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Encyclopedia > Burials

For the Prison Break episode, please see Buried (Prison Break episode)

Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea from an edition with drawings by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou.
Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea from an edition with drawings by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou.

Burial, also called interment and (when applied to human burial) inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground. This is accomplished by digging a pit or trench, placing the person or object in it, and replacing the soil. Download high resolution version (490x710, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (490x710, 118 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... Front page of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (or Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne (1828–1905), published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville (1835-1885) was a French Academic painter who studied under Eugène Delacroix. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ...


Objects are sometimes buried in order to hide them against removal or tampering. For cables and pipelines, burial provides protection. A cable is two or more wires or optical fibers bound together, typically in a common protective jacket or sheath. ...


The rest of this article discusses human burial. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ...

Contents

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Reasons for human burial

After death, the corpse will start to decay and emit unpleasant odors due to the gases released by bacterial decomposition. Burial prevents the living from having to see and smell the corpses, but is not necessarily a public health requirement. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the WHO advises that only corpses carrying an infectious disease strictly require burial. [1] [2] Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent such as by a virus, bacterium or parasite. ...

See also: dead bodies and health risks

Human burial practices seek to demonstrate "respect for the dead", for the following reasons. After disasters with extensive loss of life, much resource is often expended on burying the dead quickly, and applying disinfectant to bodies, to prevent diseases from speading. ...

  • Respect for the physical remains is considered necessary. If left lying on top of the ground, scavengers may eat the corpse, which is considered highly disrespectful to the deceased in many (but not all) cultures.
  • Burial can be seen as an attempt to bring closure to the deceased's family and friends. By interring a body away from plain view, the pain of losing a loved one can be lessened.
  • Many cultures believe in an afterlife. Burial is often believed to be a necessary step for an individual to reach the afterlife.
  • Many religions prescribe a "right" way to live, which includes customs relating to disposal of the dead.
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In psychology, closure may refer to the state of experiencing an emotional conclusion to a difficult life event, such as the breakdown of a close interpersonal relationship or the death of loved one. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ...

Burial Methods

In many human cultures, human corpses were usually buried in soil. The act of burying corpses is thought to have begun around 200,000 years ago during the Paleolithic period by homo sapiens, before spreading out from Africa[3]. As a result, burial grounds are found throughout the world. Mounds of earth, temples, and underground caverns were used to store the dead bodies of ancestors. In modern times, the custom of burying dead people below ground with a stone marker to mark the place is used in almost every modern culture, although other means such as cremation are becoming more popular in the west (cremation is the norm in India). The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... The Angkor Wat Hindu temple in Cambodia is the largest in the world. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


Some burial practices are heavily ritualized; others are simply practical. A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...

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Natural burial

A growing trend in modern burial is the concept of natural burial. Popularised in the United Kingdom in the late 1990s, natural burial is being adopted in the United States as a method for protecting and restoring the natural environment. Natural burial grounds are also known as a woodland cemetery, an eco-cemetery, a memorial nature preserve, or a green burial ground. ... This article is about the year. ...


With a natural burial, the body is returned to nature in a biodegradable coffin or shroud. Native vegetation (often a memorial tree) is planted over or near the grave in place of a conventional cemetery monument. The resulting green space establishes a living memorial and forms a protected wildlife preserve. Biodegradation is the decomposition of material by microorganisms. ... A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... A shroud is typically something, usually a cloth, that covers or protects some other object. ...


Natural burial grounds are also known as woodland cemeteries, eco-cemeteries, memorial nature preserves, or green burial grounds.

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Prevention of decay

Mummies were the results of ancient Egyptian embalming.
Mummies were the results of ancient Egyptian embalming.

Embalming is the practice of preserving a body against decay, and is used in many cultures. Mummification is a more extensive method of embalming, further retarding the decay process. Image File history File linksMetadata The_Thing_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata The_Thing_2. ... Mummified cat from Ancient Egypt. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold or dryness, or airlessness. ...


Bodies are often buried wrapped in a shroud or placed in a coffin (also called a casket). A larger container may be used, such as a ship. Coffins are usually covered by a burial liner or a burial vault, which protects the coffin from collapsing under the weight of the earth or floating away during a flood. A shroud is typically something, usually a cloth, that covers or protects some other object. ... A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... A burial liner, in a burial of human remains, is an enclosure that is placed over a coffin, which is then buried in the ground. ... A burial vault is prepared for shipment by an employee at Clark Grave Vault, Columbus, Ohio, 1938. ...


These containers slow the decomposition process by (partially) physically blocking decomposing bacteria and other organisms from accessing the corpse. An additional benefit of using containers to hold the body is that if the soil covering the corpse is washed away by a flood or some other natural process, the corpse will still not be exposed to open air. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In some cultures however the goal is not to preserve the body but to allow it to decompose—or return to the Earth—naturally. In Orthodox Judaism embalming is not permitted, and the coffins are constructed so that the body will be returned to the Earth as soon as possible. Such coffins are made of wood, and have no metal parts at all. Wooden pegs are used in the place of nails. Followers of the Islamic faith also prefer to bury their deceased so as not to delay decomposition. Normally, instead of using coffins the deceased are buried in a shroud, and the bodies of the deceased are not normally embalmed. Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and the Rabbinical commentary... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...

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Inclusion of clothing and personal effects

The body may be dressed in fancy and/or ceremonial clothes. Personal objects, such as a favorite piece of jewelery or photograph, of the deceased may be included with the body. This practice, also known as the inclusion of grave goods, serves several purposes: In archaeology and anthropology grave goods are the items interred along with the body. ...

  • In funeral services, the body is often put on display. Many cultures feel that the deceased should be presented looking his/her finest.
  • The inclusion of ceremonial garb and sacred objects is sometimes viewed as necessary for getting to the afterlife.
  • The inclusion of personal effects may be motivated by the beliefs that in the afterlife a person will wish to have with them what was important to them on earth. Alternatively, in some cultures it is felt that when a person dies, their possessions (and sometimes people connected to them such as wives, see sati) should go with them out of loyalty or ownership.
  • Though not generally a motivation for the inclusion of grave goods with a corpse, it is worth considering that future archaeologists may find the remains. Artifacts such as clothing and objects provide insight into how the individual lived. This provides a form of immortality for the deceased.
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Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ... Sati may refer to any of the following: The Hindu Goddess Sati, daughter of Daksha and wife of Shiva A social practise in some parts of India in past centuries, often spelt Suttee The Buddhist Sati; see mindfulness. ... Bold textSUCK ON THAT MUTHA FUCKA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... I archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite, or indeterminate, length of time. ...

Body positioning

Burials may be placed in a number of different positions. Christian burials are made extended, i.e., lying flat with arms and legs straight, or with the arms folded upon the chest, and with the eyes and mouth closed. Extended burials may be supine (lying on the back) or prone (lying on the front). Other ritual practices place the body in a flexed position with the legs bent or crouched with the legs folded up to the chest. Warriors in some ancient societies were buried in an upright position. Many cultures treat placement of dead people in an appropriate position to be a sign of respect even when burial is impossible. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... gonfly]].]] In most vertebrates and some mollusks, the eye works by allowing light to enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells known as the retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and converted into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


In nonstandard burial practices, such as mass burial, the body may be positioned arbitrarily. This can be a sign of disrespect to the deceased, or at least nonchalance on the part of the inhumer, or due to considerations of time and space. A mass grave is a grave containing more than one human corpse. ...


In the African-American slave community, slaves quickly familiarized themselves with funeral procedures and the location of gravesites of family and friends. Specific slaves were assigned to prepare dead bodies, build coffins, dig graves, and construct headstones. Slave funerals were typically at night when the workday was over, with the master present to view all the ceremonial procedures. Slaves from the nearby plantations were regularly in attendance.


At death, a slave’s body was wrapped in cloth. The hands were placed across the chest, and a metal plate was placed on top of their hands. The reasoning for the plate was to hinder their return home by suppressing any spirits in the coffin. Often, personal property was buried with slaves to appease spirits. The coffins were nailed shut once the body was inside, and carried by hand or wagon, depending on the property designated for slave burial site. Slaves were buried east to west, with the head facing east and their feet to the west. This positioning represented the ability to rise without having to turn around at the call of Gabriel’s trumpet. Gabriel’s trumpet would be blown in the eastern sunrise. East-west positioning also was the direction of home, Africa. 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʼel, Latin Gabrielus, Greek , Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʼēl, Arabic جبريل ǦabrÄ«l Jibril, literally Master, of God, i. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...

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Burial in the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'í burial law prescribes both the location of burial and burial practices and precludes cremation of the dead. It is forbidden to carry the body for more than one hour's journey from the place of death. Before interment the body should be wrapped in a shroud of silk or cotton, and a ring should be placed on its finger bearing the inscription "I came forth from God, and return unto Him, detached from all save Him, holding fast to His Name, the Merciful, the Compassionate". The coffin should be of crystal, stone or hard fine wood. Also, before interment, a specific Prayer for the Dead [4] is ordained. The formal prayer and the ring are meant to be used for those who have reached fifteen years of age.[5] Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...

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Locations

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Where to bury

Apart from sanitary and other practical considerations, the site of burial can be determined by religious and socio-cultural considerations.


Thus in some traditions, especially with an animistic logic, the remains of the dead are "banished" for fear their spirits would harm the living if too close; others keep remains close to help surviving generations.


Religious rules may prescribe a specific zone, e.g. a Catholic must be buried in "consecrated ground," usually a cemetery; an earlier practice, burial in or very near the church (hence the word churchyard), was generally abandoned with individual exceptions as a high posthumous honour; also many existing funeral monuments and crypts remain in use. To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies are buried. ...


Royalty and high nobility often have one or more "traditional" sites of burial, generally monumental, often in a palatial chapel or cathedral; see examples on Heraldica.org.

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Marking the location of the burial

Headstones in the Japanese Cemetery in Broome, Western Australia
Enlarge
Headstones in the Japanese Cemetery in Broome, Western Australia

Most modern cultures mark the location of the body with a headstone. This serves two purposes. First, the grave will not accidentally be exhumed. Second, headstones often contain information or tributes to deceased. This is a form of remembrance for loved ones; it can also be viewed as a form of immortality, especially in cases of famous people's graves. Such monumental inscriptions may subsequently be useful to genealogists and family historians. Picture of headstones in the Japanese Cemetery in Broome, taken by me and released under GNU Free Documentation License. ... Picture of headstones in the Japanese Cemetery in Broome, taken by me and released under GNU Free Documentation License. ... Broome (17°57′ S 122°14′ E) is a pearling town in the Kimberley region in the far North of Western Australia. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... Ancient unreadable gravestones mark the position of graves in the parish churchyard at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A grave is a place where the body of a dead animal, generally human, is buried, often after a funeral. ... Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite, or indeterminate, length of time. ... A Monumental Inscription is an inscription, typically carved in stone, on a grave marker or memorial plaque. ...


In many cultures graves will be grouped, so the monuments make up a necropolis, a "city of the dead" parallelling the community of the living. View of the Etruscan necropolis of Banditaccia, in Cerveteri, Italy. ...

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Unmarked grave

In many cultures graves are marked with durable markers, or monuments, intended to help remind people of the buried person. An unmarked grave is a grave with no such memorial marker. Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea from an edition with drawings by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou. ... A monument is a structure built for commemorative or symbolic reasons rather than for any overtly functional use. ... Grave has multiple meanings: A grave (IPA: ) is a place for the dead, see tomb, burial, grave (burial) A grave accent (IPA: ) is a type of diacritical mark (as in French crème de la crème). ...


The phrase "unmarked grave" has metaphorical meaning in the context of cultures that mark burial sites. As a figure of speech, an unmarked grave represents consignment to oblivion, an ignominous end. As a monument is a sign of fondness or respect, similarly a grave with no marker is usually a sign of disdain and disrespect—representing an intent that the person be forgotten utterly.


The corpus of Pope Formosus was actually disinterred, placed on trial (see Cadaver Synod), found guilty, and ultimately thrown into an "unmarked grave"—the waters of the River Tiber. Jean-Paul Laurens, Le Pape Formose et Etienne VII (1870). ... Jean-Paul Laurens, Le Pape Formose et Étienne VII (Pope Formosus and Stephen VII), 1870. ... Tiber River in Rome The River Tiber (Italian Tevere), the third longest river in Italy (disputed — see talk page) at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through the Campagna and Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches...

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Anonymous burial

Another sort of unmarked grave is a burial site with an anonymous marker, such as a simple crucifix; boots, rifle and helmet; a sword and shield; a cairn of stones; or even lavish monuments. In this type of unmarked grave, no disrespect is intended. Rather, identification of the departed is impossible, yet it is desired that they be memorialised. A crucifix amidst the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria A handheld crucifix A crucifix in front of the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A crucifix is a cross with a representation of Jesuss body, or corpus. ...


The United Kingdom has buried one of their unknown warriors in Westminster Abbey. France likewise honors an unknown soldier by burial underneath the Arc de Triomphe, Italy honors an unknown soldier in the Monumento al Milite Ignoto in Rome, and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, a monument in the U.S.'s Arlington National Cemetery is dedicated to American military personnel who have died without their remains being identified. These are extreme examples of anonymous graves, where the anonymity of the dead person is symbolic, indicating respect for all the unknown departed of war or calamity on a national scale. The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Arc de Triomphe by night The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place de lÉtoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Latium Coordinates: Region Latium Province Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without their remains being identified. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... The Tomb of the Unknowns Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, is an American military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Robert E. Lees wife Mary. ...

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Secret burial

In some very rare cases, a known person will be buried without identification, perhaps to avoid desecration of the corpse, grave robbing, or vandalism of the burial site. This may be particularly the case with infamous or notorious figures. In other cases, it may be to avoid the grave becoming a tourist attractions or a destination of pilgrimage . The family or friends seeking to honour and protect the dead in such cases may bury them in a secret location or other unpublished place, or in a grave with a false name—or no name at all—on the marker. Desecration is the ninth book in the Left Behind series. ... Grave robbing is the act of uncovering a tomb or crypt to steal the artifacts inside or disinterring a corpse to steal the body itself or its personal effects. ... Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ... Pilgrim at Mecca A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ...


When Walt Disney was cremated his ashes were buried in a secret location in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, California, one of many cemeteries that provide such services for the mortal remains of famous people. Some burial sites at Forest Lawn, such as those of Humphrey Bogart and Mary Pickford, are secluded in private gated gardens, with no public access. A number of tombs are also kept from the public eye. Forest Lawn's Court of Honour indicates that some of its crypts have plots which are reserved for individuals who may be "voted in" as "Immortals"; no amount of money can purchase a place. As a sign of respect, photographs taken at Forest Lawn are not permitted to be published, and their information office usually refuses to reveal exactly where the remains of famous people are buried. Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966), was an American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, and philanthropist. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Gates of Forest Lawn Forest Lawn Memorial Park is a cemetery in Glendale, Los Angeles County, California. ... Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957) was an American actor of legendary fame who retained his legacy after death. ... Mary Pickford. ...

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Multiple bodies per grave

Some couples or groups of people want to be buried together, for example, a husband and wife. Since (in many cases) people die at different times, the exhumation of the first to die is often necessary. In other cases, the bodies may simply be buried side by side. Or if there were advanced planning the first person buried will be at a greater depth so that the second person can be buried on top at a shallower depth. In many states in Australia all graves are designated two or three depth ( depending of the water table ) for multiple burials, at the discretion of the burial rights holder, with each new internment atop the previous coffin separated by a thin layer of earth. As such all graves are dug to greater depth for the initial burial than the traditional six feet to facilitate this practice. A marriage is a relationship between or among individuals, usually recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ...


Mass burial is the practice of burying dozens, hundreds, or thousands of individuals in one massive pit, much like a landfill for human remains. Most cultures view mass burial as a way of objectifying corpses, and is often viewed as a form of gross disrespect to the individuals being buried. Civilizations attempting genocide often employ mass burial for the people they kill in the genocide, as it is mechanically efficient, and coincides neatly with their goals of dehumanizing and destroying a segment of the population. A mass grave is a grave containing more than one human corpse. ... A landfill compaction vehicle in operation A landfill, also known as a dump (US) or a tip (UK), is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. ... Objectification refers to the way in which one person treats another person as an object and not as a human being. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, in some cases, mass burial is the only practical means of dealing with a number of corpses sufficient to overwhelm local resources, as in a major disaster. In cases of mass burial, it is commonly of importance to survivors to later have the bodies exhumed, identified, and buried properly.


Prior to the advent of genetic testing, authorities would bury inextricably mixed-up remains in a common grave, for example, the remains of tank crew members who died in the explosion of their vehicle and whose remains are incinerated in the resulting conflagration.


Naval ships sunk in combat are also considered mass graves. U.S. Navy policy declares such wrecks a mass grave and forbids the recovery of remains. In lieu of recovery, divers or submersibles leave a plaque dedicated to the memory of the ship or boat and its crew, and family members are invited to attend the ceremony.


Sites of large former battlefields may also contain one or more mass graves. Douaumont ossuary is one such mass grave, and it contains the remains of 130,000 soldiers from both sides of the battle of Verdun. Ossuary with Cemetery // History During the 300 days lasting fight for Verdun (21 February 1916 - 19 December 1916) approximately 300. ... Combatants France Germany Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 dead 337,000; of whom 100,000 dead The Battle of Verdun was a major battle...


Catacombs also comprise a mass grave. Some catacombs, for example those in Rome, were designated as a communal burial place. Some, such as the catacombs of Paris, only became a mass grave when individual burials were relocated from cemeteries marked for demolition. Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) The original catacombs are a network of underground burial galleries near San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. ... The Catacombs of Rome are ancient Jewish and Christian underground burial places near Rome, Italy. ... Crypt of the Sepulchral Lamp in the Catacombs of Paris. ...


Judiasm does not generally allow multiple bodies in a grave. An exception to this is a grave in the military cemetary in Jerusalem where there is a "kever ah-chim" (Heb. "grave of brothers") where two soliders were killed together in a tank and are buried in one grave. As the bodies fused together with the metal of the tank to a point that they could not be seperately identified, they were buried in one grave (along with parts of the tank).

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Cremation

The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. A cremation service has just finished.
The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. A cremation service has just finished.

In cremation the body of the deceased is burned in a special oven. Most of the body is vaporized during the cremation process, leaving only a few pounds of bone fragments. Bodies of small children and infants often produce very little in the way of "ashes", as ashes are comprised of bone, and young people have softer bones, largely cartilage. Often these fragments are processed (ground) into a fine powder, which has led to cremated remains being called ashes. In recent times, cremation has become a popular option in the western world. Download high resolution version (1500x1110, 333 KB) The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1110, 333 KB) The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Oven depicted in a painting by Millet An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ...


There is far greater flexibility in dealing with the remains in cremation as opposed to the traditional burial. Some of the options include scattering the ashes at a place close to the heart of the deceased or keeping the ashes at home. Ashes can also be buried either underground or in a columbarium niche. Columbarium niches built into the side of St. ...

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Live burial

Main article: Live burial

Live burial sometimes occurs, in which individuals are buried while still alive. Having no way of escaping interment, they die in place, typically by asphyxiation, dehydration, starvation, or (in cold climates) exposure. People may come to be buried alive in a number of different ways: Buried Alive redirects here. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... Look up exposure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • An individual may be intentionally buried alive as a method of execution or murder.
  • In Ancient Egypt, servants were sometimes intentionally buried alive with their Pharaoh in order to serve him/her in the afterlife.
  • A person or group of people in a cave, mine, or other underground area may be sealed underground due to an earthquake or other natural disaster.
  • People have been unintentionally (uncommonly) buried alive because they were pronounced dead by a coroner or other official, when they were in fact still alive.
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Kufus Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Pharaoh is a title used to refer to any ruler, usually male, of the Egyptian kingdom in the pre-Christian, pre-Islamic period. ... The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death. ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. ... A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event e. ... This page deals with the cessation of life. ... A coroner is either the presiding officer of a special court, a medical officer or an officer of law responsible for investigating deaths, particularly those happening under unusual circumstances. ...

Burial at cross-roads

Historically, burial at cross-roads was the method of disposing of executed criminals and suicides. At the cross-roads a rude cross usually stood, and this gave rise to the belief that these spots were selected as the next best burying-places to consecrated ground. The real explanation is that the ancient Teutonic peoples often built their altars at the cross-roads, and as human sacrifices, especially of criminals, formed part of the ritual, these spots came to be regarded as execution grounds. Hence after the introduction of Christianity, criminals and suicides were buried at the cross-roads during the night, in order to assimilate as far as possible their funeral to that of the pagans. An example of a cross-road execution-ground was the famous Tyburn in London, which stood on the spot where the Roman road to Edgware and beyond met the Roman road heading west out of London. Criminal redirects here for other uses of crime and criminal, see crime (disambiguation). ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a blanket term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex which now forms part of Londons City of Westminster. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of their empire, by enabling them to move armies. ... Edgware is a is suburb situated 9. ...


Superstition also played a part in the selection of cross-roads in the burial of suicides. Folk belief often held such individuals could rise as some form of undead ( such as a vampire ) and burying them at cross-roads would inhibit their ability to find and wreak havoc on their living relations and former associates. Undead is the collective name for all types of supernatural entities that are deceased yet behave as if alive. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric creatures, typically held to be the re-animated corpses of human beings and said to subsist on human and/or animal blood (hematophagy). ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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Burial of animals

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By humans

Main article: Pet cemetery
Soldiers' dog cemetery at Edinburgh Castle
Soldiers' dog cemetery at Edinburgh Castle

In addition to burying human remains, many human cultures also regularly bury animal remains. A Pet cemetery is a place where dead pets are buried. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1181 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1181 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth Edinburgh Castle is an ancient stronghold on the Castle Rock in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, has been in use by assorted military forces since 900 BC and only transferred from Ministry of Defence administration recently. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ...


Pets and other animals of emotional significance are often ceremonially buried. Most families bury deceased pets on their own properties, mainly in a yard, with a shoe box or any other type of container served as a coffin. The Ancient Egyptians are known to have mummified and buried cats, which they considered deities. Pets and humans often contribute toward the happiness of the other in a pet relationship. ... A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... Kufus Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold or dryness, or airlessness. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal and a subspecies of the wild cat. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

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By other animals

Humans are not always the only species to bury their dead. Chimpanzees and elephants are known to throw leaves and branches over fallen members of their family groups.[citation needed] Type Species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...

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Exhumation

The digging up of a buried body is called exhumation, and is considered sacrilege by most cultures that bury their dead. However, there is often a number of circumstances in which exhumation is tolerated: Sacrilege is in general the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. ...

  • If an individual died under suspicious circumstances, a legitimate investigating agency (such as a police agency) may exhume the body to determine the cause of death.
  • If a body has been misidentified, and hence buried in the wrong grave [6]
  • A body may be exhumed so that it may be reburied elsewhere.
  • Once human remains reach a certain age, many cultures consider the remains to have no communal provenance, making exhumation acceptable. This serves several purposes:
    • Many cemeteries have a limited number of plots in which to bury the dead. Once all plots are full, older remains are typically moved to an ossuary to accommodate more bodies.
    • It enables archaeologists to search for human remains in order to better understand human culture.
    • It enables construction agencies to clear the way for new infrastructure.

Frequently, cultures have different sets of exhumation taboos. Occasionally these differences result in conflict, especially in cases where a culture with more lenient exhumation rules wishes to operate on the territory of a stricter culture. For example, United States construction companies have run into conflict with Native American groups that wanted to preserve their ancient burial grounds from any form of modern construction. Provenance is the origin or source from which anything comes. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies are buried. ... An ossuary is a chest, building, well or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. ... Bold textSUCK ON THAT MUTHA FUCKA!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ...


In folklore and mythology, exhumation has also been frequently associated with the performance of rites to banish undead manifestations. An example is the Mercy Brown Vampire Incident of Rhode Island, which occurred in 1892. Undead is the collective name for all types of supernatural entities that are deceased yet behave as if alive. ... The Mercy Brown vampire incident, which occurred in 1892, is one of the best documented cases of the exhumation of a corpse in order to perform certain ritual activities, such as the conduct of magical rites, supposedly for the purpose of banishing an undead manifestation. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ...

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Alternatives to burial

Adashino Nembutsuji in Kyoto, Japan stands on a site where Japanese people once abandoned the bodies of the dead without burial.
Adashino Nembutsuji in Kyoto, Japan stands on a site where Japanese people once abandoned the bodies of the dead without burial.

Human bodies are not always buried, and many cultures may not bury their dead in every case. Alternatives to burial include the following. In most cases these alternatives are still intended to maintain respect for the dead, but some are intended to prolong the display of remains. Cryonics (often mistakenly called cryogenics) is the practice of cryopreserving humans or animals that can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine until resuscitation may be possible in the future. ... (from the Transhumanist Terminology pages) A person has reached information-theoretic death if a healthy state of that person could not possibly be deduced from the current state. ... Clinical death occurs when a patients heartbeat and breathing have stopped. ... Adashino Nembutsuji Buddhist Temple Kyoto Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Adashino Nembutsuji Buddhist Temple Kyoto Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Statues at Adashino Nembutsuji Adashino Nembutsuji (Jap:化野念仏寺)is a Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. ... Kyōto ) (lit. ...

  • Ash jump: skydivers often elect to have their cremated remains released by their loved ones during freefall.
  • Butchering the corpse by hand to remove the flesh ( sometime referred to by the neologism "defleshing")
  • Burial at sea is the practice of depositing the body in an ocean or other large body of water instead of soil. It may be disposed in a coffin, or without one.
  • Funerary cannibalism is the practice of eating the remains. This may be for many reasons: for example to partake of their strength, to spiritually "close the circle" by reabsorbing their life into the family or clan, to annihilate an enemy, or due to pathological mental conditions.
  • Cremation is the incineration of the remains. This practice is common amongst Hindus.
  • Cannibalization of the dead body. The Yanomami have the habit of cremating the remains and then eating the ashes with banana paste.
  • Ecological funeral is a proposed method of increasing the rate of decomposition in order to help fertilize the soil.
  • Excarnation is the practice of removing the flesh from the corpse without interment. The Zoroastrians have traditionally left their dead on Towers of Silence, where the flesh of the corpses is let to be devoured by vultures and other carrion-eating birds.
  • Gibbeting was the ancient practice of publicly displaying remains of criminals.
  • Hanging coffins are coffins which have been placed on cliffs. They can be found in various locations, including China and the Philippines.
  • Sky burial involves placing the body on a mountaintop.
  • Space burial is the practice of firing the coffin into space. The coffin may be placed into orbit, sent off into interstellar space, or incinerated in the sun. Space burial is still largely in the realm of science fiction as the cost of getting a body into space is prohibitively large, although several prominent figures have had their ashes launched into space after cremation.
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Skydiver about to land Parachuting, or skydiving, is an activity involving the breaking of a free-fall from a height using a parachute. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ... Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ... The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean Oceans (from Okeanos in Greek, the ancient Greeks noticing the strong current that flowed off Gibraltar and assuming it was a great river) cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the... Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557 as alleged by Hans Staden. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... In marketing In marketing, cannibalization refers to a reduction in the sales volume, sales revenue, or market share of one product as a result of the introduction of a new product by the same producer. ... The Yanomami (spellings include Yanomamö which may be written with an ogonek under the first a as Yąnomamö; also referred to as Ianomami) are an indigenous people of Brazil and Venezuela. ... Species Hybrid origin; see text Banana is the common name used for herbaceous plants in the genus Musa, which because of their size and structure, are often mistaken for trees. ... Ecological funeral is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally and ethically acceptable way. ... Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ... In archaeology and anthropology the term excarnation refers to the burial practice adopted by some societies of removing the flesh of the dead, leaving only the bones. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... A drawing of a Zoroastrian Tower of Silence in Mumbai The Towers of Silence (also dakhma or dokhma or doongerwadi) are Zoroastrian funerary towers, the majority of which are located in Mumbai, India, belonging to Parsi Zoroastrians, and in Yazd and Kerman, Iran, belonging to the Iranian Zoroastrians. ... Gibbet is a term applied to several different devices used in the capital punishment of criminals and/or the deterrence of potential criminals. ... Hanging coffins are coffins which have been placed on cliffs. ... Sky burial is a ritual practice common in Tibet that involves placing the body of the deceased in a high ground (mountain) and expose it ritually, especially to birds of prey. ... Taurus Missile launch (Time Exposure) Space burial is a burial procedure in which a small sample of the cremated ashes of the deceased are placed in a capsule the size of a tube of lipstick and are launched into space using a rocket. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA) Outer space, also simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...

See also

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Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies are buried. ... A coffin (in North American English, also known as a casket) is a funerary box used in the display and containment of deceased remains -- either for burial or after cremation. ... After disasters with extensive loss of life, much resource is often expended on burying the dead quickly, and applying disinfectant to bodies, to prevent diseases from speading. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... Ancient unreadable gravestones mark the position of graves in the parish churchyard at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A grave is a place where the body of a dead animal, generally human, is buried, often after a funeral. ... Green burial grounds are also known as a woodland cemetery, an eco-cemetery, a memorial nature preserve, or a natural burial ground. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... Museum of Funeral Customs Early embalming fluid The Museum of Funeral Customs is located at 144 Monument Ave. ... Thanatology is the scientific study of death. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Burial (WebBible Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net (602 words)
JOSHUA was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah" (Josh.
HEZEKIAH was buried in the mount of the sepulchres of the sons of David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honor at his death" (2 Chr.
In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons, we meet for the first time with the practice of burning the dead (1 Sam.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christian Burial (8279 words)
Christian burial is to be refused to suicides (this prohibition is as old as the fourth century; cf.
burial of the laity in a large parish; but in religious houses and where the facilities are at hand the service is generally carried out completely.
buried", he says, "that while his head lies to the West his feet are turned to the East, for thus he prays as it were by his very position and suggests that he is ready to hasten from the West to the East" (Ration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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