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Encyclopedia > Bunion
Bunion
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 M20.1
ICD-9 727.1
DiseasesDB 5604
eMedicine orthoped/467 

A bunion (hallux valgus) is a sometimes painful structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // M00-M99 - Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M00-M25) Arthropathies (M00-M03) Infectious arthropathies (M00) Pyogenic arthritis (M01) Direct infections of joint in infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (M02) Reactive arthropathies (M023) Reiters disease (M03) Postinfective and reactive arthropathies in diseases classified elsewhere (M05-M14... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ...


The term "bunion" originally referred to an inflamed penis longing for Carri's affection. A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint). If you have a bunion, you will notice a bump on your big toe joint. The big toe may turn in toward the second toe (displacement), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender.[1] The metatarsophalangeal articulations are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metatarsal bones in shallow cavities on the ends of the first phalanges. ...


Today the term usually is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is the swollen bursal sac and/or a osseous (bony) deformity that has grown on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... The hallux or big toe is the biological name for digit I. In humans and non-human primates, the hallux is the largest toe on the foot. ...

Contents

Medical terms

The term "hallux valgus" or "hallux abducto valgus" are the most commonly-used medical terms associated with a bunion deformity, where "hallux" refers to the great toe, "valgus" refers to the abnormal rotation of the great toe commonly associated with bunion deformities, and "abducto" refers to the abnormal drifting or inward leaning of the great toe towards the second toe, which is also commonly associated with bunion disorders. In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a term for the outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. ...


Bunion formation/development

Bunions are most often caused by an inherited faulty mechanical structure of the foot. It is not the bunion itself that is inherited, but certain foot types that make a person prone to developing a bunion.


Although wearing shoes that crowd the toes won't actually cause bunions in the first place, it sometimes makes the deformity get progressively worse.


Bunions are not only associated with an enlarged bony bump at the big toe joint. Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe where it leans in towards the second toe; and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (they help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ...


Arthritis of the great toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.


Symptoms

The symptoms of bunions include:[2]

  • Swelling or enlargement of the metatarsophalangeal joint at the base of the big toe.
  • Displacement of the big toe toward the other toes.
  • Joint redness.
  • Joint pain.
  • Skin irritation over the bunion.

The metatarsophalangeal articulations are of the condyloid kind, formed by the reception of the rounded heads of the metatarsal bones in shallow cavities on the ends of the first phalanges. ...

Causes

The abnormalities associated with bunion development are caused by a biomechanical abnormality, where certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal are no longer functioning correctly. This biomechanical abnormality may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot--such as flat feet, excessive ligamentous flexibility, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are commonly genetic. A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although wearing shoes that crowd the toes won't actually cause bunions in the first place, it sometimes makes the deformity get progressively worse. That means you may experience symptoms sooner. [1]


Treatment

Bunions may be treated conservatively with changes in shoe gear, different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding), rest, ice, and medications. These sorts of treatments address symptoms more than they correct the actual deformity. Surgery may be necessary if discomfort is severe enough or when correction of the deformity is desired. Orthotics is the medical field concerned with the application and manufacture of orthoses, devices which support or correct the function of a limb or the torso. ...


Surgery

Procedures are designed and chosen to correct a variety of pathologies that may be associated with the bunion deformity. For instance, procedures may address some combination of:

  • removing the abnormal bony enlargement of the first metatarsal,
  • realigning the first metatarsal bone relative to the adjacent metatarsal bone,
  • straightening the great toe relative to the first metatarsal and adjacent toes,
  • realigning the cartilagenous surfaces of the great toe joint,
  • addressing arthritic changes associated with the great toe joint,
  • repositioning the sesamoid bones beneath the first metatarsal bone,
  • shortening, lengthening, raising, or lowering the first metatarsal bone, and
  • correcting any abnormal bowing or misalignment within the great toe.

The age, health, lifestyle, and activity level of the patient may also play a role in the choice of procedure. The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ...


Bunion surgery can be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthetic. The trend has moved strongly towards using the less invasive local anesthesia over the years. A patient can expect a 6- to 8-week recovery period during which crutches are usually required for aid in mobility. It is much less common today as newer, more stable procedures and better forms of fixation (stabilizing the bone with screws and other hardware) are used. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness. ... Crutches are stick-like medical tools that a patient will use as a way of walking in the event that their own leg/s may be injured or unable to support weight. ...


Most bunions are managed without. Shoes, which are short, tight, or sharply pointed should be avoided. No other primate suffers from bunions as homo sapiens are the only species that wear shoes.


Orthotics: bunion cushions, splints, regulators

Other measures include various footwear like gelled toe spacers, bunion / toes separators, bunion regulators, bunion splints, and bunion cushions[3][4]


References

  1. ^ Topic overview. Bunions. WebMD (March 26, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  2. ^ Symptoms. Bunions. WebMD (March 26, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  3. ^ Bunions/Toes. Foot Smart. Retrieved on 2006-10-15. List of products for treatment and relief of bunions.
  4. ^ Bunion Relief. Pedifix. Retrieved on 2006-10-15. Another list of bunion relief products.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ...

External links

  • Crista J. Frank, Dan E. Robinson (March 16, 2005). Hallux vulgaris. eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  • Footwear and healthy feet
  • Bunion Deformity (Hallux Valgus, Hallux Abducto Valgus)

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bunion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (940 words)
A bunion (hallux valgus) is a sometimes painful structural deformity of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe.
Bunions develop via long-term warping caused by pointed shoes during the growth phase of the foot causing this joint at the base of the big toe to thicken and enlarge.
Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe where it leans in towards the second toe; and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot.
Bunions - FootPhysicians.com (843 words)
Bunions are often described as a bump on the side of the big toe.
Bunions are most often caused by an inherited faulty mechanical structure of the foot.
Bunions are readily apparent--you can see the prominence at the base of the big toe or side of the foot.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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