FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bundestag" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bundestag
Deutscher Bundestag
Federal Diet of Germany
Type Lower house
President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU
since October 18, 2005
Members 614
Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226)
Social Democratic Party of Germany (222)
Free Democratic Party (61)
The Left. (54)
Alliance '90/The Greens (51)
Last elections September 18, 2005
Meeting place Reichstag, Berlin
Web site http://www.bundestag.de
Germany

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Germany
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Bundestag. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The President of the Bundestag (German: Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries. ... Norbert Lammert Dr. Norbert Lammert (born November 16, 1948 in Bochum) is a German politician (CDU). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Reichstag building. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a plurality multi-party system. ...



Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit

The Bundestag ("Federal Diet" or "Lower house of German parliament") is the parliament of Germany. It was established with Germany's constitution of 1949 (the Grundgesetz), and is the successor of the earlier Reichstag. The current President of the Bundestag is Norbert Lammert. The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest Germany for civil and criminal lawsuits. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Horst Köhler ( , born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (née Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... Elections in Germany gives information on election and election results in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtage of the various states, and local elections. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... This article is about the human rights situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The President of the Bundestag (German: Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries. ... Norbert Lammert Dr. Norbert Lammert (born November 16, 1948 in Bochum) is a German politician (CDU). ...

Contents

History

The Bundestag was also the nickname of the governing body of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 (officially called Bundesversammlung, Federal Assembly). This body met in Frankfurt and was presided over by the Austrian delegate. As one of the chief instruments of the reactionary forces opposed to democracy and nationalism, it was dissolved during the liberal revolution of 1848 but reconvened in 1850. It is a predecessor to the modern Bundestag in name only. While the modern parliament is elected by the people, the Bundestag of the German Confederation was appointed by the various princes and the governments of the free cities. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


With the dissolution of the German Confederation in 1866 and the founding of the German Empire (Deutsches Reich) in 1871, the Reichstag was established as the German parliament in Berlin. Two decades later, the current parliament building was erected. The Reichstag delegates were elected by direct and equal male suffrage (and not the three-class electoral system prevailing in Prussia until 1918). The Reichstag did not participate in the appointment of the Chancellor until the parliamentary reforms of October 1918. After the Revolution of November 1918 and the establishment of the Weimar Constitution, women were given the right to vote for (and serve in) the Reichstag, and the parliament could use the no-confidence vote to force the chancellor or any cabinet member to resign. In March 1933, one month after the Reichstag fire, parliament ceded its powers to the Federal Government of Chancellor Adolf Hitler by passing the infamous Enabling act of 1933. Afterward it met only rarely to unanimously rubber-stamp the decisions of the government. It was last convened on 26 April 1942. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the new constitution of 1949, the Bundestag was established as the new (West) German parliament. Because West Berlin was not officially under the jurisdiction of the Constitution and because of the Cold War, the Bundestag met in Bonn in several different buildings, including (provisionally) a former water works facility. The former Reichstag building housed a history exhibition (Fragen an die deutsche Geschichte) and served occasionally as a conference center. The Reichstag building was also occasionally used as a venue for sittings of the Bundestag and its committees and the Bundesversammlung, the body which elects the German Federal President. However the Soviets harshly protested against the use of the Reichstag building by institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany and tried to disturb the sittings by flying supersonic jets close to the building. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Bundesversammlung (German for Federal Assembly) can refer to the following political entities: Bundesversammlung (Germany) Bundesversammlung (Austria) Bundesversammlung (Switzerland) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Since 1999, the German parliament has again assembled in Berlin in its original Reichstag building, which dates from the 1890s and underwent a significant renovation under the lead of British architect Sir Norman Foster. This article is about the year. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Reichstag building. ... The Armadillo, Sir Norman Fosters Clyde Auditorium in Glasgow Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank OM Kt (born June 1, 1935) is a British architect. ...


In 2005, a small aircraft crashed close to the German parliament. It was then decided to ban private air traffic over Central Berlin.


Tasks

Together with the Bundesrat, the Bundestag is the legislative branch of the German political system. The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a plurality multi-party system. ...


Although most legislation is initiated by the executive branch, the Bundestag considers the legislative function its most important responsibility, concentrating much of its energy on assessing and amending the government's legislative program. The committees (see below) play a prominent role in this process. Plenary sessions provide a forum for members to engage in public debate on legislative issues before them, but they tend to be well attended only when significant legislation is being considered.


The Bundestag members are the only federal officials directly elected by the public; the Bundestag in turn elects the Chancellor and, in addition, exercises oversight of the executive branch on issues of both substantive policy and routine administration. This check on executive power can be employed through binding legislation, public debates on government policy, investigations, and direct questioning of the chancellor or cabinet officials. For example, the Bundestag can conduct a question hour (Fragestunde), in which a government representative responds to a previously submitted written question from a member. Members can ask related questions during the question hour. The questions can concern anything from a major policy issue to a specific constituent's problem. Use of the question hour has increased markedly over the past forty years, with more than 20,000 questions being posed during the 1987-90 term. Understandably, the opposition parties are active in exercising the parliamentary right to scrutinize government actions. The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...


One striking difference when comparing the Bundestag with the U.S. Congress is the lack of time spent on serving constituents in Germany. In part, that difference results from the fact that only 50 percent of Bundestag deputies are directly elected to represent a specific geographic district; the other half are elected as party representatives (see below). The political parties are thus of great importance in Germany's electoral system, and many voters tend not to see the candidates as autonomous political personalities but rather as agents of the party. A practical constraint on the expansion of constituent service is the limited personal staff of Bundestag deputies. Despite these constraints especially those deputies that are elected directly normally try to keep close contact with their constituents and to help them with their problems, particularly when they are related to federal policies or agencies. Congress in Joint Session. ...


Constituent service does also take place in the form of the Petition Committee In 2004, the Petition Committee received over 18,000 complaints from citizens and was able to negotiate a mutually satisfactory solution to more than half of them.


Election

The Bundestag in Berlin.
The Bundestag in Berlin.

Members serve four-year terms; elections are held every four years, or earlier in the relatively rare case that the Bundestag is being dissolved prematurely by the president. The president can dissolve the Bundestag on the recommendation of the chancellor after he or she has lost a vote of confidence in the Bundestag. This has happened only three times as of 2005: 1972 under Chancellor Willy Brandt, 1982 under Chancellor Helmut Kohl and 2005 under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. Image File history File links Bundestag. ... Image File history File links Bundestag. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...


All candidates must be at least eighteen years old; there are no term limits. The election uses the MMP electoral system, a hybrid of the first-past-the-post election system and party-list proportional representation. In addition, the Bundestag has a minimum threshold of either 5% of the national party vote or three (directly elected) constituency representatives for a party to gain additional representation through the system of proportional representation. Mixed member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system used to elect representatives to numerous legislatures around the world. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... Political Parties redirects here. ...


Thus, small (and often extremist) minority parties cannot easily enter the Bundestag and prevent the formation of stable majority governments as they could under the Weimar constitution. Since 1961, only two new parties (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and Die Linke) have entered the Bundestag. Party symbol of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ...


The additional member system results in a varying number of seats; since the 2005 elections, there have been 614 seats. The distribution of the seats is calculated by the Largest remainder method. The additional seats are distributed to ensure that the combined total of direct and additional seats is proportional to the vote; this is calculated separately for each state. Sometimes parties win more seats directly than what their proportional share would entitle them to — these are known as overhang seats. Unlike the situation in some German state parliaments, overhang seats are not compensated in the Bundestag. The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ...


Distribution of seats in the Bundestag

Half of the Members of the Bundestag are elected directly from 299 constituencies (first-past-the-post election system), the other half on the parties’ Land lists (party-list proportional representation). The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ...

Ballot for electoral district 252, Würzburg. Constituency vote on left, party list vote on right.
Ballot for electoral district 252, Würzburg. Constituency vote on left, party list vote on right.

Accordingly, each voter has two votes in the elections to the Bundestag. The first vote (first-past-the-post election system), allowing voters to elect their local representatives to the Bundestag, decides which candidates are sent to Parliament from the constituencies. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1504, 460 KB) Beschreibung: Stimmzettel zur Bundestagswahl 2005, Wahlkreis 252 Würzburg Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: Christian VisualBeo Horvat Datum: 31. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1504, 460 KB) Beschreibung: Stimmzettel zur Bundestagswahl 2005, Wahlkreis 252 Würzburg Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: Christian VisualBeo Horvat Datum: 31. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ...


The second vote (party-list proportional representation) is cast for a party list. And it is this second vote that determines the relative strengths of the parties represented in the Bundestag. Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ...


At least 598 Members of the Bundestag are elected in this way. In addition to this, there are certain circumstances in which some candidates win what are known as overhang seat when the seats are being distributed. Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ...


The 598 seats are distributed among the parties that have gained more than 5% of the second votes or at least 3 direct mandates. Each of these parties is allocated seats in the Bundestag in proportion to the number of votes it has received (Largest remainder method). The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ...


When the total number of mandates gained by a party has been determined, they are distributed between the Land lists. The distribution of seats between the parties in each Land is proportional to the second vote results: (Largest remainder method). The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ...


The first of the mandates allocated to each Land go to the candidates who have won direct mandates in that Land. The rest are assigned in order to the candidates on the Land list put forward before the election.


Overhang seat: If a party has gained more direct mandates in a Land than it is entitled to according to the results of the second vote, it does not forfeit these mandates because all directly elected candidates are guaranteed a seat in the Bundestag. Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ...


Detail of the Land list seats won by each party


Election result

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 18 September 2005 German Federal Diet (Bundestag) election results
Parties Constituency Party list Total seats
Votes  % +/− Seats +/− Votes  % +/− Seats +/− Total +/−  %
Christian Democratic Union *) (Christlich-Demokratische Union) 15,390,950 32.6 +0.6 106 +24 13,136,740 27.8 -1.7 74 -34 180 -10 29.3
Christian Social Union of Bavaria *) (Christlich Soziale Union in Bayern) 3,889,990 8.2 -0.8 44 +1 3,494,309 7.4 -1.6 2 -13 46 -12 7.5
Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) 18,129,100 38.4 -3.5 145 -26 16,194,665 34.2 -4.3 77 -3 222 -29 36.2
Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei) 2,208,531 4.7 +1.1 0 0 4,648,144 9.8 +2.5 61 +14 61 +14 9.9
The Left Party.PDS (Die Linkspartei.PDS), since 2007: The Left (Die Linke) 3,764,168 8.0 +3.6 3 +1 4,118,194 8.7 +4.7 51 +51 54 +52 8.8
Alliance '90/The Greens

(Bündnis '90/Die Grünen) The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... The Left Party. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...

2,538,913 5.4 -0.2 1 0 3,838,326 8.1 -0.5 50 -4 51 -4 8.3
National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands) 857,777 1.8 +1.6 0 0 748,568 1.6 +1.2 0 0 0 0 0.0
Other 1,272,410 2.7 0 0 1,857,610 4.0 0 0 0 0
Totals 47,194,062 100 299 47,287,988 100 315 +11 614 +11 100

The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: , NPD) is a German nationalist political party. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ...

Seats by party (16th Bundestag, since general election on 18th September 2005)

Distribution of seats in the 16th Bundestag.
Distribution of seats in the 16th Bundestag.
+ CDU and CSU: 224 (36.6%) including 6 overhang seats
+ SPD: 222 (36.2%) including 9 overhang seats
+ FDP: 61 (9.9%)
+ The Left: 53 (8.6%)
+ Alliance '90/Greens: 51 (8.3%)
+ Independents/No parliamentary group: 2 (0.3%)

Number of the Land list seats won by each party For a list of current members, see the List of Bundestag Members. Image File history File links German_federal_election,_2005_-_Final. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... This is a list of members of the 16th Bundestag - the parliament of Germany. ...


List of Bundestag by Session

Historic seat distribution in the German Bundestag

Historic seat distribution in the German Bundestag (at the beginning of each session)
  Session Seats CDU/CSU SPD FDP Alliance '90 /
The Greens
1
The Left2 German Party Others
1st 1949 – 1953 402 139 131 52 17 Bavarian Party 17, Communist Party of Germany 15, Economic Development Coalition (WAV) 12, German Centre Party 10, DKP-DRP 5, South Schleswig Voter Federation 1, Independent 3
2nd 1953 – 1957 487 243 151 48 15 All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights (GB-BHE) 27, German Centre Party 3
3rd 1957 – 1961 497 270 169 41 17
4th 1961 – 1965 499 242 190 67
5th 1965 – 1969 496 245 202 49
6th 1969 – 1972 496 242 224 30
7th 1972 – 1976 496 225 230 41
8th 1976 – 1980 496 243 214 39
9th 1980 – 1983 497 226 218 53
10th 1983 – 1987 498 244 193 34 27
11th 1987 – 1990 497 223 186 46 42
12th 1990 – 1994 662 319 239 79 8 17
13th 1994 – 1998 672 294 252 47 49 30
14th 1998 – 2002 669 245 298 43 47 36
15th 2002 – 2005 603 248 251 47 55 2
16th since 2005 614 226 222 61 51 54

1: 1983 to 1990 The Greens, 1990 to 1994 Alliance 90, since 1994 Alliance 90/The Greens
21990 to 2005 PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism), 2005 to 2007 The Left Party.PDS, since 2007 The Left
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ... The German Party (Deutsche Partei) is a minor German political party. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The South Schleswig Voter Federation (German: Südschleswigscher Wählerverband, Danish: Sydslesvigsk Vælgerforening, Frisian: Söödschlaswiksche Wäälerferbånd) is a minor political party in Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. ... The All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights (Gesamtdeutscher Block/Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten / GB/BHE) was founded in 1950 as BHE (Block der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten, Bloc of Expellees and Deprived of Rights) and changed the name to GB/BHE in 1952. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Alliance 90 (Bündnis 90) was an alliance of opposition groups in East Germany. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Party of the Left. ... The Left Party. ... The Left (German: or ) is a German political party that came into being on 16 June 2007 as a merger of The Left Party. ...


For detailed information on particular sessions of the Bundestag, please refer to the List of German Bundestage. This is a list page for the individual sessions of the German Bundestag: 20th Century First German Bundestag (1949-1953) Second German Bundestag (1953-1957) Third German Bundestag (1957-1961) Fourth German Bundestag (1961-1965) Fifth German Bundestag (1965-1969) Sixth German Bundestag (1969-1972) Seventh German Bundestag (1972-1976...

Historic seat distribution in the German Bundestag (at the beginning of each session).


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x630, 67 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x630, 67 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Presidents since 1949

Presidents of the Bundestag
Name Party Beginning of term End of term Length of term
1 Erich Köhler* (18921958) CDU 7 September 1949 18 October 1950 1 year 1 month 11 days
2 Hermann Ehlers** (19041954) CDU 19 October 1950 29 October 1954 4 years 10 days
3 Eugen Gerstenmaier*** (19061986) CDU 16 November 1954 31 January 1969 14 years 2 months 15 days
4 Kai-Uwe von Hassel (19131997) CDU 5 February 1969 13 December 1972 3 years 10 months 8 days
5 Annemarie Renger† (b. 1919) SPD 13 December 1972 14 December 1976 4 years 1 day
6 Karl Carstens§ (19141992) CDU 14 December 1976 31 May 1979 2 years 5 months 17 days
7 Richard Stücklen (19162002) CSU 31 May 1979 29 March 1983 3 years 9 months 29 days
8 Rainer Barzel*** (19242006) CDU 29 March 1983 25 October 1984 1 year 6 months 26 days
9 Philipp Jenninger*** (b. 1932) CDU 5 November 1984 11 November 1988 4 years 6 days
10 Rita Süssmuth (b. 1937) CDU 25 November 1988 26 October 1998 9 years 11 months 1 day
11 Wolfgang Thierse (b. 1943) SPD 26 October 1998 18 October 2005 6 years 11 months 22 days
12 Norbert Lammert (b. 1948) CDU 18 October 2005

*resigned for medical reasons
**died in office
***resigned for political reasons
†first woman and Social Democrat to hold the post
§ resigned when he became President of Germany
Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugen Karl Albrecht Gerstenmaier (born 25 August 1906 in Kirchheim unter Teck; died 13 March 1986 in Bonn) was a German Evangelical theologian, resistance fighter in the Third Reich, and a CDU politician. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Kai-Uwe von Hassel (b. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... SPD redirects here. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Carstens (December 14, 1914 - May 30, 1992) was a German politician. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Richard Stücklen (20 August 1916 - 2 May 2002) was a German politician of the CSU. From 1957 to 1966, he served as Federal Minister for Post and Communication and from 1979 to 1983 as President of the Bundestag, of which he was a member for over 40 years. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Rainer Candidus Barzel (born June 20, 1924 in Braunsberg, East Prussia)) is a German CDU Politician. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Philipp-Hariolf Jenninger (born 10 June 1932) is a German politician of the CDU. From 1984 to 1988, when he resigned after protests related to his speech commemorating the anniversary of Kristallnacht, he served as President of the Bundestag. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Rita Süssmuth (CDU), president of the German Bundestag 1988-1998 Rita Süssmuth (born 17 February 1937 in Wuppertal) is a German politician and a member of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Wolfgang Thierse is the current speaker of the Bundestag. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SPD redirects here. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norbert Lammert Dr. Norbert Lammert (born November 16, 1948 in Bochum) is a German politician (CDU). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ...


Organization

The most important organizational structures within the Bundestag are parliamentary groups (Fraktionen; sing. Fraktion), which are formed by political parties represented in the chamber which have gained more than 5% of the total votes; CDU and CSU have always formed a single united Fraktion. The size of a party's Fraktion determines the extent of its representation on legislative committees, the time slots allotted for speaking, the number of committee chairs it can hold, and its representation in executive bodies of the Bundestag. The Fraktionen, not the members, receive the bulk of government funding for legislative and administrative activities. Fraction or parliamentary party is a term used to refer to the representation of a political party within a legislative assembly, a parliament but also a city council. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ...


The leadership of each Fraktion consists of a parliamentary party leader, several deputy leaders, and an executive committee. The leadership's major responsibilities are to represent the Fraktion, enforce party discipline, and orchestrate the party's parliamentary activities. The members of each Fraktion are distributed among working groups focused on specific policy-related topics such as social policy, economics, and foreign policy. The Fraktion meets every Tuesday afternoon in the weeks in which the Bundestag is in session to consider legislation before the Bundestag and formulate the party's position on it. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Parties which do not fulfill the criterion for being a Fraktion but which have at least three seats by direct elections (i.e. which have at least three MPs representing a certain electoral district) in the Bundestag can be granted the status of a group of the Bundestag. This applied to the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) from 1990-1998. This status entails some privileges which are in general less than those of a Fraktion. In the current Bundestag, there are no such groups (the PDS only had two MPs in parliament until 2005 and was thus not even considered a group anymore; the party has now returned to the Bundestag with full Fraktion status). The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Bundestag's executive bodies include the Council of Elders and the Presidium. The council consists of the Bundestag leadership, together with the most senior representatives of each Fraktion, with the number of these representatives tied to the strength of the party in the chamber. The council is the coordination hub, determining the daily legislative agenda and assigning committee chairpersons based on party representation. The council also serves as an important forum for interparty negotiations on specific legislation and procedural issues. The Presidium is responsible for the routine administration of the Bundestag, including its clerical and research activities. It consists of the chamber's president (usually elected from the largest Fraktion) and vice presidents (one from each Fraktion). The Council of Elders is a joint deliberative body which includes the following stakeholders: President; Vice presidents; Bundestag members appointed by parliamentary groups in proportion to their size. ... The Presidium of the German Bundestag conisists of the President of the Bundestag and a variable number (momentarily 4) of Vice-Presidents of the Bundestag. ...


Most of the legislative work in the Bundestag is the product of standing committees, which exist largely unchanged throughout one legislative period. The number of committees approximates the number of federal ministries, and the titles of each are roughly similar (e.g., defense, agriculture, and labor). Between 1987 and 1990, the term of the eleventh Bundestag, there were twenty-one standing committees. The distribution of committee chairs and the membership of each committee reflect the relative strength of the various parties in the chamber. In the eleventh Bundestag, the CDU/CSU chaired eleven committees, the SPD eight, the FDP one, and the environmentalist party, the Greens (Die Grünen), one. Members of the opposition party can chair a significant number of standing committees. These committees have either a small staff or no staff at all. This article needs cleanup. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...


See also

Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a plurality multi-party system. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ...

External links

Coordinates: 52°31′07″N 13°22′34″E / 52.51861, 13.37611 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m