2,185 km (1,358 mi). It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Burma has 1,930 km (1,199 mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one-third of its total perimeter.[3] Chittagong Division is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Andaman Sea (Burmese: ; IPA: ) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...

The Irrawaddy Delta, which is approximately 50,400 km² (19,500 sq mi) in area, is largely used for rice cultivation.
The Irrawaddy Delta, which is approximately 50,400 km² (19,500 sq mi) in area, is largely used for rice cultivation.[18]

In the north, the Hengduan Shan mountains form the border with China. Hkakabo Razi, located in Kachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 m (19,295 ft), is the highest point in Burma.[19] Three mountain ranges, namely the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, and the Shan Plateau exist within Burma, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas.[20] The mountain chains divide Burma's three river systems, which are the Ayeyarwady, Salween (Thanlwin), and the Sittang rivers.[18] The Ayeyarwady River, Burma's longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometres (1,348 mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban. Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains.[20] The majority of Burma's population lives in the Ayeyarwady valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau. Image File history File links Satellite_image_of_the_Ayeyarwady_delta. ... Image File history File links Satellite_image_of_the_Ayeyarwady_delta. ... The Hengduan Shan is a mountain range in Southeast Asia (Latitude: 27° 30 N, Longitude: 99° 0 E) that forms the border between Myanmar and Yunnan, China. ... Hkakabo Razi (Burmese: ) is Southeast Asias highest mountain, located in the northern Myanmar state of Kachin. ... Kachin State (Jingphaw Mungdan), is the northernmost state of Myanmar. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a river that flows through Burma (Myanmar). ... Salween River Delta, October 1994 The Salween River (also spelled Salwin) rises in Tibet, after which it flows through Yunnan, where it is known as the Nujiang river (Chinese: 怒江; Pinyin: Nù Jiāng), although either name can be used for the whole river. ... The Sittang is a river in Myanmar. ... The Andaman Sea is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar and west of Thailand; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...


Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (200 in) of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (100 in) , while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone, which is located in central Myanmar, is less than 1,000 mm (40 in). Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have mean temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F).[18] For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel). ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the meteorological term. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ...


The country's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems. Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country. Other trees indigenous to the region include acacia, bamboo, ironwood, mangrove, michelia champaca coconut and betel palm, and rubber has been introduced. In the highlands of the north, oak, pine and various rhododendrons cover much of the land.[21] The lands along the coast support all varieties of tropical fruits. In the Dry Zone, vegetation is sparse and stunted. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Ironwood may refer to the following: Any particular wood that has a reputation for hardness. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Binomial name Michelia champaca L. The Champak, which is also known Champac, or Sampige (Michelia champaca) is a tree found primarily in South Asia and a member of the Magnolia family. ... For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Areca catechu L. Areca catechu, known commonly as Betel palm or Betel nut tree is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Subgenera Azaleastrum Candidastrum Hymenanthes Mumeazalea Pentanthera (Azaleas) Rhododendron Therorhodion Tsutsusi (Azaleas) Vireya Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, rose, and dendron, tree) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of fruits#Tropical fruits. ...


Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers and leopards, are common in Burma. In upper Burma, there are rhinoceros, wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in the lumber industry. Smaller mammals are also numerous, ranging from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes and tapirs. The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species, including parrots, peafowl, pheasants, crows, herons and paddybirds. Among reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons and turtles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources.[22] Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Look up buffalo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Gibbon (disambiguation). ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... A flying fox can be: One of several species of megabat. ... Species Tapirus bairdii Tapirus indicus Tapirus pinchaque Tapirus terrestris Tapirs (IPA:ˈteɪpər, pronounced as in taper, or IPA:təˈpɪər, pronounced as in tap-ear) are large browsing mammals, roughly pig-like in shape, with short, prehensile snouts. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Peacock redirects here. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heron (disambiguation). ... Paddy has these meanings:- A paddy field, a field for cultivating rice or other semi-aquatic crops. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... Egyptian Cobra, Naga haje This article is about snakes. ... Trinomial name Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 The Burmese Python (Python molurus bivittatus) is the larger subspecies of the Indian Python and one of the 6 biggest snakes in the world, native to rain forest areas of Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Fresh water redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: History of Burma

The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ...

Early history

The Mon people are thought to be the earliest group to migrate into the lower Ayeyarwady valley, and by the mid-900s BC were dominant in southern Burma.[23] The Mons became one of the first in South East Asia to embrace Theravada Buddhism.[citation needed] Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. ... The Mon (Burmese: ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ...


The Tibeto-Burman speaking Pyu arrived later in the 1st century BC, and established several city states – of which Sri Ksetra was the most powerful – in central Ayeyarwady valley. The Mon and Pyu kingdoms were an active overland trade route between India and China. The Pyu kingdoms entered a period of rapid decline in early 9th century AD when the powerful kingdom of Nanzhao (in present-day Yunnan) invaded Ayeyarwady valley several times. In 835, Nanzhao decimated the Pyu by carrying off many captives to be used as conscripts.[citation needed] The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Pyu (also written Pyuu, or Pyus) refers to an ancient kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Burma. ... Pyay (Burmese: ), formerly Prome, is a town (1983 population 83,000) and district of the Bago Division in Lower Myanmar, located some 161 km, or 7 hours north of Yangon by road, or an overnight boat trip south of Bagan. ... Nanzhao (Traditional Chinese: 南詔, Simplified Chinese: 南诏, pinyin: Nánzhāo, Alternate spellings: Nanchao, Nan Chao) was a Bai kingdom that flourished in East Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ...


Bagan (1044-1287)

Tibeto-Burman speaking Burmans, or the Bamar, began migrating to the Ayeyarwady valley from present-day Yunnan's Nanzhao kingdom starting in 7th century AD. Filling the power gap left by the Pyu, the Burmans established a small kingdom centered in Bagan in 849. But it was not until the reign of King Anawrahta (1044-1077) that Bagan's influence expanded throughout much of present-day Burma. The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Bagan (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), formerly Pagan, formally titled Arimaddanapura (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Myanmar. ... Anawrahta (Burmese: ; IPA: ; reigned 1044-1077), also spelled Aniruddha or Anoarahtâ or Anoa-ra-htá-soa, was a ruler of the kingdom of Bagan and the first ruler of a unified Burma. ...


After Anawrahta's capture of the Mon capital of Thaton in 1057, the Burmans adopted Theravada Buddhism from the Mons. The Burmese script was created, based on the Mon script, during the reign of King Kyanzittha (1084-1112). Prosperous from trade, Bagan kings built many magnificent temples and pagodas throughout the country – many of which can still be seen today. Thaton is a town in Mon State, in southern Myanmar on the Tenasserim plains. ... This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ... King Kyanzittha (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ) was king of Bagan from 1084 to 1113. ...


Bagan's power slowly waned in 13th century. Kublai Khan's Mongol forces invaded northern Burma starting in 1277, and sacked Bagan city itself in 1287. Bagan's over two century reign of Ayeyarwady valley and its periphery was over. For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...

Pagodas and temples continue to exist in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Bagan Kingdom.
Pagodas and temples continue to exist in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Bagan Kingdom.

Image File history File linksMetadata Baganmyo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Baganmyo. ... The Pagan Kingdom (849-1287) is considered to be the first Burmese empire. ...

Small kingdoms (1287-1531)

The Mongols could not stay for long in the searing Ayeyarwady valley. But the Tai-Shan people from Yunnan who came down with the Mongols fanned out to the Ayeyarwady valley, Shan states, Laos, Siam and Assam, and became powerful players in South East Asia. The Shan are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


The Bagan empire was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms:

  • The Burman kingdom of Ava or Innwa (1364-1555), the successor state to three smaller kingdoms founded by Burmanized Shan kings, controlling Upper Burma (without the Shan states)
  • The Mon kingdom of Hanthawady Pegu or Bago (1287-1540), founded by a Mon-ized Shan King Wareru (1287-1306), controlling Lower Burma (without Taninthayi).
  • The Rakhine kingdom of Mrauk U (1434-1784), in the west.
  • Several Shan states in the Shan hills in the east and the Kachin hills in the north while the northwestern frontier of present Chin hills still disconnected yet.

This period was characterized by constant warfare between Ava and Bago, and to a lesser extent, Ava and the Shans. Ava briefly controlled Rakhine (1379-1430) and came close to defeating Bago a few times, but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. Nevertheless, Burmese culture entered a golden age. Hanthawady Bago prospered. Bago's Queen Shin Saw Bu (1453-1472) raised the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda to its present height. AvA is a film in post-production directed by the rock group Angels and Airwaves. ... The Shan are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ... Bago is a division of Burma. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Tanintharyi, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... Mrauk U is an ancient town in Rakhine State, Myanmar. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ... Shwedagon Paya is often visited for its grand scale. ...


By the late 15th century, constant warfare had left Ava greatly weakened. Its peripheral areas became either independent or autonomous. In 1486, King Minkyinyo (1486-1531) of Taungoo broke away from Ava and established a small independent kingdom. In 1527, Mohnyin (Shan: Mong Yang) Shans finally captured Ava, upsetting the delicate power balance that had existed for nearly two centuries. The Shans would rule Upper Burma until 1555. Taungoo (Burmese: ; MLCTS: , also known as Toungoo) is a city in the Bago Division of Myanmar, located 220 km from Yangon, towards the northern end of the division, with mountain ranges to both east and west. ... The Shan are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ...


Taungoo (1531-1752)

Reinforced by fleeing Burmans from Ava, the minor Burman kingdom of Taungoo under its young, ambitious king Tabinshwehti (1531-1551) defeated the more powerful Mon kingdom at Bago, reunifying all of Lower Burma by 1540. Tabinshwehti's successor King Bayinnaung (1551-1581) would go on to conquer Upper Burma (1555), Manipur (1556), Shan states (1557), Chiang Mai (1557), Ayutthaya (1564, 1569) and Lan Xang (1574), bringing most of western South East Asia under his rule. Bayinnaung died in 1581, preparing to invade Rakhine, a maritime power controlling the entire coastline west of Rakhine Yoma, up to Chittagong province in Bengal. Taungoo (Burmese: ; MLCTS: , also known as Toungoo) is a city in the Bago Division of Myanmar, located 220 km from Yangon, towards the northern end of the division, with mountain ranges to both east and west. ... Tabinshwehti (or Tabinshweti) (1512 – 1550) was a king who unified Burma (now Myanmar) in 1539. ... Bago is a division of Burma. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Bayinnaung (Burmese: ; IPA: ; lit. ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ... A street scene in Chiang Mai, showing (centre right), a gate of the old city wall. ... The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: ) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. ... The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Chang (Pali: Sisattanakhanahut, Lao: lâansâang, from Sinitic “vast number of elephants”) was established in 1354 by Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara (otherwise known as Fa Ngum). ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ...


Bayinnaung's massive empire unraveled soon after his death in 1581. Ayutthaya Siamese had driven out the Burmese by 1593 and went on to take Tanintharyi. In 1599, Rakhine forces aided by the Portuguese mercenaries sacked the kingdom's capital Bago. Chief Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote (Burmese: Nga Zinga) promptly rebelled against his Rakhine masters and established Portuguese rule in Thanlyin (Syriam), then the most important seaport in Burma. The country was in chaos. Siamese could refer to: A Siamese cat Siamese twins The Thai language Someone or something from Thailand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tanintharyi, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... Bago is a division of Burma. ... Thanlyin, formerly Syriam, is a city in Yangon Division in Myanmar (Burma). ...


The Burmese under King Anaukpetlun (1605-1628) regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in 1611. Anaukpetlun reestablished a smaller reconstituted kingdom based in Ava covering Upper Burma, Lower Burma and Shan states (but without Rakhine or Taninthayi). After the reign of King Thalun (1629-1648), who rebuilt the war-torn country, the kingdom experienced a slow and steady decline for the next 100 years. The Mons successfully rebelled starting in 1740 with French help and Siamese encouragement, broke away Lower Burma by 1747, and finally put an end to the House of Taungoo in 1752 when they took Ava. Anaukpetlun (d. ... AvA is a film in post-production directed by the rock group Angels and Airwaves. ...


Konbaung (1752-1885)

A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda reveals early British occupation in Burma during the First Anglo-Burmese War.
A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda reveals early British occupation in Burma during the First Anglo-Burmese War.

King Alaungpaya (1752-1760), established the Konbaung Dynasty in Shwebo in 1752.[24] He founded Yangon in 1755. By his death in 1760, Alaungpaya had reunified the country. In 1767, King Hsinbyushin (1763-1777) sacked Ayutthya. The Qing Dynasty of China invaded four times from 1765 to 1769 without success. The Chinese invasions allowed the new Siamese kingdom based in Bangkok to repel the Burmese out of Siam by the late 1770s. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6276x5224, 10733 KB) 1825 Litography of en:Shwedagon Pagoda. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6276x5224, 10733 KB) 1825 Litography of en:Shwedagon Pagoda. ... Shwedagon Paya The Shwedagon Paya is a 98 meter gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar. ... Combatants British Empire Burma Commanders Charles Grant Archibald Campbell Tharrawaddy Min Maha Bandula â€  The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... Alaungpaya 1711-15 May 1760 was a Burmese king who established the Konbaung Dynasty (Heavens platform) in the early 18th century. ... The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. ... Shwebo is a city in the Sagaing Division of Myanmar, located 113 km north-west of Mandalay on the eastern bank of the Chindwin River. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Meaning ruler and master of white elephants. ... The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: ) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Siamese could refer to: A Siamese cat Siamese twins The Thai language Someone or something from Thailand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


King Bodawpaya (1782-1819) failed repeatedly to reconquer Siam in 1780s and 1790s. Bodawpaya did manage to capture the western kingdom of Rakhine, which had been largely independent since the fall of Bagan, in 1784. Bodawpaya also formally annexed Manipur, a rebellion-prone protectorate, in 1813. Bodawpaya (literally Royal Grandfather, 11 March 1745 - 5 June 1819) was the sixth king of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (1782-1819). ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...


King Bagyidaw's (1819-1837) general Maha Bandula put down a rebellion in Manipur in 1819 and captured then independent kingdom of Assam in 1819 (again in 1821). The new conquests brought the Burmese adjacent to the British India. The British defeated the Burmese in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826). Burma had to cede Assam, Manipur, Rakhine (Arakan) and Tanintharyi (Tenessarim). King Bagyidaw (died October 1846) was king of the Konbaung Dynasty from 1819 to 1837. ... General Mahabandoola (c. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Combatants British Empire Burma Commanders Charles Grant Archibald Campbell Tharrawaddy Min Maha Bandula â€  The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মনিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... Tanintharyi, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ...


In 1852, the British attacked a much weakened Burma during a Burmese palace power struggle. After the Second Anglo-Burmese War, which lasted 3 months, the British had captured the remaining coastal provinces: Ayeyarwady, Yangon and Bago, naming the territories as Lower Burma. The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852. ... The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Bago is a division of Burma. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ...


King Mindon (1853-1878) founded Mandalay in 1859 and made it his capital. He skillfully navigated the growing threats posed by the competing interests of Britain and France. In the process, Mindon had to renounce Kayah (Karenni) states in 1875. His successor, King Thibaw (1878-1885), was largely ineffectual. In 1885, the British, alarmed by the French conquest of neighboring Laos, grabbed Upper Burma. The Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) lasted a mere one month insofar as capturing the capital Mandalay was concerned. The Burmese royal family was exiled to Ratnagiri, India. British forces spent at least another four years pacifying the country – not only in the Burman heartland but also in the Shan, Chin and Kachin hill areas. By some accounts, minor insurrections did not end until 1896. Mindon Min (Burmese: ; 1808–1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death and is one of the most popular and revered Kings of Burma. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Kayah may refer to: Kayah State, a state of Myanmar. ... King Thibaw Min of Upper Burma circa 1880 Thibaw Min (Burmese: ; born Maung Pu January 1, 1859 – December 19, 1916; or simply Thibaw, Theebaw, or Theobaw (referred to as Thibau by George Orwell in Burmese Days) was the last king of Burma, Konbaung Dynasty (now Myanmar). ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... The Third Anglo-Burmese War or just The Third Burmese war lasted from 1885 to 1887. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... , Ratnagiri (Marathi:रत्नागिरी) is a city in India, located in the southwestern part of Maharashtra State on the Arabian Sea coast, in the Ratnagiri district. ... Chin (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is one of the ethnic groups in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Kachin may refer to: An ethnic group, in Myanmar known as Kachin (or Jingpaw), in China (Yunnan) known as Jingpo. ...


Colonial era (1886-1948)

The United Kingdom began conquering Burma in 1824 and by 1886 had incorporated it into the British Raj. Burma was administered as a province of British India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony. To stimulate trade and facilitate changes, the British brought in Indians and Chinese, who quickly displaced the Burmese in urban areas. To this day Yangon and Mandalay have large ethnic Indian populations. Railroads and schools were built, as well as a large number of prisons, including the infamous Insein Prison, then as now used for political prisoners. Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralyzed Yangon on occasion all the way until the 1930s.[25] Much of the discontent was caused by a perceived disrespect for Burmese culture and traditions, for example, what the British termed the Shoe Question: the colonizers' refusal to remove their shoes upon entering Buddhist temples or other holy places. In October 1919, Eindawya Pagoda in Mandalay was the scene of violence when tempers flared after scandalized Buddhist monks attempted to physically expel a group of shoe-wearing British visitors. The leader of the monks was later sentenced to life imprisonment for attempted murder. Such incidents inspired the Burmese resistance to use Buddhism as a rallying point for their cause. Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement, and many died while protesting. One monk-turned-martyr was U Wisara, who died in prison after a 166-day hunger strike to protest a rule that forbade him from wearing his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.[26] Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Insein Prison (pronounced like insane) is located in Yangon Division, near Yangon (Rangoon), the capital of Myanmar. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... Burmese girl painted with thanaka The culture of Myanmar has been heavily influenced by Buddhism. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Eric Blair, better known as the writer George Orwell, served in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma for five years and wrote about his experiences. An earlier writer with the same convoluted career path was Saki. During the colonial period, intermarriage between European settlers and Burmese women, as well as between Anglo-Indians (who arrived with the British) and Burmese caused the birth of the Anglo-Burmese community. This influential community was to dominate the country during colonial rule and through the mid 1960's. George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Saki (December 18, 1870 – November 14, 1916) was the pen name of British author Hector Hugh Munro, whose witty and sometimes macabre stories satirised Edwardian society and culture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The Colonial Flag (1937-1948)

On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered territory, independent of the Indian administration. The vote for keeping Burma in India, or as a separate colony "khwe-yay-twe-yay" divided the populace, and laid the ground work for the insurgencies to come after independence. In the 1940s, the Thirty Comrades, commanded by Aung San, founded the Burma Independence Army. The Thirty Comrades received training in Japan.[27] Image File history File links Burmaoflag. ... Image File history File links Burmaoflag. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thirty Comrades is beginning of modern Burmese/Myanmar army called Burma Independence Army (BIA). ... General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ... The Burma National Army was originally organized by the Minami Kikan as the Burmese Independence Army in December of 1941 , where it then served as an auxiliary of the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


During World War II, Burma became a major frontline in the Southeast Asian Theatre. The British administration collapsed ahead of the advancing Japanese troops, jails and asylums were opened and Rangoon was deserted except for the many Anglo-Burmese and Indians who remained at their posts. A stream of some 300,000 refugees fled across the jungles into India; known as 'The Trek', all but 30,000 of those 300,000 arrived in India. Initially the Japanese-led Burma Campaign succeeded and the British were expelled from most of Burma, but the British counter-attacked using primarily troops of the British Indian Army. By July 1945, the British had retaken the country. Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, also served in the British Burma Army. In 1943, the Chin Levies and Kachin Levies were formed in the border districts of Burma still under British administration. The Burma Rifles fought as part of the Chindits under General Orde Wingate from 1943-1945. Later in the war, the Americans created American-Kachin Rangers who also fought against the Japanese. Many others fought with the British Special Operations Executive. The Burma Independence Army under the command of Aung San and the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942-1944, but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The Anglo-Burmese, also known as the Anglo-Burmans, are a community of Eurasians of Burmese and European descent, and emerged as a distinct community through mixed relations (sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary) between the British and other European settlers and the local Burmese ethnic groups from 1826 until 1948 when... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 3rd Indian Infantry Division) were a British jungle Special Forces unit that served in Burma from 1943 until 1945 as part of the Fourteenth Army during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long... Major General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO (February 26, 1903 – March 24, 1944), was a British major general and creator of two special military units during World War II. // Orde Wingate was born 26 February 1903 in Naini Tal, India to a military family. ... THIS ALL SUCKS!!!!!! Detachment 101 of the Office of Strategic Services operated in the China Burma India Theater of World War II. On January 17, 1946, it was awarded a Presidential Distinguished Unit Citation by Dwight Eisenhower, who wrote, The courage and fighting spirit displayed by its officers and men... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... The Burma National Army was originally organized by the Minami Kikan as the Burmese Independence Army in December of 1941 , where it then served as an auxiliary of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ...


In 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government. But in July 1947, political rivals assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.[27] General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ...


Democratic republic (1948-1962)

On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, it did not become a member of the Commonwealth. A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities.[28] ImageMetadata File history File links Sao. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Sao. ... This article is in need of attention. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Prime Minister U Nu U Nu (otherwise known as Thakin Nu; May 25, 1907 - February 14, 1995) was a Burmese nationalist and political figure. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... The Chamber of Nationalities is a now-defunct chamber of the bicameral parliament of Myanmar (formerly Burma). ...


The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.[11] Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... The Frontier Areas, also known as the Excluded Areas or the Scheduled Areas, compose the majority of states within Myanmar today. ...


In 1961, U Thant, then the Union of Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations; he was the first non-Westerner to head any international organization and would serve as UN Secretary-General for ten years.[29] Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a young Aung San Suu Kyi. U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ...


Military rule (1962-present)

Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military coup d'état. He ruled for nearly 26 years and pursued policies under the rubric of the Burmese Way to Socialism. Between 1962 and 1974, Myanmar was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalized or brought under government control (including the Boy Scouts).[2] In an effort to consolidate power, General Ne Win and many top generals resigned from the military and took civilian posts and, from 1974, instituted elections in a one party system. Between 1974 and 1988, Myanmar was effectively ruled by General Ne Win through the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP).[30] For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Coup redirects here. ... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win, who ruled the country from 1962 to 1988. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Burma Socialist Programme Party (aka Lanzin) is a political party in Myanmar, formerly Burma. ...


Almost from the beginning there were sporadic protests against the military rule, many of which were organized by students, and these were almost always violently suppressed by the government. On July 7, 1962 the government broke up demonstrations at Rangoon University killing 15 students.[2] In 1974, the military violently suppressed anti-government protests at the funeral of U Thant. Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.[30] is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ...


In 1988, unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the 8888 Uprising. Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, and General Saw Maung staged a coup d'état and formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). In 1989, SLORC declared martial law after widespread protests. The military government finalized plans for People's Assembly elections on 31 May 1989.[31] 8888 Uprising (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) was a national uprising demanding democracy that took place on 8 August 1988 in Burma (now Myanmar). ... Saw Maung (1928 - 24 July 1997) was a political figure in Myanmar. ... SLORC, or the State Law and Order Restoration Council was the name of the military government of Myanmar between September 1988 and November 1997. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In May 1990, the government held free elections for the first time in almost 30 years. The National League for Democracy (NLD), the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 489 seats, but the election results were annulled by SLORC, which refused to step down.[32] Led by Than Shwe since 1992, the military regime has made cease-fire agreements with most ethnic guerrilla groups. In 1992, SLORC unveiled plans to create a new constitution through the National Convention, which began 9 January 1993. To date, this military-organized National Convention has not produced a new constitution despite well over ten years of operation.[33] In 1997, the State Law and Order Restoration Council was renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... General elections were held in Burma on 27 May 1990. ... Senior General Than Shwe (Burmese: သန္‌​းေရ္ဝ္ဟ; IPA: ; born February 2, 1933) is the military dictator of Myanmar (Burma), serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Tatmadaw and chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: ; IPA: ; abbreviated SPDC) is the official name of the military regime of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ...


On 23 June 1997, Myanmar was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The National Convention continues to convene and adjourn. Many major political parties, particularly the NLD, have been absent or excluded, and little progress has been made.[33] On 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November 2005, officially named it Naypyidaw, meaning "city of the kings".[34] is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Pyinmana (Burmese: ; population: 100,000 (2006 estimate)) is a logging town and sugar cane refinery center in Mandalay Division of Myanmar. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ...


In November 2006, the International Labour Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labour of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice.[35] According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Myanmar.[36] The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ...


2007 protests and consequences

Main article: 2007 Burmese anti-government protests

The August 2007 demonstrations were led by well-known dissidents, such as Min Ko Naing (with the nom de guerre Conqueror of Kings), Su Su Nway (now in hiding) and others. The military quickly cracked down and still has not allowed the International Red Cross to visit Min Ko Naing and others who are reportedly in Insein Prison after being severely tortured. Reports have surfaced of at least one death, of activist Win Shwe, under interrogation.[37] Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests are a wave of anti-government protests that started in Burma (also known as Union of Myanmar) on August 15, 2007. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ... Insein Prison (pronounced like insane) is located in Yangon Division, near Yangon (Rangoon), the capital of Myanmar. ...


On 19 September 2007, several hundred (possibly 2000 or more) monks staged a protest march in the city of Sittwe.[38] Larger protests in Rangoon and elsewhere ensued over the following days. Security became increasingly heavy handed, resulting in a number of deaths and injuries.[39] By 28 September, internet access had been cut[40] and journalists were reputedly warned not to report on protests.[41] Internet access was restored by at least midnight of 5 October, Burmese time.[citation needed] Sources in Myanmar[who?] said on 6 October that the internet seems to be working from 22:00 to 05:00 local time. is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests are a wave of anti-government protests that started in Burma (also known as Union of Myanmar) on August 15, 2007. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 13, 2007, the military junta of Burma made people march in a government rally, reportedly paying some participants 1000 kyat (approximately $0.80) each. Junta officials also approached local factories and demanded they provide 50 workers each; if they didn't, they were to be fined.[42] is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On 7 February 2008, SPDC announced that there will be referendum for the Constitution in May 2008, and Election by 2010. is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Various global corporations have been criticized for profiting from the dictatorship by financing Burma's military junta.[43]


World governments remain divided on how to deal with the military junta. Calls for further sanctions by United Kingdom, United States, and France are opposed by neighboring countries; in particular, China has stated its belief that "sanctions or pressure will not help to solve the issue".[44]


Cyclone Nargis

On May 3, 2008, Cyclone Nargis devastated the country when winds of up to 215kph (135 mph)[45] touched land in the densely populated, rice-farming delta of the Irrawaddy Division.[46] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ayeyarwady River (Burmese: ; formerly known as the Irrawaddy River) flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). ...


Recent reports estimate that more than 130,000 people are dead or missing from Cyclone Nargis that hit the country's Irrawaddy delta. Shari Villarosa, who leads the U.S. Embassy in Yangon, said the number of dead could eventually exceed 140,800 because of illnesses and injury. [47][48] Adds the World Food Programme, "Some villages have been almost totally eradicated and vast rice-growing areas are wiped out."[49] Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... WFP redirects here. ...


The United Nations projects that as many as 1 million were left homeless; and the World Health Organization "has received reports of malaria outbreaks in the worst-affected area."[50] Yet in the critical days following this disaster, Burma's isolationist regime complicated recovery efforts by delaying the entry of United Nations planes delivering medicine, food, and other supplies into the Southeast Asian nation. Similarly, the junta continues to reject the United States offer to provide much-needed assistance,[51] although on May 13, the first U.S. military transport plane was allowed to land, bringing 14 tons of medical supplies, mosquito nets and blankets.[52] The government's failure to permit entry for large-scale international relief efforts was described by the United Nations as "unprecedented."[53] The Burmese Foreign Ministry stressed its capability in handling the aftermath of the cyclone and insisted that it was not ready to accept large-scale foreign assistance.[54] UN redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


AP news stories state that foreign aid provided to disaster victims was modified to make it look like it came from the military regime, and state-run television continuously ran images of Gen. Than Shwe ceremonially handing out disaster relief.[55] AP may refer to: Andhra Pradesh, A state in the Republic of India Associated Press, an American news agency AP, the United States postal abbreviation for U.S. military personnel in the Pacific Ocean region AP, the U.S. Navy hull classification symbol for transport support ships A&P, the...


More than a week after the disaster, only one out of 10 people who are homeless, injured or threatened by disease and hunger have received some kind of aid. The governmental regime only began to allow UN/international aid into the country for relief efforts after a meeting of heads of States in Singapore, headed by Singapore, who is the current chair of the ASEAN group.

[56] This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... Motto: Unidade, Acção, Progresso (Portuguese: Unity, Action, Progress) Anthem: Pátria Capital (and largest city) Dili Official languages Tetum and Portuguese1 Demonym East Timorese Government Parliamentary republic  -  President José Ramos-Horta  -  Acting President Fernando de Araújo  -  Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão Independence from Portugal²   -  Declared November 28, 1975...


According to British Foreign Secretary David Miliband, "A natural disaster is turning into a humanitarian catastrophe of genuinely epic proportions in significant part because of the malign neglect of the regime."[57]


Donor nations, meeting Sunday in Burma, pressed the government hold to its promise and allow foreign aid workers access to several communities in which foreigners are not allowed, thus increasing the rate of receipt of aid to millions who where most affected by the cyclone. The United Nations secretary general, Ban Ki Moon, said that the government was "moving fast in the right direction." By opening greater access to foreign aid, this will help the nation avoid a "second disaster" of disease.[58]


On May 27, 2008, to complicate world opinion and in contrast to numerous and varied accounts from international relief organizations, the Burma junta praises U.N. aid.[59]


List of historical capitals

Bagan (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), formerly Pagan, formally titled Arimaddanapura (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Myanmar. ... Amarapura (City of Immortality) is a city in the Mandalay division of Myanmar, situated 11 km to the south of Mandalay. ... AvA is a film in post-production directed by the rock group Angels and Airwaves. ... Bagan (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), formerly Pagan, formally titled Arimaddanapura (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Myanmar. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Mrauk U is an ancient town in Rakhine State, Myanmar. ... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Sagaing (population estimate 300,000) is the chief city and capital of Sagaing Division in Myanmar. ... Shwebo is a city in the Sagaing Division of Myanmar, located 113 km north-west of Mandalay on the eastern bank of the Chindwin River. ... Thaton is a town in Mon State, in southern Myanmar on the Tenasserim plains. ...

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Burma

Burma is governed by a strict military dictatorship. The current head of state is Senior General Than Shwe, who holds the posts of "Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council" and "Commander in Chief of the Defense Services". General Khin Nyunt was prime minister until 19 October 2004, when he was replaced by General Soe Win, after the purge of Military Intelligence sections within the Burma armed forces. The majority of ministry and cabinet posts are held by military officers, with the exceptions being the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour, and the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, posts which are held by civilians.[60] Country name: conventional long form: Union of Burma conventional short form: Burma local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar) local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma Data code... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Senior General Than Shwe (Burmese: သန္‌​းေရ္ဝ္ဟ; IPA: ; born February 2, 1933) is the military dictator of Myanmar (Burma), serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Tatmadaw and chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992. ... The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: ; IPA: ; abbreviated SPDC) is the official name of the military regime of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ... General Khin Nyunt (born October 11, 1939 in Kyauktan, Burma) was the Prime Minister of Myanmar and the chief of intelligence of the Myanmar Army. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Soe Win (Burmese: စုိးဝင္‌း; IPA: ) (1948 – 2 October 2007)[1][2] was the Prime Minister of Burma and Secretary-1 of the State Peace and Development Council. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... A high-ranking generals villa overlooking the golf course in Kalaw. ...


Elected delegates in the 1990 People's Assembly election formed the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), a government-in-exile since December 1990, with the mission of restoring democracy.[61] Dr. Sein Win, a first cousin of Aung San Suu Kyi, has held the position of prime minister of the NCGUB since its inception. The NCGUB has been outlawed by the military government. Official language Burmese Headquarters In Exile in Rockville, Maryland,United States Prime Minister Sein Win Constitution December 18, 1990 national anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Web site Website of the NCGUB National Coalition Government of the Union Burma (NCGUB; Burmese: ???) is an exile government headquartered in Rockville, Maryland. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of Burma. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ...


Major political parties in the country are the National League for Democracy and the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy, although their activities are heavily regulated and suppressed by the military government. Many other parties, often representing ethnic minorities, exist. The military government allows little room for political organizations and has outlawed many political parties and underground student organizations. The military supported the National Unity Party in the 1990 elections and, more recently, an organization named the Union Solidarity and Development Association.[62] The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... The Shan Nationalities League for Democracy is a political party in Myanmar (Burma), representing the interests of the Shan minority. ... The National Unity Party (Taingyintha Silonenyinyutye) is a political party in Myanmar (Burma). ... USDA flag The Union Solidarity and Development Association (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; abbreviated USDA) is an organisation formed by State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) on 13 September 1993. ...

Government propaganda poster states: "Tatmadaw and the people, cooperate and crush all those harming the union."
Government propaganda poster states: "Tatmadaw and the people, cooperate and crush all those harming the union."

Several human rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have reported on human rights abuses by the military government.[63][64] They have claimed that there is no independent judiciary in Burma. The military government restricts Internet access through software-based censorship that limits the material citizens can access on-line.[65][66] Forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour are common.[67] The military is also notorious for rampant use of sexual violence as an instrument of control, including systematic rapes and taking of sex slaves as porters for the military. A strong women's pro-democracy movement has formed in exile, largely along the Thai border and in Chiang Mai. There is a growing international movement to defend women's human rights issues.[68] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 432 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 1522 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 432 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 1522 pixel, file size: 525 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A high-ranking generals villa overlooking the golf course in Kalaw. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ...


In 1988, the army violently repressed protests against economic mismanagement and political oppression. On 8 August 1988, the military opened fire on demonstrators in what is known as 8888 Uprising and imposed martial law. However, the 1988 protests paved way for the 1990 People's Assembly elections. The election results were subsequently annulled by Senior General Saw Maung's government. The National League for Democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won over 60% of the vote and over 80% of parliamentary seats in the 1990 election, the first held in 30 years. The military-backed National Unity Party won less than 2% of the seats. Aung San Suu Kyi has earned international recognition as an activist for the return of democratic rule, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The ruling regime has repeatedly placed her under house arrest. Despite a direct appeal by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to Senior General Than Shwe and pressure by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the military junta extended Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest another year on 27 May 2006 under the 1975 State Protection Act, which grants the government the right to detain any persons on the grounds of protecting peace and stability in the country.[69][70] The junta faces increasing pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom. Burma's situation was referred to the UN Security Council for the first time in December 2005 for an informal consultation. In September 2006, ten of the United Nations Security Council's 15 members voted to place Myanmar on the council's formal agenda.[71] On Independence Day, 4 January 2007, the government released 40 political prisoners, under a general amnesty, in which 2,831 prisoners were released.[72] On 8 January 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged the national government to free all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi.[73] Three days later, on 11 January, five additional prisoners were released from prison.[72] is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... 8888 Uprising (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) was a national uprising demanding democracy that took place on 8 August 1988 in Burma (now Myanmar). ... Saw Maung (1928 - 24 July 1997) was a political figure in Myanmar. ... The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... The National Unity Party (Taingyintha Silonenyinyutye) is a political party in Myanmar (Burma). ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Senior General Than Shwe (Burmese: သန္‌​းေရ္ဝ္ဟ; IPA: ; born February 2, 1933) is the military dictator of Myanmar (Burma), serving as Commander-in-Chief of the Tatmadaw and chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


ASEAN has also stated its frustration with the Union of Myanmar's government. It has formed the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus to address the lack of democratisation in the country.[74] Dramatic change in the country's political situation remains unlikely, due to support from major regional powers such as India, Russia, and, in particular, China.[75][76] ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity...


In the annual ASEAN Summit in January 2007, held in Cebu, Philippines, member countries failed to find common ground on the issue of Burma's lack of political reform.[77] During the summit, ASEAN foreign ministers asked Burma to make greater progress on its roadmap toward democracy and national reconciliation.[78] Some member countries contend that Burma's human rights issues are the country's own domestic affairs, while others contend that its poor human rights record is an international issue.[78] The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) holds annual meetings in relation to economic, and cultural development of Southeast Asian countries. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ...


According to Human Rights Defenders and Promoters (HRDP), on April 18, 2007, several of its members (Myint Aye, Maung Maung Lay, Tin Maung Oo and Yin Kyi) were met by approximately a hundred people led by a local official, U Nyunt Oo, and beaten up. Due to the attack, Myint Hlaing and Maung Maung Lay were badly injured and are now hospitalized. The HRDP believes that this attack was condoned by the authorities and vows to take legal action. Human Rights Defenders and Promoters was formed in 2002 to raise awareness among the people of Burma about their human rights. Human Rights Defenders and Promoters was formed in 2002 in Myanmar to raise awareness among the people of Myanmar about their human rights and help them conduct advocacy. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Human Rights Defenders and Promoters was formed in 2002 in Myanmar to raise awareness among the people of Myanmar about their human rights and help them conduct advocacy. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Burma's army-drafted constitution was overwhelmingly approved (by 92.4% of the 22 million voters with alleged voter turnout of 99%) on May 10 in the first phase of a two-stage referendum amid Cyclone Nargis. It was the first national vote since the 1990 election. Multi-party elections in 2010 would end 5 decades of military rule, as the new charter gives the military an automatic 25% of seats in parliament. NLD spokesman Nyan Win, inter alia, criticized the referendum: "This referendum was full of cheating and fraud across the country; In some villages, authorities and polling station officials ticked the ballots themselves and did not let the voters do anything."[79] The constitution would bar Aung San Suu Kyi, from public office. 5 million citizens will vote May 24 in Yangon and the Irrawaddy delta, worst hit by Cyclone Nargis.[80] is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Nyan Win has been the foreign minister of Myanmar since September 19, 2004. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ...


Divisions and states

Main article: Administrative divisions of Burma
The 14 states and divisions of Burma.
The 14 states and divisions of Burma.

The country is divided into seven states (pyine) and seven divisions (yin).[81] Divisions (တိုင္း) are predominantly Bamar. States ( ), in essence, are divisions which are home to particular ethnic minorities. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages. Burma (also called Burma) is divided into 14 administrative subdivisions, which include 7 states (pyi-neh) and 7 divisions (taing). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1324x2938, 138 KB) [edit] Summary Administrative divisions of Burma. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1324x2938, 138 KB) [edit] Summary Administrative divisions of Burma. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... Image File history File links Pyinè.svg‎ File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Burmas states and divisions are divided into 64 districts (payaing), which in turn are subdivided into townships, that consistally subdivided of towns, wards and villages. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... In Australia, Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, a ward is an electoral area of a borough, city, council, county, district, parish, shire or town (Local Government Area). ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ...


Divisions

Ayeyarwady Division is a division of Myanmar, occupying the delta region of the Ayeyarwady or Irrawaddy River. ... Bago Division is an administrative division of Myanmar, located in the southern portion of the country. ... Magway Division (also spelt Magwe) is a division located in central Myanmar between north latitude 18° 50 and 22° 47 and east longitude between 93° 47 and 95° 55. It is bordered by Sagaing Division is to its north, Mandalay Division to its east, Bago Division to its south and... Mandalay Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ... Sagaing Division is a division of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30 north and longitude 94° 97 east. ... Tanintharyi Division, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... Yangon Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ...

States

Chin State is a state of Myanmar. ... Kachin State (Jingphaw Mungdan), is the northernmost state of Myanmar. ... Kayin State is an administrative division of Myanmar and also known as Karen State. ... Kayah, also called Karenni State is a state of Myanmar. ... Mon States seal is a hintha (mythical duck), which is the symbol of the Mon people. ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ...

Administrative divisions

Number of Districts, Townships, Cities/Towns, Wards, Village Groups and Villages in Burma as of December 31, 2001[82] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

No. State/Division District Township City/Town Wards Village Groups Villages
1 Kachin State 3 18 20 116 606 2630
2 Kayah State 2 7 7 29 79 624
3 Kayin State 3 7 10 46 376 2092
4 Chin State 2 9 9 29 475 1355
5 Sagaing Division 8 37 37 171 1769 6095
6 Taninthayi Division 3 10 10 63 265 1255
7 Bago Division 4 28 33 246 1424 6498
8 Magway Division 5 25 26 160 1543 4774
9 Mandalay Division 7 31 29 259 1611 5472
10 Mon State 2 10 11 69 381 1199
11 Rakhine State 4 17 17 120 1041 3871
12 Yangon Division 4 45 20 685 634 2119
13 Shan State 11 54 54 336 1626 15513
14 Ayeyawady Division 5 26 29 219 1912 11651
Total 63 324 312 2548 13742 65148

For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up division in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ward (politics). ... A village is a human settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Kachin State (Jingphaw Mungdan), is the northernmost state of Myanmar. ... Kayah, also called Karenni State is a state of Myanmar. ... Kayin State is an administrative division of Myanmar and also known as Karen State. ... Chin State is a state of Myanmar. ... Sagaing Division is a division of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30 north and longitude 94° 97 east. ... Bago Division is an administrative division of Myanmar, located in the southern portion of the country. ... Magway Division (also spelt Magwe) is a division located in central Myanmar between north latitude 18° 50 and 22° 47 and east longitude between 93° 47 and 95° 55. It is bordered by Sagaing Division is to its north, Mandalay Division to its east, Bago Division to its south and... Mandalay Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ... Mon States seal is a hintha (mythical duck), which is the symbol of the Mon people. ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... Yangon Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ... Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. ...

Foreign relations and military

Main articles: Foreign relations of Burma and Military of Burma

The country's foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have been strained. The United States has placed a ban on new investments by U.S. firms, an import ban, and an arms embargo on the Union of Myanmar, as well as frozen military assets in the United States because of the military regime's ongoing human rights abuses, the ongoing detention of Nobel Peace Prize recipient Aung San Suu Kyi, and refusal to honor the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election.[83] Similarly, the European Union has placed sanctions on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[84] U.S. and European government sanctions against the military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.S. and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions. Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction. The country has close relations with neighboring India and People's Republic of China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country. The French oil company Total S.A. is able to operate the Yadana natural gas pipeline from Burma to Thailand despite the European Union's sanctions on the country. Total is currently the subject of a lawsuit in French and Belgian courts for the condoning and use of the country's civilian slavery to construct the named pipeline. Experts[who?] say that the human rights abuses along the gas pipeline are the direct responsibility of Total S.A. and its American partner Chevron with aid and implementation by the Tatmadaw.[citation needed] Prior to its acquisition by Chevron, Unocal settled a similar human rights lawsuit for a reported multi-million dollar amount.[85] There remains active debate as to the extent to which the American-led sanctions have had adverse effects on the civilian population or on the military rulers.[86][87] Burma (also known as Myanmar) remains a pariah state to several nations due mainly to its human rights record. ... The military of Myanmar, officially known as Tatmadaw (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ) is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of Union of Myanmar. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... Total S.A. (Euronext: FP, NYSE: TOT) is a French oil company headquartered in Paris, France. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... A high-ranking generals villa overlooking the golf course in Kalaw. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... The Unocal Corporation (NYSE: UCL), based in Los Angeles, California, was founded in 1890 as the Union Oil Company of California. ...


The country's armed forces are known as the Tatmadaw, which numbers 488,000. The Tatmadaw comprises the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The country ranked twelfth in the world for its number of active troops in service.[3] The military is very influential in the country, with top cabinet and ministry posts held by military officers. Official figures for military spending are not available. Estimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but military spending is very high.[88] The country imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India. A high-ranking generals villa overlooking the golf course in Kalaw. ... The Myanmar Army is the land component (army) of the Military of Myanmar, previously known as Burma. ... The Myanmar Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of Myanmar with 16,000 men and women. ... Myanmar Air Force Flag, featuring the Air Force roundel. ... Number of active troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the total number of active troops where the military manpower of a country is measured by the total amount of active troops within the command of that country. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ...


The country is building a research nuclear reactor near May Myo (Pyin Oo Lwin) with help from Russia. It is one of the signatories of the nuclear non-proliferation pact since 1992 and a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1957. The military junta had informed the IAEA in September 2000 of its intention to construct the reactor. The research reactor outbuilding frame was built by ELE steel industries limited of Yangon and water from Anisakhan/BE water fall will be used for the reactor cavity cooling system. Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


ASEAN will not defend the country in any international forum following the military regime's refusal to restore democracy. In April 2007, the Malaysian Foreign Ministry parliamentary secretary Ahmad Shabery Cheek said Malaysia and other ASEAN members had decided not to defend Burma if the country's issue was raised for discussion at any international conference. "Now Myanmar has to defend itself if it is bombarded in any international forum," he said when winding up a debate at committee stage for the Foreign Ministry. He was replying to queries from opposition leader Lim Kit Siang on the next course of action to be taken by Malaysia and ASEAN with the military junta. Lim had said Malaysia must play a proactive role in pursuing regional initiatives to bring about a change in Burma and support efforts to bring the situation in Burma to the UN Security Council's attention.[89] ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... Ahmad Shabery Cheek is a Malaysian politician and Member of Parliament for the seat of Kemaman in Terengganu. ... Lim Kit Siang (born February 20, 1941; Chinese: 林吉祥; pinyin: Lín Jíxiáng) is a prominent leader of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a socialist opposition party in Malaysia. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Drug trade

The country is a corner of the Golden Triangle of opium production. Neither Burma, Vietnam, Laos or Thailand had any history of opium production until colonial times[90], yet from then until very recently, most of the world's heroin came from the Golden Triangle, including Burma. The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


The main player in the country's drug market is the United Wa State Army, ethnic fighters who control areas along the country's eastern border with Thailand, part of the infamous Golden Triangle. The Wa army, an ally of Burma's ruling military junta, was once the militant arm of the Beijing-backed Burmese Communist Party. Burma has been a significant cog in the transnational drug trade since World War II.[91][92] United Wa State Army is the army of tens of thousand soldiers of nearly Wa State in Myanmar. ... United Wa State Army is the army of tens of thousand soldiers of nearly Wa State in Myanmar. ...


Poppy cultivation in the country decreased more than 80 percent from 1998 to 2006 following an eradication campaign in the Golden Triangle. Officials with the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime say opium poppy farming is now expanding. The number of hectares used to grow the crops in has bounced back 29 percent this year. A U.N. report cites corruption, poverty and a lack of government control as causes for the jump.[93]


United Nations

In 1961, U Thant, then Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations; he was the first non-Westerner to head any international organization and would serve as UN Secretary-General for ten years.[29] Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was the young Aung San Suu Kyi. U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ...


Until 2005, the United Nations General Assembly annually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Burma by consensus.[94][94][95][96][97] But in 2006 a divided United Nations General Assembly voted through a resolution that strongly called upon the government of Burma to end its systematic violations of human rights.[98] Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ...


In January 2007, Russia and China vetoed a draft resolution before the United Nations Security Council[99] calling on the government of Myanmar to respect human rights and begin a democratic transition. South Africa also voted against the resolution, arguing that since there were no peace and security concerns raised by its neighbours, the question did not belong in the Security Council when there were other more appropriate bodies to represent it, adding, "Ironically, should the Security Council adopt [this resolution] ... the Human Rights Council would not be able to address the situation in Myanmar while the Council remains seized with the matter."[100] The issue had been forced onto the agenda against the votes of Russia and the China[101] by the United States (veto power applies only to resolutions) claiming that the outflow from Burma of refugees, drugs, HIV-AIDS, and other diseases threatened international peace and security.[102] “Security Council” redirects here. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... The United Nations Security Council veto power is a veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council substantive resolution regardless of the level of general support. ...


The following September after the uprisings began and the human rights situation deteriorated, the Secretary-General dispatched his special envoy for the region, Ibrahim Gambari, to meet with the government.[103] After seeing most parties involved, he returned to New York and briefed the Security Council about his visit.[104] During this meeting, the ambassador said that the country "indeed [has experienced] a daunting challenge. However, we have been able to restore stability. The situation has now returned to normalcy. Currently, people all over the country are holding peaceful rallies within the bounds of the law to welcome the successful conclusion of the national convention, which has laid down the fundamental principles for a new constitution, and to demonstrate their aversion to recent provocative demonstrations.[105] Prof. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


On 11 October the Security Council met and issued a statement and reaffirmed its "strong and unwavering support for the Secretary-General's good offices mission", especially the work by Ibrahim Gambari[106] (During a briefing to the Security Council in November, Gambari admitted that no timeframe had been set by the Government for any of the moves that he had been negotiating for.)[107] is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prof. ...


Throughout this period the World Food Program has continued to organize shipments from the Mandalay Division to the famine-struck areas to the north.[108] The United Nations World Food Programme in Myanmar is part of the United Nations World Food Programme in Myanmar to supply the needy in the country with food and supplies. ... Mandalay Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ...


Human rights

Human rights violations

In a press release of December 16, 2005 the US State Department says UN involvement in Burma is essential.[109] The US listed illicit narcotics, human rights abuses and political repression as serious problems that the UN needs to address.[110] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In a landmark legal case, some human rights groups have sued the Unocal corporation, previously known as Union Oil of California and now part of the Chevron Corporation. They charge that since the early 1990s, Unocal has joined hands with dictators in Burma to turn thousands of citizens there into virtual slaves under brutality. Unocal, before being purchased, stated that they had no knowledge or connection to these alleged actions although it continued working in Burma. This was a landmark case as this might be the first time that anybody has sued an American corporation in a U.S. court on the grounds that the company violated human rights in another country.[111][112] The Unocal Corporation (NYSE: UCL), based in Los Angeles, California, was founded in 1890 as the Union Oil Company of California. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ...


Karen minority

Main article: Internal conflict in Burma

Evidence has been gathered suggesting that the Burmese regime has marked certain ethnic minorities such as the Karen for extermination or 'Burmisation'.[113] This has received little attention from the international community, however, since it has been more subtle and indirect than the mass killings in places like Rwanda.[114] The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Burma
The Sakura Tower in Yangon is virtually vacant due to a lack of major foreign investment.

The country is one of the poorest nations in South Asia / Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. Burma's GDP grows at a rate of 2.9% annually – the lowest rate of economic growth in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[3] Myanmar is one of the poorest nations in the world, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement, and isolation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 136 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 136 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ...


Under British administration and in the early 1950s, Burma was the wealthiest country in Southeast Asia. It was once the world's largest exporter of rice. During British administration, Burma supplied oil through the Burmah Oil Company. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labor resources. It produced 75% of the world's teak and had a highly literate population.[10] The country was believed to be on the fast track to development.[10] For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Species Tectona grandis Tectona hamiltoniana Tectona philippinensis Teak (Tectona), is a genus of tropical hardwood trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia, and is commonly found as a component of monsoon forest vegetation. ...


After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu attempted to make Burma a welfare state. His administration adopted the Two-Year Economic Development Plan, which was a failure.[115] The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalize all industries, with the exception of agriculture. In 1989, the government began decentralizing economic control. It has since liberalised certain sectors of the economy.[116] Lucrative industries of gems, oil and forestry remain heavily regulated. They have recently been exploited by foreign corporations and governments which have partnered with the local government to gain access to Burma's natural resources. Prime Minister U Nu U Nu (otherwise known as Thakin Nu; May 25, 1907 - February 14, 1995) was a Burmese nationalist and political figure. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win, who ruled the country from 1962 to 1988. ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name...

Burma was designated a least developed country in 1987.[117] Private enterprises are often co-owned or indirectly owned by the Tatmadaw. In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit. Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Burma. Foreign investment comes primarily from China, Singapore, South Korea, India, and Thailand.[118] Amarapura (City of Immortality) is a city in the Mandalay division of Myanmar, situated 11 km to the south of Mandalay. ... Mandalay Division is an administrative division of Myanmar. ... The category of least developed countries is a social/economic classification status applied to 51 countries around the world by political scientists and economists through the United Nations. ... The military of Myanmar, officially known as Tatmadaw (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ) is the military organization of Myanmar, formerly known as Burma. ...


Modern economy

Today, the country lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Thai border, where most illegal drugs are exported, and along the Ayeyarwady River. Railroads are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late nineteenth century.[119] Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities.[119] Energy shortages are common throughout the country including in Yangon. Burma is also the world's second largest producer of opium, accounting for 8% of entire world production and is a major source of illegal drugs, including amphetamines.[120] Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas. The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a river that flows through Burma (Myanmar). ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... This article is about the drug. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ...


The major agricultural product is rice which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 percent of the irrigated areas.[121] The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its heaquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy.[122]


Inflation is a serious problem for the economy. In April 2007, the National League for Democracy organized a two-day workshop on the economy. The workshop concluded that skyrocketing inflation was impeding economic growth. "Basic commodity prices have increased from 30 to 60 percent since the military regime promoted a salary increase for government workers in April 2006," said Soe Win, the moderator of the workshop. "Inflation is also correlated with corruption." Myint Thein, an NLD spokesperson, added: "Inflation is the critical source of the current economic crisis."[123] The corruption watchdog organization Transparency International in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index released on September 26, 2007 ranked Burma the most corrupt country in the world, tied with Somalia.[124] The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Valley of Rubies

The Union of Myanmar's rulers depend on sales of precious stones such as sapphires, pearls and jade to fund their regime. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems. Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (125 miles) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires.[125] Sapphire is the single crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum in which the color is caused mainly by chromium. ... Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum in which the color is caused mainly by chromium. ... ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... Gems can refer to: gemstones, or Gems Gems TV, a shopping channel specializing in Gemstones. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Sapphire is the single crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). ...


Tourism

Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country. However, fewer than 750,000 tourists enter the country annually.[126]


Aung San Suu Kyi has requested that international tourists not visit Burma. The junta's forced labour programmes were focused around tourist destinations which have been heavily criticised for their human rights records. Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ...


Tourism has been promoted by a minority of advocacy groups as a method of providing economic benefit to Burmese civilians, and to avoid isolating the country from the rest of the world. "We believe that small-scale, responsible tourism can create more benefits than harm. So long as tourists are fully aware of the situation and take steps to maximise their positive impact and minimise the negatives, we feel their visit can be beneficial overall. Responsible tourists can help Burma primarily by bringing money to local communities and small businesses, and by raising awareness of the situation worldwide," states Voices for Burma, a pro-democracy advocate group.[127]


Humanitarian aid

In April 2007, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) identified financial and other restrictions that the military government places on international humanitarian assistance. The GAO report, entitled "Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma", outlined the specific efforts of the government to hinder the humanitarian work of international organizations, including restrictions on the free movement of international staff within the country. The report notes that the regime has tightened its control over assistance work since former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt was purged in October 2004. The military junta passed guidelines in February 2006, which formalized these restrictive policies. According to the report, the guidelines require that programs run by humanitarian groups "enhance and safeguard the national interest" and that international organizations coordinate with state agents and select their Burmese staff from government-prepared lists of individuals. United Nations officials have declared these restrictions unacceptable. General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... General Khin Nyunt (born October 11, 1939 in Kyauktan, Burma) was the Prime Minister of Myanmar and the chief of intelligence of the Myanmar Army. ... UN redirects here. ...


2007 economic protests

The military junta detained eight people on Sunday, April 22, 2007 who took part in a rare demonstration in a Yangon suburb amid a growing military crackdown on protesters. A group of about ten protesters carrying placards and chanting slogans staged the protest Sunday morning in Yangon's Thingangyun township, calling for lower prices and improved health, education and better utility services. The protest ended peacefully after about 70 minutes, but plainclothes police took away eight demonstrators as some 100 onlookers watched. The protesters carried placards with slogans such as "Down with consumer prices." Some of those detained were the same protesters who took part in a downtown Yangon protest on February 22, 2007. That protest was one of the first such demonstrations in recent years to challenge the junta's economic mismanagement rather than its legal right to rule. The protesters detained in the February rally had said they were released after signing an acknowledgment of police orders that they should not hold any future public demonstrations without first obtaining official permission.[128] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The military government stated its intention to crack down on these human rights activists, according to an April 23, 2007, report in the country's official press. The announcement, which comprised a full page of the official newspaper, followed calls by human rights advocacy groups, including London-based Amnesty International, for authorities to investigate recent violent attacks on rights activists in the country. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


Two members of Human Rights Defenders and Promoters, Maung Maung Lay, 37, and Myint Naing, 40, were hospitalized with head injuries following attacks by more than 50 people while the two were working in Hinthada township, Irrawaddy Division in mid-April. On Sunday, April 22, 2007, eight people were arrested by plainclothes police, members of the pro-junta Union Solidarity and Development Association, and the Pyithu Swan Arr Shin (a paramilitary group) while demonstrating peacefully in a Rangoon suburb. The eight protesters were calling for lower commodity prices, better health-care and improved utility services. Htin Kyaw, 44, one of the eight who also took part in an earlier demonstration in late February in downtown Yangon, was beaten by a mob, according to sources at the scene of the protest. Human Rights Defenders and Promoters was formed in 2002 in Myanmar to raise awareness among the people of Myanmar about their human rights and help them conduct advocacy. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Reports from opposition activists have emerged in recent weeks saying that authorities have directed the police and other government proxy groups to deal harshly with any sign of unrest in Yangon. "This proves that there is no rule of law [in Burma]," the 88 Generation Students group said in a statement issued today.[Mon 23 April 2007] "We seriously urge the authorities to prevent violence in the future and to guarantee the safety of every citizen."[129] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


As of 22 September 2007, the Buddhist monks have withdrawn spiritual services from all military personnel in a symbolic move that is seen as very powerful in such a deeply religious country as Burma. The military rulers seem at a loss as to how to deal with the demonstrations by the monks as using violence against monks would incense and enrage the people of Burma even further, almost certainly prompting massive civil unrest and perhaps violence. However, the longer the junta allows the protests to continue, the weaker the regime looks. The danger is that eventually the military government will be forced to act rashly and doing so will provoke the citizenry even more. Some international news agencies are referring to the uprising as a Saffron Revolution. is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A wave of anti-government protests started in Myanmar (Burma) on August 15, 2007, and has been ongoing since then. ...


20,000 monks protest

Main article: 2007 Burmese anti-government protests

Anti-government protests started on August 15, 2007, and have been ongoing. Thousands of Buddhist monks started leading protests on September 18, and were joined by Buddhist nuns on September 23. On September 24, 20,000 monks and nuns led 30,000 people in a protest march from the golden Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, past the offices of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) party. Comedian Zaganar and star Kyaw Thu brought food and water to the monks. On September 22, monks marched to greet Aung San Suu Kyi, a peace activist who has been under house arrest since 1990.[130][131] Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests are a wave of anti-government protests that started in Burma (also known as Union of Myanmar) on August 15, 2007. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka A Bhikkhu (Pāli) or Bhiksu (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained male Buddhist monastic. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shwedagon Paya The Shwedagon Paya is a 98 meter gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... Zarganar (sometimes translated Zar Ga Nar, Zaganar or Zargana) is the stage name of Maung Thura (born 1960), a comedian, actor and film director from Myanmar (Burma) and former political prisoner of the Burmese government. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...

Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda
Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda

On September 25, 2,000 people defied threats from the Union of Myanmar's junta and marched to Shwedagon Pagoda amid army trucks and warning of Brigadier-General Thura Myint Maung not to violate Buddhist "rules and regulations."[132] The following morning, various prominent protesters were arrested and troops barricaded Shwedagon Pagoda and attacked the 700 people within. Despite this, 5,000 monks continued to protest in Yangon. At least four deaths were reported after security forces fired on the crowds in Yangon. The junta announced that ten people had died in the crackdown on 27 September 2007 but foreign diplomatic sources in Yangon said more than ten Buddhist monks and demonstrators were dead. Later a badly-beaten Buddhist monk's body was found in Yangon River. A photo was released on an Internet site run by a Norway-based group of exiled journalists. On September 27, security forces began raiding monasteries and arresting monks throughout the country. The security forces also fired on the nearly 50,000 people protesting in Yangon, killing nine people.[133][134][135] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 3. ... Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Shwedagon Paya The Shwedagon Paya is a 98 meter gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Internet access within the nation has been suspended, reportedly in an attempt to dampen international awareness of the situation.[136] It has also been reported that troops have been specifically targeting people with cameras.[137] The junta's violent response to peaceful protests has prompted international condemnation and calls for an immediate halt to the violence. In particular, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has demanded an explanation for the killing of Nagai. Ibrahim Gambari, the United Nations special envoy to Burma, has arrived in Naypyidaw and has met with junta leaders and Aung San Suu Kyi.[138] Despite increasingly strong calls for peace, the junta continued to attack monks and raid monasteries through October 1.[139] Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ... Prof. ... UN redirects here. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By October 2, 2007, thousands of monks were unaccounted for and their whereabouts unknown. Many monasteries are being patrolled by government troops.[140] There are eyewitness accounts of injured protesters being burned alive by the military regime in a crematorium on the outskirts of Rangoon.[141] is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On October 31, 2007 the monks started to protest again. 200 monks marched in Pakokku.[142][143] is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On November 29, 2007 the Junta has shut down a Yangon monastery which served as a hospice for HIV/AIDS patients. is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The Burmese state media says that all but 91 of the nearly 3,000 arrested in the crackdown were released. The United Nations special envoy Ibrahim Gambari criticised the closing of the monastery, yet was assured that the crackdown would stop. He expects to return to Burma in December.[144] UN redirects here. ...


Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of Burma and Ethnic groups in Burma
A block of flats in downtown Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely-populated flats.
A block of flats in downtown Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely-populated flats.

Burma has a population of about 55 million.[145] Current population figures are rough estimates because the last partial census, conducted by the Ministry of Home and Religious Affairs under the control of the military junta, was taken in 1983.[146] No trustworthy nationwide census has been taken in Burma since 1931. There are over 600,000 registered migrant workers from Burma in Thailand, and millions more work illegally. Burmese migrant workers account for 80% of Thailand's migrant workers.[147] Burma has a population density of 75 inhabitants per square kilometre (194/sq mi), one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia. Conservative estimates state that there are over 295,800 refugees from Burma, with the majority being Rohingya, Kayin, and Karenni.[148] Population: 42,510,537 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex... An ethnolinguistic map of Myanmar Burma (or Myanmar) is an ethnically diverse nation with 135 distinct ethnic groups officially recognized by the Burmese government. ... Image File history File links Downtownflatsyangon. ... Image File history File links Downtownflatsyangon. ... Bogyoke Aung San Market, commonly known as Scott Market, is a major bazaar located in Yangon, Myanmar. ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Rohingya are a minority Muslim ethnic group in Northern Rakhine State, Western Myanmar. ... The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ... Kayah, also called Karenni State is a state of Myanmar. ...

A girl from the Padaung minority, one of the many ethnic groups that make up Burma's population.
A girl from the Padaung minority, one of the many ethnic groups that make up Burma's population.

Burma is home to four major linguistic families: Sino-Tibetan, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, and Indo-European.[149] Sino-Tibetan languages are most widely spoken. They include Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Chin, and Chinese. The primary Tai-Kadai language is Shan. Mon, Palaung, and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Burma. The two major Indo-European languages are Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, and English.[150] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2856, 2074 KB) Summary This is an image I photographed at a refugee camp in Northern Thailand of a young Padaung hilltribe girl from Myanmar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x2856, 2074 KB) Summary This is an image I photographed at a refugee camp in Northern Thailand of a young Padaung hilltribe girl from Myanmar. ... A Kayan woman in Northern Thailand The Kayan are a group of the Karenni people, a Tibeto-Burman ethnic minority of Burma (Myanmar). ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Tai-Kadai languages are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... Chin (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is one of the ethnic groups in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... The Shan language is related to the Thai language and is commonly called Tai-Yai, or Tai Long. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ... The Deang (德昂族 : Déáng Zú) (also spelled Deang) people are an ethnic group. ... The Va nationality (also spelled Wa; Chinese: 佤族 WÇŽzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Austroasiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia and India. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Burma's official literacy rate as of 2000 was 89.9%.[151] Historically, Burma has had high literacy rates. To qualify for least developed country status by the UN in order to receive debt relief, Burma lowered its official literacy rate from 78.6% to 18.7% in 1987.[152] UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... The category of least developed countries is a social/economic classification status applied to 51 countries around the world by political scientists and economists through the United Nations. ...


Burma is ethnically diverse. The government recognizes 135 distinct ethnic groups. While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, there are at least 108 different ethnolinguistic groups in Burma, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizable populations of Daic, Hmong-Mien, and Austroasiatic (Mon-Khmer) peoples.[153] The Bamar form an estimated 68% of the population.[16] 10% of the population are Shan.[16] The Kayin make up 7% of the population.[16] The Rakhine people constitute 4% of the population. Overseas Chinese form approximately 3% of the population.[154][16] Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer.[16] Overseas Indians comprise 2%.[16] The remainder are Kachin, Chin, Anglo-Indians and other ethnic minorities. Included in this group are the Anglo-Burmese. Once forming a large and influential community, the Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from 1958 onwards, principally to Australia and the U.K.. Today, it is estimated that only 52,000 Anglo-Burmese remain in the country. Myanmar is an ethnically diverse nation with 135 distinct ethnic groups officially recognized by the Myanmar government. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... For other uses, see Shan (disambiguation). ... The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ... The Rakhine people (Burmese: ; formerly Arakanese) are a sub-ethnic group of the Bamar. ... The Burmese Chinese (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Miǎndiàn huárén; Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... The Mon (Burmese: ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... Shri Kali Temple in Yangon The Burmese Indians (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) are a group of overseas Indians from Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... Chin (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is one of the ethnic groups in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “UK” redirects here. ...


89% of the country's population are Buddhist, according to a report on abc World News Tonight in May 2008.


Culture

Main article: Culture of Burma
An ear-piercing ceremony at the Mahamuni Pagoda in Mandalay is one of the many coming-of-age ceremonies in Burmese culture.
An ear-piercing ceremony at the Mahamuni Pagoda in Mandalay is one of the many coming-of-age ceremonies in Burmese culture.

A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Burma, the majority culture is primarily Buddhist and Bamar. Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries. This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism. Considered the national epic of Burma, the Yama Zatdaw, an adaptation of Ramayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play.[155] Buddhism is practiced along with nat worship which involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats.[156][157] Burmese girl painted with thanaka The culture of Myanmar has been heavily influenced by Buddhism. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 263 KB) Summary Ear piercing ceremony Mahamuni Buddha Mandalay, Mandalay Division, Myanmar Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 263 KB) Summary Ear piercing ceremony Mahamuni Buddha Mandalay, Mandalay Division, Myanmar Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ... Buddhism in Burma (or Myanmar) is predominantly of the Theravada tradition or the southern school. ... The Bamar (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: , also called Burman), are the dominant ethnic group of Myanmar, constituting approximately 68% (30,000,000) of the population. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Yama Zatdaw, unofficially Myanmars national epic, is the Burmese version of the Ramayana. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Mon (Burmese: ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... A nat is one of thirty-seven spirits that are worshipped by Bamar in conjunction to Buddhism. ...


In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people. A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy when he enters the monastery for a short period of time.[158] All boys of Buddhist family need to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty. It is compulsory for all boys of Buddhism. The duration can be at least one week. Girls have ear-piercing ceremonies ( Image:Nathwin.gif) at the same time.[158] Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival.[159][160] Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace. Shinbyu is the Burmese term for a traditional novitiated occasion to those of Theravada Buddhism. ... For other uses, see Coming of Age (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Nathwin. ...


British colonial rule also introduced Western elements of culture to Burma. Burma's educational system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom. Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon.[161] Many ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen in the southeast, and the Kachin and Chin who populate the north and northwest, practice Christianity.[162] Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ... Kachin may refer to: An ethnic group, in Myanmar known as Kachin (or Jingpaw), in China (Yunnan) known as Jingpo. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Members of the Buddhist monkhood are venerated throughout Burma, which is one of the most predominantly Theravada Buddhist countries in the world.
Members of the Buddhist monkhood are venerated throughout Burma, which is one of the most predominantly Theravada Buddhist countries in the world.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 712 KB) Summary Young monk in front of the Bagaya Kyaung monastery. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 712 KB) Summary Young monk in front of the Bagaya Kyaung monastery. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia...

Language

Main article: Languages of Burma

Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Burma, is related to Tibetan and to the Chinese languages.[150] It is written in a script consisting of circular and semi-circular letters, which were adapted from the Mon script, which in turn was developed from a southern Indian script in the 700s. The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 1000s. It is also used to write Pali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialised characters and diacritics for each language.[163] The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage of honorifics and is age-oriented.[159] Burmese society has traditionally stressed the importance of education. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries. Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools. The number of languages of Burma (or Myanmar) is 107. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Burma

Many religions are practiced in Burma and religious edifices and religious orders have been in existence for many years and religious festivals can be held on a grand scale. The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country.[164] Such persecution and targeting of civilians is particularly notable in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been destroyed in the past ten years.[165][166][167]


Eighty-nine percent of the population embraces Buddhism (mostly Theravada), but other religions can be practised freely. Four percent of the population practices Christianity; 4 percent, Islam; 1 percent, traditional animistic beliefs; and 2 percent follow other religions, including Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, Chinese religions and the Bahá'í religion.[168][169][170] Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Temple incense in Taichung, Taiwan with Fu Dog behind. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Burma
Yangon University of Medicine 1
Yangon University of Medicine 1
Yangon University of Computer Studies

The educational system of Burma is operated by the government Ministry of Education. Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, the Department of Higher Education of Upper Burma and the Department of Higher Education of Lower Burma. Headquarters are based in Yangon and Mandalay respectively. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system, due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, probably about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level. Educational oversight Minister Ministry of Education, Dept of Higher Education Dr. Chan Nyein, National education budget 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The University of Computer Studies, Yangon ( ) is a university located in Shwe Pyi Thar, Yangon, Myanmar, which had moved from Hlaing Campus. ...


There are 101 universities, 12 institutes, 9 degree colleges and 24 colleges in Burma, a total of 146 higher education institutions.[171]


There are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nursing training schools, 1 sport academy and 20 midwifery schools.


There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools. 1692 multimedia classrooms exist within this system.


One international school is acknowledged by WASC and College Board, it's Yangon International Educare Center(YIEC) in Yangon. Yangon International Educare Center (YIEC) is an international school in Yangon, Myanmar. ...

Media

Main article: Media of Burma

Due to Burma's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population, although a certain number exists. Some are privately owned, but all have to go through the censorship board.


Notes

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  153. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). Languages of Myanmar. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. SIL International. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  154. ^ Mya Than (1997). in Leo Suryadinata: Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. ISBN. 
  155. ^ Ramayana in Myanmar's heart. Goldenland Pages (2003-09-13). Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
  156. ^ Temple, R.C. (1906). The Thirty-seven Nats-A Phase of Spirit-Worship prevailing in Burma. 
  157. ^ The Worshipping of Nats – The Special Festival of Mount Popa.
  158. ^ a b Khin Myo Chit (1980). Flowers and Festivals Round the Burmese Year. 
  159. ^ a b Tsaya (1886). Myam-ma, the home of the Burman. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co., 36-37. 
  160. ^ Shway Yoe (1882). The Burman – His Life and Notions. New York: Norton Library 1963, 211-216,317-319. 
  161. ^ Martin, Steven. "Burma maintains bygone buildings", BBC News, March 2004. Retrieved on 2006-07-09. 
  162. ^ Scott O'Connor, V. C. (1904). The Silken East – A Record of Life and Travel in Burma. Scotland 1993: Kiscadale, 32. 
  163. ^ Proposal for encoding characters for Myanmar minority languages in the UCS (PDF). International Organization for Standardization (2006-04-02). Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
  164. ^ "Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar's Unfolding Nemesis", Matthews, Bruce, Institute of South East Asian Studies, Visiting Researcher Series, Volume 2001, No. 3. 2001.
  165. ^ Thailand Burma Border Consortium (2007). Internal Displacement in Eastern Burma 2006 Survey. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  166. ^ Priestly, Harry. "The Outsiders", The Irrawaddy, 2006-01-17. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 
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  168. ^ CIA Factbook – Burma
  169. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Burma
  170. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs – Background Note: Burma
  171. ^ Chronicle of National Development Comparison Between Period Preceding 1988 and after (up to 31.12.2006)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Assistant Secretary Christopher R. Hill In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs is part of the U.S. Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... McCain redirects here. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Womens League of Burma The Womens League of Burma is one of the many exiled, pro-democracy political movements in the region. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ritsumeikan University , abbreviated to Rits and 立命 Ritsumei) is a private university in Kyoto, Japan. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... CIA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Look up trillion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... A Special Envoy of the Secretary-General (SESG) is a senior United Nations official, appinted by the United Nations Secretary-General to deal with a specific issues. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Malay name Malay: Universiti Teknologi Nanyang Tamil name Tamil: நன்யாங் தொழில்நுட்ப பல்கலைக்கழகம் Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU) is a major research university in Singapore. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Politiken building on RÃ¥dhuspladsen, Copenhagen. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Danish TV 2 is a government-owned television station broadcasting from Odense on Funen. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The United States Campaign for Burma (USCB) is a U.S.-based membership organization dedicated to empowering grassroots activists around the world to bring about an end to the military dictatorship in Burma. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khin Myo Chit (1 May 1915 - 2 January 1999) was a Burmese author and journalist, whose career spanned over four decades. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irrawaddy (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a newsmagazine owned by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • http://my.wikipedia.org/ Myanma Wikipedia Official Site ( Myanmarian Language )
  • http://www.burmadisaster.com/ Burma news including eyewitness accounts and pictures of the Burma cyclone disaster.
  • myanmar.gov.mm
Find more about Burma on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Quotations
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Wikinews has related news:
Burma
  • Online Burma/Myanmar Library: Classified and annotated links to more than 17,000 full-text documents on Burma/Myanmar
  • Selection of documents pertinent to Burmese independence
  • Myanmar at the Open Directory Project
  • Mizzima News in English, New Delhi based News Organization formed by Burmese journalists in exile
  • News, information, journals, magazines related to Myanmar business and commerce
  • Myanmar Commerce Online Licence Services, Information Services website
  • Online "Myanmar e-Library"
  • News and information (in Burmese) on the country
  • Burma entry at The World Factbook
  • Myanmar travel guide from Wikitravel
  • MandalayGazette, California-based English online newspaper for Burmese in North America
  • Democratic Voice of Burma, Norway-based website
  • UK-based news website dedicated to the country
  • Thailand-based news website dedicated to Burma and Southeast Asia
  • Arakan Rohingya National Organisation
  • Arakan Rohingya co-operation council europe
  • The Revolt of the Monks
  • MRTV-3 Television website
  • Myanmar Television channels (flysat)
  • News report explaining how the 2008 cylcone happened
  • Pankaj Mishra reviews books, articles, and essays on Burma for The New York Review of Books
  • BBC, In pictures: Burmese aid crisis

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Pankaj Mishra is a novelist, literary critic and essayist. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ...

Social organizations and NGOs

  • http://www.burmaitcantwait.org/burmaitcantwait/ forUS CAMPAIGN FOR BURMA
  • http://www.foundationburma.org for Foundation for the People of Burma – administered by volunteers for direct humanitarian aid
  • http://www.actionagainsthunger.org Ending Hunger - creating sustainable livelihoods
  • http://www.usda.org.mm for Union Solidarity and Development Association
  • http://www.mwaf.org.mm for Burmese Women's Affairs Federation
  • http://www.ccdac.gov.mm for The Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control
  • http://www.mcf.org.mm Burmese Computer Federation
  • http://www.mcpa.org.mm Burmese Computer Professionals Association
  • http://www.mcia.org.mm Burmese Computer Industry Association
  • http://www.mosamyanmar.org Burmese Overseas Seafarers Association
  • http://www.umfcci.com.mm Burmese Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
  • http://www.mmcwa.org Burmese Maternal and Child Welfare Association
  • http://www.gchope.org Giving Children Hope emergency disaster relief

Coordinates: 22° N 96° E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Myanmar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1487 words)
The Union of Myanmar, formerly the Union of Burma, is the largest country (in geographical area) in mainland Southeast Asia.
In 1989, the military junta officially changed the English version of its name from Burma to Myanmar (along with changes in the English versions of many place names in the country, such as its capital city, from Rangoon to Yangon).
Previously an independent kingdom, in 1824-26, 1851-52 and 1885-86 Burma was invaded by the British Empire and became a part of India.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Burma (1454 words)
Burma is bounded on the east by China and Siam, on the West by Assam and Bengal.
It is, therefore, bounded on the east by the Diocese of Dacca, on the north by Eastern Burma, on the west by Siam, and on the south by the sea.
Monsignor Alexander Cardot, Bishop of Limyra, Vicar Apostolic of Southern Burma, was born at Fresse, Haute-Saône, France, 9 January, 1859, and educated in the seminaries of Luneil and Vesoul and of the Missions Etrangères.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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