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Encyclopedia > Burgundy
Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy
Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy

Burgundy (French: Bourgogne; German: Burgund) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their name to the region. Later in time, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy (west of Burgundy) and the County of Burgundy (east of Burgundy). The Duchy of Burgundy is the more famous of the two, and the one which reached historical fame. Later, the Duchy of Burgundy became the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté (literally meaning "free county"). Image File history File links Armoiries_Bourgogne_Moderne. ... Image File history File links Armoiries_Bourgogne_Moderne. ... A Celtic cross. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Coat of Arms of the french town Mersuay and of the Free County of Burgundy until the 13th century. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Besançon Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


The modern-day administrative région of Bourgogne comprises most of the former Duchy of Burgundy. (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Dijon Regional President François Patriat (PS) (since 2004) Departments Yonne Côte-dOr Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Arrondissements 15 Cantons 174 Communes 2,045 Statistics Land area1 31,582 km² Population (Ranked 16th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

Contents

History

See also: Duke of Burgundy
Burgundy within 12th century France, map by William R. Shepherd.
Burgundy within 12th century France, map by William R. Shepherd.

The Burgundians were one of the Germanic peoples who filled the power vacuum left by the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire. In 411, they crossed the Rhine and established a kingdom at Worms. Amidst repeated clashes between the Romans and Huns, the Burgundian kingdom eventually occupied what is today the borderlands between Switzerland, France, and Italy. In 534, the Franks defeated Godomar, the last Burgundian king, and absorbed the territory into their growing empire. The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (968x1541, 497 KB) Summary From University of Texas web site. ... For a collection of maps by Shepherd, see Category:Historical maps by William R. Shepherd William Robert Shepherd (1871-1934) was an American cartographer and historian. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Events The Burgundians elevate Jovinus as Roman Emperor. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Godomar, son of king Gundobad, was king of Burgundy. ...


Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. When the dynastic succession was settled in the 880s, there were three Burgundies: the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy around Lake Geneva, the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in Provence, and the Duchy of Burgundy in France. The two kingdoms of Burgundy were reunited in 937 and absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire under Conrad II in 1032, while the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by the French throne in 1004. The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s - 920s - 930s Years: 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 Events and trends 885: Vikings lay siege for Paris 886: Alfred the Great of Wessex captures London Important people Charles... Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (French Lac Léman, le Léman, or Lac de Genève) is the second largest freshwater lake in Central Europe (after Lake Balaton). ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Events Athelstan wins the Battle of Brunanburh September 21 - Magdeburg is now the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, after a Diet held by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Births Duke William IV of Aquitaine (d. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Conrad II (c. ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ...


During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was the seat of some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, among them Cluny, Citeaux, and Vézelay. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Monastery of St. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... 16th century Citeaux, perspective view (engraving) Cîteaux Abbey (abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-les-Cîteaux, south of France. ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Bourgogne région of France. ...

Burgundy within 14th century France, map by William R. Shepherd.
Burgundy within 14th century France, map by William R. Shepherd.
Territory of the Duchy of Burgundy (Bourgogne) in 1477.
Territory of the Duchy of Burgundy (Bourgogne) in 1477.

During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his younger son, rather than leaving it to his successor on the throne. The duchy soon became a major rival to the French throne, because the Dukes of Burgundy succeeded in assembling an empire stretching from Switzerland to the North Sea, mostly by marriage. The Burgundian Empire consisted of a number of fiefdoms on both sides of the (then largely symbolic) border between the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Its economic heartland was in the Low Countries, particularly Flanders and Brabant. The court in Dijon outshone the French court by far, both economically and culturally. In Belgium and the Netherlands, a 'Burgundian lifestyle' still means 'enjoyment of life, good food, and extravagant spectacle'. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 368 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (947 × 1541 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) France in 1328 From: Home > Finding Information > PCL Map Collection > France/France Maps/Historical Maps/France 1328 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 368 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (947 × 1541 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) France in 1328 From: Home > Finding Information > PCL Map Collection > France/France Maps/Historical Maps/France 1328 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd... For a collection of maps by Shepherd, see Category:Historical maps by William R. Shepherd William Robert Shepherd (1871-1934) was an American cartographer and historian. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... Dijon ( , IPA: ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne région. ...


In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Burgundy provided a power base for the rise of the Habsburgs, after Maximilian of Austria had married into the ducal family. In 1477 the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle and Burgundy itself taken back by France. His daughter Mary and her husband Maximilian moved the court to the palace at Coudenberg, Brussels, and from there ruled the remnants of the empire, the Low Countries (Burgundian Netherlands) and Franche-Comté, then still an imperial fief. The latter territory was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen of 1678. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Charles the Bold Charles, called the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire) (November 10, 1433 – 1477) was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. ... Mary of Burgundy. ... The palace and gardens of Coudenberg in 1659 Coudenberg (older Dutch for cold hill) is a small hill in Brussels where the Palace of Coudenberg was built. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Besançon Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The Treaty of Nijmegen (1678) was signed in Nijmegen, and ended the Dutch War. ...


Wine

Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault.
Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault.
Main article: Burgundy wine

Burgundy produces wines of the same name. Although "Burgundy" means red, the Burgundy region produces both white wines and red wines. According to the AOC's regulations, they must only be made of either Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Gamay or Pinot Blanc to be considered true Burgundy wines. The best-known wines are made from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varietals, and come from the Côte d'Or, although also viticulturally part of Burgundy are Beaujolais, Chablis, Côte Chalonnaise, and Mâcon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1744x1198, 1353 KB) The town of Meursault, on the Côte de Beaune, May 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1744x1198, 1353 KB) The town of Meursault, on the Côte de Beaune, May 2005. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault. ... Meursault is a French commune, situated in the département of the Côte-dOr and the région of Burgundy. ... Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault. ... Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée (AOC), which roughly translates as term of origin is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, by the government bureau Institut National des Appellations dOrigine (INAO). ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... A California Gamay Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, most notably grown in Beaujolais. ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... For other uses, see Côte dOr (disambiguation). ... A Beaujolais label Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. ... The Chablis wine region is the northernmost sector of Burgundy, France, and also the name of a town located there. ... The Côte Chalonnaise area lies to the south of the Côte dOr continuing the same geology southward. ... Mâcon is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Saône-et-Loire département, in the Bourgogne région. ...


Burgundy wines can be described as varied, complex, human, and sophisticatedly homely. They are highly regarded because of historical tradition, and arguably because they transmit well the flavour of the land, what the French call terroir. The reputation, quality, and small numbers of production of the top wines mean high demand and high prices: Burgundy wines are among the most expensive wines in the world. Some consumers buy the high-end wines of this region purely for speculative purposes, as they are often regarded as Veblen goods. Luxury cars are often stated to be desirable due to their price, which generates a certain amount of status. ...


Geography

Highest point: Haut-Folin (901m) in the Morvan. Haut- Folin is the highest point in the region of Burgundy on France. ... The Morvan is a mountainous massif lying just to the west of the Côte dOr escarpment in Burgundy, France. ...


The Canal of Burgundy joins the Rivers Yonne and Saône, allowing barges to navigate from the north to south of France. Construction began in 1765 and was completed in 1832. At the summit there is a tunnel 3.333 kilometers long in a straight line. The canal is 242 kilometers long, with a total 209 locks and crosses two counties of Burgundy, the Yonne and Cote d'Or. The canal is now mostly used for riverboat tourism; Dijon, the most important city along the canal, has a harbor for leisure boats. The Canal of Burgundy is located in central eastern France. ... Yonne is a river in France, tributary of the Seine. ... The Saône is a river of eastern France. ... A riverboat is a specialized watercraft (vessel) designed for operating on inland waterways. ... Dijon ( , IPA: ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne région. ...


Culture

Famous Burgundian dishes include coq au vin and beef bourguignon. The coq au vin (cock with wine) is a French stew of chicken (theoretically, rooster) cooked with wine. ... Beef Bourguignon (BÅ“uf Bourguignon in French) is very well-known, traditional French recipe. ...


Trivia

  • In 1430 the Burgundians captured Joan of Arc.
  • The constructor of the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower, Gustave Eiffel was born in Dijon.
  • There is a mustard museum called Le Musee De Moutarde in Dijon. Dijon mustard and Grey Poupon were both invented in Dijon. Dijon mustard was first made with juice from grapes instead of vinegar there.

Joan of Arc, or Jeanne dArc in French,[1] (1412 – May 30, 1431)[2] is a 15th century national heroine of France. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris, France. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced in the German manner ) was a French engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... Mustard being spread on bread. ... Grey Poupon is a Dijon mustard now made by Kraft Foods. ...

See also

French gastronomy France is one of the oldest wine producing regions of Europe. ...

External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

 
 

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