FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bundeswehr" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bundeswehr
Armed Forces of Germany
Bundeswehr

Bundeswehr logo
Founded November 12, 1955
Current form October 2, 1990
Service branches Heer (Army)
Marine (Navy)
Luftwaffe (Air Force)
Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service)
Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (Central Medical Services)
Headquarters Bonn
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Minister Franz-Josef Jung [1]
Chancellor Angela Merkel (in the case of defense) [2]
Minister of Defense Franz-Josef Jung
Chief of staff General Wolfgang Schneiderhan
Military age 17
Conscription 9 months
Available for
military service
18,917,537 (2005 est.), age 17–49
Fit for
military service
15,258,931 (2005 est.), age 17–49
Reaching military
age annually
497,048 (2005 est.)
Active personnel 250,000
Expenditures
Percent of GDP 1.3% (FY06)

The Bundeswehr (German for "Federal Defence Force"; listen ) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. German states are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own as constitutional law prescribes that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government[3]. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Bundeswehr_Logo. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... Naval redirects here. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... Logo of the Streitkräftebasis Feldjäger(MP) patrol vehicle Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service, SKB) is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000. ... Central Medical Services is the English translation of the German Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (in short: Sanitätsdienst) which is the term for the medical services of the German armed forces. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Dr. Franz Josef Jung Franz Josef Jung (born 5 March 1949) is a German politician (CDU). ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Dr. Franz Josef Jung Franz Josef Jung (born 5 March 1949) is a German politician (CDU). ... For the classical violinist, see: Wolfgang Schneiderhan. ... Image File history File links De-Bundeswehr-pronunciation. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...

Contents

General information

The Bundeswehr is divided into the military part (armed forces /Streitkräfte) and the civil part with the armed forces administration (Wehrverwaltung), the federal bureau of procurement (Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung) and the federal bureau for information management and information technology of the Bundeswehr (Bundesamt für Informationsmanagement und Informationstechnik der Bundeswehr - short: IT-AmtBw). The military part the federal defense force consists of Army (Heer), Navy (Marine), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis), and Central Medical Services (Zentraler Sanitätsdienst) branches. For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Naval redirects here. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Logo of the Streitkräftebasis Feldjäger(MP) patrol vehicle Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service, SKB) is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000. ... Central Medical Services is the English translation of the German Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (in short: Sanitätsdienst) which is the term for the medical services of the German armed forces. ...


The Bundeswehr has 200,500 professional soldiers, 55,000 18 to 25 year-old conscripts who serve for at least nine months under current rules [4], and 2,500 active reservists at a given time. The number of civilian employees is to be reduced to 75,000 during the coming years. Roughly 300,000 reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defense exercises as well as abroad deployments.


Women have served in the medical service since 1975. In 2000, in a lawsuit brought up by Tanja Kreil, the European Court of Justice issued a ruling allowing women to serve in more roles than previously allowed. Since 2001 they can serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently around 14,500 women on active duty and a number of female reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping missions and other operations. Two female medical officers have been promoted to a General rank so far. Tanja Kreil is a German electrician notable for filing a lawsuit against the Bundeswehr (Germanys armed forces) with European Court of Justice that forced the Germany military to allow women to join the armed forces. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


History

The Cold War period 1955-1990

Germany had been without its own armed forces since the Wehrmacht was dissolved in the years following World War II. Some smaller forces continued to exist as Border guard or naval minesweeping units, but not as a national defence force. The responsibility for the security of Germany as a whole rested with the four Allied Powers: the U.S., the UK, France, and the Soviet Union. Germany was completely demilitarised and any plans for a German military were forbidden by Allied regulations. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... East German guards wait for the official opening of the Brandenburg Gate George W. Bush in a border patrol dune buggy Border Guard, Border Patrol, Border police, or Frontier police is a state security agency that performs border control, i. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


There was a discussion between the United States, the United Kingdom, and France over the issue of a revived German military. In particular, France was reluctant to allow Germany to rearm in light of recent history. However, after the project for a European Defence Community failed in the French National Assembly in 1954, France agreed to West German accession to NATO and rearmament. The European Defence Community (EDC) was a plan proposed by René Pleven, the French prime minister at the time, in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


With growing tensions between the Soviet Union and the West especially after the Korean War, this policy was to be revised. While the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was already secretly rearming, the seeds of a new West German force started in 1950, when former high ranking German officers were tasked by chancellor Konrad Adenauer to discuss the options for West German rearmament. The results of a meeting in the monastery of Himmerod formed the conceptual base to build the new armed forces in West Germany. The "Amt Blank" (Bureau Blank, named after its director Theodor Blank), the predecessor of the later Federal Ministry of Defence, was formed the same year to prepare the establishment of the future forces. Hasso von Manteuffel, a former general of the Wehrmacht and liberal politician, submitted the name Bundeswehr for the new forces. This name was later confirmed by the German Bundestag. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... “East Germany” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Himmerod Abbey, main entrance Himmerod Abbey ( Kloster Himmerod) is a Cistercian monastery in the community of Grosslittgen in the Verbandsgemeinde of Manderscheid in the Eifel, in the valley of the Salm, district of Bernkastel-Wittlich, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ...


The Bundeswehr was officially established on the 200th birthday of Scharnhorst on 12 November 1955. After an amendment of the Basic Law in 1955, West Germany became a member of NATO. In 1956, conscription for all men between the ages of 18 and 45 was introduced, later augmented by a civil alternative with longer duration (see Conscription in Germany). In parallel, East Germany formed its own military force, the Nationale Volksarmee (NVA) which was eventually dissolved with the reunification of Germany in 1990. Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (November 12, 1755 - June 28, 1813) was a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Germany has conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Categories: Stub | East Germany ... German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) refers to the reunification of Germany from its constituent parts of East Germany and West Germany under a single government on October 3, 1990. ... This article is about the year. ...

A former Luftwaffe F-104 Starfighter at Le Bourget.
A former Luftwaffe F-104 Starfighter at Le Bourget.

During the Cold War the Bundeswehr was the backbone of NATO's conventional defense in Central Europe. It had a strength of 495,000 military and 170,000 civilian personnel. The Army consisted of three corps with 12 divisions, most of them heavily armed with tanks and APCs. The Air Force owned significant numbers of tactical combat aircraft and took part in NATOs integrated air defence (NATINAD). The Navy was tasked and equipped to defend the Baltic Approaches, to provide escort reinforcement and resupply shipping in the North Sea and to contain the Soviet Baltic Fleet. Image File history File links LockheedStarfighterLeBourge. ... Image File history File links LockheedStarfighterLeBourge. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was a single-engined, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft that served with the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1958 until 1967. ... Le Bourget is a commune of the Seine-Saint-Denis département in France. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


Unification of West and East Germany 1990

After reunification of Germany in 1990, the Bundeswehr was reduced to 370,000 military personnel in accordance with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany between the two German governments and the Allies (2+4 Treaty). The former East German Nationale Volksarmee (NVA) was disbanded. A small portion of its personnel and material were absorbed into the Bundeswehr. The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... Categories: Stub | East Germany ...

The Bundeswehr was the first NATO-member using a Soviet-built former NVA-jet (MiG 29)
The Bundeswehr was the first NATO-member using a Soviet-built former NVA-jet (MiG 29)

About 50,000 Volksarmee personnel were integrated into the Bundeswehr on 2 October 1990. This figure was rapidly reduced as conscripts and short-term volunteers completed their service. A number of senior officers (but no generals or admirals) received limited contracts for up to two years to continue daily operations. Personnel remaining in the Bundeswehr were awarded new contracts and new Bundeswehr ranks, dependent on their individual qualification and experience. Many received and accepted a lower rank than previously held in the Volksarmee. These were seen as demotions by critics. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Stub | East Germany ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


In general, the unification process of the military - under the slogan "Armee der Einheit"/"Army of Unity" - is publicly seen as a major success and an example for other parts of the society.


With the reduction, a large amount of the military hardware of the Bundeswehr, as well as of the Volksarmee, had to be disposed of. A majority of armored vehicles and fighter jet aircraft were dismantled under international disarmament procedures. Ships were scrapped or sold, often to the Baltic states and Indonesia, the latter receiving 39 former Volksmarine vessels of various types.


Mission

German Army soldiers in Bosnia
German Army soldiers in Bosnia

The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the German Basic Law (Art. 87a) as defensive only. Its only 'active' role before 1990 was the "Katastropheneinsatz" (disaster control operation), where the Bundeswehr helped after natural disasters. After 1990, the international situation had changed from East-West-confrontation to general uncertainty and instability. Today, after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defense" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention - or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. According to the definition given by former Defence Minister Struck, it may be necessary to defend Germany even at the Hindu Kush. This requires the Bundeswehr to take part in operations outside of the borders of Germany, as part of NATO or the European Union and mandated by the UN. The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Organization and command structure

With the growing number of missions abroad it was recognized that the Bundeswehr required a totally new command structure. A reform commission under the chairmanship of the former Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker presented its recommendations in spring 2000. Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ...


In October 2000 the Joint Support Service, the Streitkräftebasis, was established to concentrate logistics and other supporting functions such as military police, supply and communications under one command. Medical support was reorganized with the establishment of the Central Medical Services. Central Medical Services is the English translation of the German Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (in short: Sanitätsdienst) which is the term for the medical services of the German armed forces. ...


The combat forces of the Army are organized into five combat divisions and participate in multi-national command structures at the corps level. The Air Force maintains three divisions and the Navy is structured into two flotillas. The Central Medical Services and the Joint Support Service are each organized into four regional commands. All of these services also have general commands for training, procurement, and other general issues. The Joint Support Service and the Central Medical Services are both organized in four regional commands of identical structure. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... This article is about a military unit. ...


The minister of defense or the chancellor is supported by the Chief of defense (CHOD, Generalinspekteur) and the service chiefs (Inspekteure) and their respective staffs in his or her function as commander-in-chief. The CHOD and the service chiefs form the Military Command Council (Militärischer Führungsrat) with functions similar to those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the United States. Subordinate to the CHOD is the Armed Forces Operational Command (Einsatzführungskommando). For smaller missions one of the service HQs (e.g. the Fleet Command) may exercise command and control of forces in missions abroad. The term parliamentary army is often used when German troops are committed to operations abroad, as Bundestag members must approve each and every deployment by a simple majority. This has led to some discontentment with Germany's allies about troop deployments e.g. in Afghanistan since parliamentary consent over such issues is relatively hard to achieve in Germany. Coat of Arms of the Inspector General of the Bundeswehr The Inspector General of the Bundeswehr (German: Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr (GenInspBw)) is the highest-ranking general or admiral in the Bundeswehr, the federal armed forces of Germany. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ...


The Bundeswehr in general is still among the world's most technologically advanced and best-supplied militaries, as befits Germany's overall economic prosperity and infrastructure. Its budget is, however, steadily shrinking and among the lowest military budgets in NATO in terms of share of GDP.


Operations

A German infantryman stands at the ready with his Heckler & Koch G36 during a practice exercise in 2004. U.S. troops watch in the background. All rifles in photo are equipped with blank firing adapters. (Photo: US Navy)
A German infantryman stands at the ready with his Heckler & Koch G36 during a practice exercise in 2004. U.S. troops watch in the background. All rifles in photo are equipped with blank firing adapters. (Photo: US Navy)
Frigate "Karlsruhe" of the German Navy rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia which it is patrolling
Frigate "Karlsruhe" of the German Navy rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia which it is patrolling
Naval Air Wing 5 helicopter Sea King Mk41 in special 30th anniversary colour scheme at Weston-super-Mare, UK, July 2005
Vehicle of the Sanitätsdienst
Vehicle of the Sanitätsdienst
Vehicle of the Feldjäger (MP)
Vehicle of the Feldjäger (MP)

Since the early 1990s the Bundeswehr has become more and more engaged in international operations in and around the former Yugoslavia, and also in other parts of the world like Cambodia or Somalia. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, German forces were employed in most related theaters except Iraq. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 1972 KB) Summary 040610-N-1823S-348 Ustka, Poland (June 10, 2004) - A German Army infantryman uses a dummy grenade to assault a room during glass-house training. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 1972 KB) Summary 040610-N-1823S-348 Ustka, Poland (June 10, 2004) - A German Army infantryman uses a dummy grenade to assault a room during glass-house training. ... The G36 (company designation, Bundeswehr designation Gewehr G36) is an assault rifle designed in the early 1990s and manufactured in Germany by Heckler & Koch. ... Image File history File links German Frigate Karlsruhe assisting shipwrecked people during Operation Enduring Freedom off the Horn of Africa. ... Image File history File links German Frigate Karlsruhe assisting shipwrecked people during Operation Enduring Freedom off the Horn of Africa. ... Image File history File links 8955_SeaKing41_MFG5. ... Image File history File links 8955_SeaKing41_MFG5. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (973x683, 396 KB) Beschreibung: Unimog des Sanitätsstützpunkts Hohe Düne Fotograf: Darkone, 13. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (973x683, 396 KB) Beschreibung: Unimog des Sanitätsstützpunkts Hohe Düne Fotograf: Darkone, 13. ... Central Medical Services is the English translation of the German Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (in short: Sanitätsdienst) which is the term for the medical services of the German armed forces. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x675, 333 KB) German military police car This image shows a German military police car. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x675, 333 KB) German military police car This image shows a German military police car. ... It has been suggested that Feldjägerkorps be merged into this article or section. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Currently (November 26, 2007) there are Bundeswehr forces in: is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

The actual number of troops serving in an abroad deployment complies with the requirements of the current security situation. In addition to the numbers above, 40 soldiers are permanently on stand-by for medical evacuation operations around the world in assistance of ongoing German or coalition operations (STRATAIRMEDEVAC). Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey Soldier of the EUFOR participating in operation Spring Lift, as part of Althea The EUFOR or European Union Force is an international military force under the supervision of the European Council. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) was established on 24 August 1993 by Security Council Resolution 858 to verify compliance with the 27 July 1993, ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Georgia and forces in Abkhazia with special attention given to the situation in the city of Sukhumi... The UNMEE (United Nations Mission To Ethiopia and Eritrea) was originally formed to monitor a ceasefire in the border war that began in 1998 between Ethiopia and Eritrea. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the military response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States . ... Sailing frigates were 4th, 5th, or 6th-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Combatants NATO, represented by Denmark Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Turkey  Russia  Ukraine  Israel  Egypt Morocco Commanders Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti, Italian Navy Strength 480 ships and 84 planes Operation Active Endeavour is a naval operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... The United Nations Mission In Sudan or UNMIS is the mission of the United Nation designed to provide humanitarian support the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement on January 9, 2005. ... The United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) is a joint African Union and UN peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007 to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue. ... For other uses, see Lebanon (disambiguation). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... S71 Gepard, Gepard class fast attack craft A Fast Attack Craft (FAC) (German: Schnellboot) is a small (150 to 400 tonnes), fast (up to ca. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... Tender A511 Elbe The Type 404 Elbe class replenishment ships of the German Navy were built to support squadrons of Fast Attack Craft, submarines and minesweeper/hunters. ...


In support of Allied stabilization efforts in Iraq, the Bundeswehr is also training the new Iraqi forces in locations outside Iraq, such as the United Arab Emirates and Germany.


Since 1994, more than 60 soldiers have died in abroad deployments, about 20 through hostile activity.


Traditions

Former German military organisations have been the old German state armies, the Reichswehr (1921-1935) and the Wehrmacht (1935-1945). The Bundeswehr, however, does not consider itself as their successor and does not follow the traditions of any former German military organisation. The official Bundeswehr traditions are based on three major lines:[citation needed] Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...

As its symbol the Bundeswehr uses a form of the Iron Cross. The Iron Cross has a long history, having been awarded as a military wartime decoration for all ranks since 1813, and earlier associated with the Teutonic knights. The name Bundeswehr was proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel. Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (November 12, 1755 - June 28, 1813) was a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars. ... August Wilhelm Antonius Graf[1] Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 – 23 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... Henning Hermann Robert Karl von Tresckow (January 10, 1901 – July 21, 1944) was a Major General in the German Wehrmacht who is known for organizing German resistance against Hitler. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ...


One of the most visible traditions is the Großer Zapfenstreich, a form of military tattoo that goes back to the landsknecht era.[citation needed] Another expression of the traditions in the German armed forces is the ceremonial vow (Gelöbnis) of recruits, during basic training. Annually on July 20, the date of the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by Wehrmacht officers in 1944, recruits of the Wachbataillon vow at the Bendlerblock, where the officers had their headquarters. The wording of the ceremonial vow of conscripts is: Picture taken at a Zapfenstreich The (literally translated Grand Tattoo or Grand Taps) is a military ceremony performed in Germany and Austria. ... A military tattoo is a military drum performance. ... Landsknecht. ... The Reichswehreid was the name for three different versions of the oath of allegiance of the German Forces, called Reichswehr from 1919 to 1935, and then Wehrmacht until 1945. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Wachbataillon (full name: Wachbataillon beim Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (WachBtl BMVg) (Guard battalion at the Ministry of Defence)) is the German Bundeswehrs elite drill unit. ... The Bendlerblock is a building in Berlin, near Tiergarten. ...

"I pledge to loyally serve the Federal Republic of Germany and to bravely defend the law and the freedom of the German people."

Professional soldiers and officers of the Bundeswehr have to swear an oath with the same wording, but beginning with "Ich schwöre, ..." ("I swear...").


Transformation

According to the new threat scenario facing Germany and its allies, the Bundeswehr is currently reorganising itself. To realise growth in mobility and the enlargement of the air force's capabilities, the Bundeswehr is going to buy 60 A400M transporters as well as 180 EF2000 fighters and also several UAV models. For the ground forces it is currently developing a land soldier system and a new generation of transportation vehicles and light tanks, such as the Fennek, the Boxer MRAV, KMW Grizzly or the Puma (IFV). Further, the German Navy is going to receive five new Braunschweig class corvettes, the new F125 class frigates and two more Type 212 submarines. The Airbus A400M (M for military) is a four engine turboprop aircraft designed by Airbus Military to meet the demand of European nations for a new military cargo aircraft. ... The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine multi-role canard-delta fighter aircraft, very similar to the US-German Rockwell-MBB X-31 prototype and designed and built by a consortium of European nations formed in 1983. ... The £124 million Taranis UAV built by BAE Systems An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... Infanterist der Zukunft is the German Bundeswehrs program as part of the Future Soldier project. ... The Fennek, named after the Fennec (a small species of desert fox), or LGS Fennek, with LGS being short for Leichter Gepanzerter Spähwagen in German or Light Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle when translated to English. ... The Boxer is a German-Dutch Multirole Armored Vehicle (MRAV) designed to accomplish a number of operations through the use of installable mission modules. ... The KMW Grizzly is a new, medium weight highly protected vehicle, developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW), designed for operation with the German Army based on the 6x6 Trakker chassis from IVECO adapted to meet the needs of the German Army. ... The Puma is a German infantry fighting vehicle, currently in the pre-production stage. ... Corvette Braunschweig (F 260) Corvette Magdeburg (F 261) The upcoming K130 Braunschweig class (sometimes Korvette 130) will be Germanys newest class of ocean-going corvettes. ... F125 is the project name for the Type 125 class of frigates, currently in development for the German Navy by ARGE F125, a joint-venture of Thyssen-Krupp and Lürssen. ... The German Type 212 is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine (U-Boat) developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German Navy. ...


References

  1. ^ Art 65a Basic Law
  2. ^ Art 115b Basic Law
  3. ^ Art 87a (1) Basic Law
  4. ^ Germany: Refusing to Bear Arms 2005 revision

See also

Cadets of the German navy in fomation for their ceremonial oath in front of the German naval academy (Marineschule Mürwik) .There are two types of soldiers serving in the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence), regular units and conscripts. ... Germany has conscription (Wehrpflicht) for male citizens. ...

External links

  • Bundeswehr - Official site (in German)
  • Federal Ministry of Defence official site (in German, English and French)
  • Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung official site (in German)
  • Bundesamt für Informationsmanagement und Informationstechnik der Bundeswehr official site (in German)
  • Territoriale Wehrverwaltung official site (in German)
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Армија на Република Македонија) were formed in 1992 after withdrawal of the Yugoslav Peoples Army which left behind only a small number of infantry weapons and four broken World War 2-era T-34 tanks to equip the new army. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
AICGS: ANALYSES : The Bundeswehr at Fifty (837 words)
The Bundeswehr was a compromise that came out of the ashes of the defeat of the European Defense Community by the French National Assembly in 1954 and was central to the consolidation of NATO.
Under this approach, the Bundeswehr was shaped as a conscript military with a strong emphasis on democratic control from both civilian political leaders and from the military itself.
However, with the end of the division of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Bundeswehr was faced with crucial new challenges regarding its roles and missions.
Bundeswehr: Information from Answers.com (1703 words)
The Bundeswehr was officially established on the 200th birthday of Scharnhorst in 1955.
During the Cold War the Bundeswehr was the backbone of NATO's conventional defence in Central Europe.
After reunification in 1990, the Bundeswehr was reduced to 370,000 military personnel in accordance with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany between the two German governments and the Allies (2+4-Treaty).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m