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The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose old form in Old Norse still was Burgundarholmr (the Island of the Burgundians), and from there to mainland Europe. In Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar, Veseti settled in an island or holm, which was called Borgund's holm, i.e. Bornholm. Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius uses the name Burgenda land. The poet and early mythologist Viktor Rydberg (18281895), (Our Fathers' Godsaga) asserted from an early medieval source, Vita Sigismundi, that the Burgundians themselves retained oral traditions about their Scandinavian origin. Image File history File links Portal. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar or The Saga of Thorstein, Vikings Son is a legendary saga taking place in the 7th century and it is about the father of Frithjof the Bold. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d) (c. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Rydberg in 1876. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sigismund (died 524) was king of the Burgundians from 516 to his death. ...

Contents

Early history

Tribal Origins

The Burgundians' tradition of Scandinavian origin finds support in place-name evidence and archaeological evidence (Stjerna) and many consider their tradition to be correct (e.g. Musset, p. 62). Possibly because Scandinavia was beyond the horizon of the earliest Roman sources, including Tacitus (who only mentions one Scandinavian tribe, the Suiones), they don't tell from where the Burgundians came, and the first Roman references place them east of the Rhine (inter alia, Ammianus Marcellinus, XVIII, 2, 15). Early Roman sources thought they were simply another East Germanic tribe. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ...


Ca 300, the population of Bornholm (the island of the Burgundians) largely disappeared from the island. Most gravefields ceased to be used, and those that were still used had few burials (Stjerna, in Nerman 1925:176). Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ...


In the year 369, the Emperor Valentinian I enlisted their aid in his war against another Germanic tribe, the Alamanni (Ammianus, XXVIII, 5, 8-15). At this time, the Burgundians were possibly living in the Vistula basin, according to the mid-6th century historian of the Goths, Jordanes. Sometime after their war against the Alamanni, the Burgundians were beaten in battle by Fastida, king of the Gepids and were overwhelmed, almost annihilated. Athanaric, a Visigoth ruler, fights against Valens at Isaccea. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ...


Approximately four decades later, the Burgundians appear again. Following Stilicho’s withdrawal of troops to fight Alaric I the Visigoth in AD 406-408, the northern tribes crossed the Rhine and entered the Empire in the Völkerwanderung, or Germanic migrations. Among them were the Alans, Vandals, the Suevi, and possibly the Burgundians. The Burgundians migrated westwards and settled in the Rhine Valley. Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (c. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (the migration of peoples), is used in historiography as an alternate label for the Migration Period, of Germanic, Slavic and other tribes on the European continent during the period AD 300–900. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ...


There was, it seems at times a friendly relationship between the Huns and the Burgundians. It was a Hunnic custom for females to have their skull artificially elongated by tight binding of the skull when the child was an infant. Germanic graves are sometimes found with Hunnic ornaments but also with skulls of females that have been treated in this way; west of the Rhine only Burgundian graves contain a large number of such skulls. (Werner, 1953) The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ...


Religion

Somewhere in the east the Burgundians had been converted to the Arian form of Christianity, which proved a source of suspicion and distrust between the Burgundians and the Catholic Western Roman Empire. Divisions were evidently healed or healing circa AD 500, however, as Gundobad, one of the last Burgundian kings, maintained a close personal friendship with Avitus, the Catholic bishop of Vienne. Moreover, Gundobad's son and successor, Sigismund, was himself a Catholic, and there is evidence that many of the Burgundian people had converted by this time as well, including several female members of the ruling family. This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Gundobad, Patrician of Rome (472-473) also became King of the Burgundians (473-516), after his father, though he had to fight off three brothers to seize his title. ... Alcimus Ecdicius Avitus, Saint Avitus, was bishop of Vienne in Gaul (ca 494 - February 5, 523 ?). Avitus was born of a prominent Gallo-Roman family closely related to the Emperor Avitus and other illustrious persons, and in which episcopal honors were hereditary (his father Isychius preceded him as bishop of... The Archbishopric of Vienne, named after its episcopal see Vienne in the Isère département of southern France, was a metropolitan Roman Catholic archdiocese. ... Sigismund (died 524) was king of the Burgundians from 516 to his death. ...


Early Relationship with the Romans

Initially, the Burgundians seem to have had a stormy relationship with the Romans. They were used by the Empire to fend off other tribes, but also raided the border regions and expanded their influence when possible.


The Burgundian Kingdoms

The First Kingdom

In 411, the Burgundian king Gundahar or Gundicar set up a puppet emperor, Jovinus, in cooperation with Goar, king of the Alans. With the authority of the Gallic emperor that he controlled, Gundahar settled on the left (Roman) bank of the Rhine, between the river Lauter and the Nahe, seizing Worms, Speyer, and Straßburg. Apparently as part of a truce, the Emperor Honorius later officially "granted" them the land. (Prosper, a. 386) Events The Burgundians elevate Jovinus as Roman Emperor. ... ΑÖÖÖÜđiÔ:For the character of the sitcom Friends see here. ... Jovinus Jovinus was a Gallo-senator and claimed to be Roman Emperor (411 - 413). ... Goar (born pre 390; died (446–450)) was a leader of the Alans in 5th century Gaul. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire, particularly the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, and to a lesser degree, Aquitania. ... Lauter can refer to: Lauter, Saxony, a town in the district of Aue-Schwarzenberg, Saxony, Germany. ... The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a tributary to the Rhine. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Area 78. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ...


Despite their new status as foederati, Burgundian raids into Roman Upper Gallia Belgica became intolerable and were ruthlessly brought to an end in 436, when the Roman general Aëtius called in Hun mercenaries who overwhelmed the Rhineland kingdom (with its capital at the old Celtic Roman settlement of Borbetomagus/Worms) in 437. Gundahar was killed in the fighting, reportedly along with the majority of the Burgundian tribe. (Prosper; Chronica Gallica 452; Hydatius; and Sidonius Apollinaris) Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... Events Attila the Hun attacks Britain Births Deaths Categories: 436 ... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Events October 29 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople. ...


The destruction of Worms and the Burgundian kingdom by the Huns became the subject of heroic legends that were afterwards incorporated in the Nibelungenlied—on which Wagner based his Ring Cycle—where King Gunther (Gundahar) and Queen Brünhild hold their court at Worms, and Siegfried comes to woo Kriemhild. (In Old Norse sources the names are Gunnar, Brynhild, and Gudrún as normally rendered in English.) In fact, the Etzel of the Nibelungenlied is based on Attila the Hun. The Nibelungenlied is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... The Ring of the Nibelung or, in the original German, Der Ring des Nibelungen, is a series of four epic operas. ... Sigurd and Brynhilds funeral In Norse mythology, Brynhildr (German: Brünnehilde) was a shieldmaiden and a valkyrie. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Attila (AD 406 - 453), also known as Attila the Hun was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death and leader of the Hunnic Empire. ...


The Second Kingdom

For reasons not cited in the sources, the Burgundians were granted foederati status a second time, and in 443 were resettled by Aëtius in the region of Sapaudia. (Chronica Gallica 452) Though Sapaudia does not correspond to any modern-day region, the Burgundians probably lived near Lugdunum, known today as Lyon. (Wood 1994, Gregory II, 9) A new king Gundioc, or Gunderic, presumed to be Gundahar's son, appears to have reigned from his father's death. (Drew, p. 1) In all, eight Burgundian kings of the house of Gundahar ruled until the kingdom was overrun by the Franks in 534. Events The Burgundians create a kingdom on the banks of the Rhone Attila destroys Naissus. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... Gondioc (also Gundioc, Gundowech, died 473) was king of Burgundy following the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 436, succeeding Gundahar. ...


As allies of Rome in its last decades, the Burgundians fought alongside Aëtius and a confederation of Visigoths and others in the battle against Attila at the Battle of Chalons (also called "The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields") in 451. The alliance between Burgundians and Visigoths seems to have been strong, as Gundioc and his brother Chilperic I accompanied Theodoric II to Spain to fight the Sueves in 455. (Jordanes, Getica, 231) Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Attila (AD 406 - 453), also known as Attila the Hun was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death and leader of the Hunnic Empire. ... Combatants Western Roman Empire, Visigoths, Alans Huns, Ostrogoths, Burgundians Commanders Flavius Aëtius, Theodoric† Attila the Hun Strength 30,000–50,000 500,000–1,000,000 At the Battle of Chalons (also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of the Catalun[] or the Battle of... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ...


Aspirations to the Empire

Also in 455, an ambiguous reference infidoque tibi Burdundio ductu (Sidonius Apollinaris in Panegyr. Avit. 442.) implicates an unnamed treacherous Burgundian leader in the murder of the emperor Petronius Maximus in the chaos preceding the sack of Rome by the Vandals. The Patrician Ricimer is also blamed; this event marks the first indication of the link between the Burgundians and Ricimer, who was probably Gundioc's brother-in-law and Gundobad's uncle. (John Malalas, 374) Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... Petronius Maximus on a coin. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... Gundobad, Patrician of Rome (472-473) also became King of the Burgundians (473-516), after his father, though he had to fight off three brothers to seize his title. ...


The Burgundians, apparently confident in their growing power, negotiated in 456 a territorial expansion and power sharing arrangement with the local Roman senators. (Marius of Avenches) Events Emperor Marcian quells disturbances on the Armenian frontier. ...


In 457, Ricimer overthrew another emperor, Avitus, raising Majorian to the throne. This new emperor proved unhelpful to Ricimer and the Burgundians. The year after his ascension, Majorian stripped the Burgundians of the lands they had acquired two years earlier. After showing further signs of independence, he was murdered by Ricimer in 461. Events February 7 - Leo I becomes East Roman emperor. ... Avitus on a tremissis. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ... Events August 2 - Majorian resigns as Western Roman Emperor; shortly afterwards Libius Severus is declared western Roman emperor by Ricimer November 19 - Hilarius succeeds Leo as Pope Saint Patrick returns to Ireland as a Christian missionary. ...


Ten years later, in 472, Ricimer–who was by now the son-in-law of the Western Emperor Anthemius–was plotting with Gundobad to kill his father-in-law; Gundobad beheaded the emperor (apparently personally). (Chronica Gallica 511; John of Antioch, fr. 209; Jordanes, Getica, 239) Ricimer then appointed Olybrius; both died, surprisingly of natural causes, within a few months. Gundobad seems then to have succeeded his uncle as Patrician and king-maker, and raised Glycerius to the throne. (Marius of Avenches; John of Antioch, fr. 209) Events Relations between the Roman Emperor Anthemius and the general Ricimer deteriorate completely. ... Anicius Olybrius, Western Roman Emperor (July 11 - October 23, 472), was a member of a noble family and a native of Rome. ... Glycerius (c. ...


In 474, Burgundian influence over the empire seems to have ended. Glycerius was deposed in favor of Julius Nepos, and Gundobad returned to Burgundy, presumably at the death of his father Gundioc. At this time or shortly afterward, the Burgundian kingdom was divided between Gundobad and his brothers, Godigisel, Chilperic II, and Gundomar I. (Gregory, II, 28) Events January 18 - Leo II briefly becomes Byzantine emperor. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ...


Consolidation of the Kingdom

According to Gregory of Tours, the years following Gundobad's return to Burgundy saw a bloody consolidation of power. Gregory states that Gundobad murdered his brother Chilperic, drowning his wife and exiling their daughters (one of whom was to become the wife of Clovis the Frank, and was reputedly responsible for his conversion). (Gregory, II, 28)1 This is contested by, e.g., Bury, who points out problems in much of Gregory's chronology for the events. Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Clovis may refer to the following: The personal name of Germanic origin that primarily saw use in Europe before the year 1000 AD. Several locales and persons of historical importance have borne this name. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ...


C.500, when Gundobad and Clovis were at war, Gundobad appears to have been betrayed by his brother Godegisel, who joined the Franks; together Godegisel's and Clovis' forces "crushed the army of Gundobad." (Marius a. 500; Gregory, II, 32) Gundobad was temporarily holed up in Avignon, but was able to re-muster his army and sacked Vienne, where Godegisel and many of his followers were put to death. From this point, Gundobad appears to have been the sole king of Burgundy. (e.g., Gregory, II, 33) This would imply that his brother Gundomar was already dead, though there are no specific mentions of the event in the sources. Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ...


Either Gundobad and Clovis reconciled their differences, or Gundobad was forced into some sort of vassalage by Clovis' earlier victory, as the Burgundian king appears to have assisted the Franks in 507 in their victory over Alaric II the Visigoth. Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ...


During the upheaval, sometime between 483-501, Gundobad began to set forth the Lex Gundobada (see below), issuing roughly the first half, which drew upon the Lex Visigothorum. (Drew, p. 1) Following his consolidation of power, between 501 and his death in 516, Gundobad issued the second half of his law, which was more originally Burgundian. Events March 13 - Pope Felix III succeeds Pope Simplicius The general Illus and Verina, mother-in-law of Byzantine emperor Zeno I, attempt to overthrow Zeno and place a general named Leontius on the throne. ... Events Qi He Di succeeds Qo Dong Hun Hou as ruler of the Chinese Qi Dynasty Pope Symmachus is accused of various crimes, but claims that the secular rulers have no authority over him. ... Sigismund becomes king of Burgundy. ...


The Fall of the Second Kingdom

The Burgundians were extending their power over southeastern Gaul; that is, northern Italy, western Switzerland, and southeastern France. In 493 Clovis, king of the Franks, married the Burgundian princess Clotilda (daughter of Chilperic), who converted him to the Catholic faith. Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Saint Clotilde (475 – 545 in Tours), also spelled as Clotilda, Clotild, Clothilde, or Chlothilde, was the daughter of Burgundian king Chilperic. ...


At first allies with Clovis' Franks against the Visigoths in the early 6th century, the Burgundians were eventually conquered by the Franks in 534. The Burgundian kingdom was made part of the Merovingian kingdoms, and the Burgundians themselves were by and large absorbed as well. Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...


The Burgundian Laws

The Burgundians left three legal codes, among the earliest from any of the Germanic tribes. A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ...


The Liber Consitutionum sive Lex Gundobada (The Book of the Constitution following the Law of Gundobad), also known as the Lex Burgundionum, or more simply the Lex Gundobada or the Liber, was issued in several parts between 483 and 516, principally by Gundobad, but also by his son, Sigismund. (Drew, p. 6-7) It was a record of Burgundian customary law and is typical of the many Germanic law codes from this period. In particular, the Liber borrowed from the Lex Visigothorum (Drew, p. 6) and influenced the later Lex Ribuaria. (Rivers, p. 9) The Liber is one of the primary sources for contemporary Burgundian life, as well as the history of its kings. The Lex Burgundionum (Burgundian Laws, also lex gundobada or loi gombette) refers to the law code of the Burgundians, probably issued by king Gundobad. ... The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Judiciorum; Spanish, Fuero Juzgo) are a set of laws that the Visigoth king of Hispania, Reccesuinth (for which it is sometimes called the Code of Reccesuinth), codified in a legal body around AD 654. ...


Like many of the Germanic tribes, the Burgundians' legal traditions allowed the application of separate laws for separate ethnicities. Thus, in addition to the Lex Gundobada, Gundobad also issued (or codified) a set of laws for Roman subjects of the Burgundian kingdom, the Lex Romana Burgundionum (The Roman Law of the Burgundians). The Lex Burgundionum (Burgundian Laws, also lex gundobada or loi gombette) refers to the law code of the Burgundians, probably issued by king Gundobad. ...


In addition to the above codes, Gundobad's son Sigismund later published the Prima Constitutio.


Origin of Burgundy

see also Bornholm

The name of the Burgundians has since remained connected to the area of modern France that still bears their name: see the later history of Burgundy. Between the 6th and 20th centuries, however, the boundaries and political connections of this area have changed frequently; none of those changes have had anything to do with the original Burgundians. The name Burgundians used here and generally used by English writers to refer to the Burgundes is a later formation and more precisely refers to the inhabitants of the territory of Burgundy which was named from the people called Burgundes. The descendants of the Burgundians today are found primarily among the French-speaking Swiss and neighbouring regions of France. Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ...


See also

German Nibelung and the corresponding Old Norse form Niflung (Niflungr) refers in most of the German texts and in all the Old Norse texts to the royal family or lineage of the Burgundians who settled at Worms. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy // Kings of the Burgundians Gebicca (late 4th century–407) Godemar Giselcar Gundicar (413–436) Aetius moves the Burgundians into Sapaudia (Upper Rhone Basin) Gunderic/Gundioc (436–473) opposed by Chilperic I (443–c. ...

Notes

Note 1: Gregory's chronology of the events surrounding Clovis and Gundobad has been questioned by Bury, Shanzer, and Wood, among others. Gregory was somewhat of a Frankish apologist, and commonly discredited the enemies of Clovis by attributing to them some fairly shocking acts. As with Godegisel, he also commonly refers to the treachery of Clovis' allies, when in fact Clovis seems to have bought them off (e.g., in the case of the Ripuarians).


References

  • Bury, J.B. The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians. London: Macmillan and Co., 1928.
  • Dalton, O.M. The History of the Franks, by Gregory of Tours. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1927.
  • Drew, Katherine Fischer. The Burgundian Code. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972.
  • Gordon, C.D. The Age of Attila. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961.
  • Murray, Alexander Calder. From Roman to Merovingian Gaul. Broadview Press, 2000.
  • Musset, Lucien. The Germanic Invasions: The Making of Europe AD 400-600. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.
  • Nerman, Birger. Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Generalstabens litagrafiska anstalt: Stockholm. 1925.
  • Rivers, Theodore John. Laws of the Salian and Ripuarian Franks. New York: AMS Press, 1986.
  • Rolfe, J.C., trans, Ammianus Marcellinus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950.
  • Shanzer, Danuta. ‘Dating the Baptism of Clovis.’ In Early Medieval Europe, volume 7, pages 29-57. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1998.
  • Shanzer, D. and I. Wood. Avitus of Vienne: Letters and Selected Prose. Translated with an Introduction and Notes. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002.
  • Werner, J. (1953). "Beiträge sur Archäologie des Attila-Reiches", Die Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaft. Abhandlungen. N.F. XXXVIII A Philosophische-philologische und historische Klasse. Münche
  • Wood, Ian N. ‘Ethnicity and the Ethnogenesis of the Burgundians’. In Herwig Wolfram and Walter Pohl, editors, Typen der Ethnogenese unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bayern, volume 1, pages 53–69. Vienna: Denkschriften der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1990.
  • Wood, Ian N. The Merovingian Kingdoms. Harlow, England: The Longman Group, 1994.

 
 

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