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Encyclopedia > Bullying
A very common image in many schools around the world.
A very common image in many schools around the world.

Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others, through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. Bullying can be defined in many different ways, although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, [1] some US states have laws against it. [2] Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... The word manipulation can refer to: Joint manipulation Social influence Sleight of hand tricks in magic or XCM. Abuse Advertising Brainwashing Charisma Fraud Indoctrination Love bombing Machiavellianism Media manipulation Mind control Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Propaganda Social psychology Puppeteer Photo manipulation Categories: | | ...


In colloquial speech, bullying often describes a form of harassment perpetrated by an abuser who possesses more physical and/or social power and dominance than the victim. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a target. The harassment can be verbal, physical and/or emotional. Sometimes bullies will pick on people bigger or smaller than their size. Bullies hurt people verbally and physically because they themselves have been the victim of bullying, (e.g. a bullying child who is abused at home, or bullying adults who are abused by their colleagues).


Many programs have been started to prevent bullying at schools with promotional speakers.


Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus defines bullying as when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons." He defines negative action as "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways."[3]


Bullying can occur in any setting where human beings interact with each other. This includes school, religious community, the workplace, home and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor in migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes and even between countries (see Jingoism). Students in Rome, Italy. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... Look up migration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ...

Contents

Bullying behavior

Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt another person. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person (Besag, 1989). Behaviors may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion (Carey, 2003; Whitted & Dupper, 2005). Bullies may behave this way to be perceived as popular or tough or to get attention. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting out because they themselves are bullied (Crothers & Levinson, 2004).


USA National Center for Education Statistics suggests that bullying can be broken into two categories: Direct bullying, and indirect bullying which is also known as social aggression.[4]


Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression such as shoving and poking, throwing things, slapping, choking, punching and kicking, beating, stabbing, pulling hair, scratching, biting and scraping.[5] In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ...


He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim into social isolation. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques, including spreading gossip, refusing to socialize with the victim, bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim, and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including the victim's race, religion, disability, etc). Ross (1998)[5] outlines other forms of indirect bullying which are more subtle and more likely to be verbal, such as name calling, the silent treatment, arguing others into submission, manipulation, gossip/ false gossip, lies, rumors/ false rumors, staring, giggling, laughing at the victim, saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event, and mocking. Children's charity Act Against Bullying was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Act Against Bullying , also known as AAB, is a national charity in the United Kingdom founded in 2003 by Louise Burfitt-Dons The purpose of the charity is to help children who are bullied at school by providing them with confidential advice and to campaign to raise public awareness of...


Effects

The effects of bullying can be serious and even fatal. Mona O’Moore Ph. D of the Anti-Bullying Centre, Trinity College Dublin, said, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide".[6]


Victims of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness.[7] Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... Look up depression in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ...


The National Conference of State Legislatures said:

"In 2002, a report released by the U.S. Secret Service concluded that bullying played a significant role in many school shootings and that efforts should be made to eliminate bullying behavior." [8]

Characteristics of bullies

Research indicates that adults who bully have personalities that are authoritarian, combined with a strong need to control or dominate.[9] It has also been suggested that a deficit in social skills and a prejudicial view of subordinates can be particular risk factors.[10] Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals. ... Social skills are skills a social animal uses to interact and communicate with others to assist status in the social structure and other motivations. ...


Further studies have shown that while envy and resentment may be motives for bullying,[11] there is little evidence to suggest that bullies suffer from any deficit in self esteem (as this would make it difficult to bully).[12] However, bullying can also be used as a tool to conceal and boost self esteem: by demeaning others, the abuser themselves feel empowered. For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Resentment is an emotion, from ressentiment, a French word, meaning malice, anger, being rancorous. The English word has the sense of feeling bitter. ... For the The Offspring single, see Self Esteem (song). ...


Researchers have identified other risk factors such as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions.[13] This article is about the emotion. ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ...


Bullying may also be "tradition" in settings where an age group or higher rank feels superior than lowerclassmen.


It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood:

"If aggressive behaviour is not challenged in childhood, there is a danger that it may become habitual. Indeed, there is research evidence, to indicate that bullying during childhood puts children at risk of criminal behaviour and domestic violence in adulthood."[6]

Bullying does not necessarily involve criminality or physical violence. For example, bullying often operates through psychological abuse or verbal abuse. Psychological abuse refers to the humiliation or intimidation of another person, but is also used to refer to the long-term effects of emotional shock. ... An insult is a statement or action which affronts or demeans someone. ...


Bullying can often be associated with street gangs, especially at school. River City Ransom gameplay (U.S. NES Version) River City Ransom (ダウンタウン熱血物語 Downtown Nekketsu Monogatari Downtown Hotblood Story in Japan and Street Gangs in Europe) is a video game for the Nintendo Family Computer and the Nintendo Entertainment System from the now defunct Technos Japan Corporation, released in 1989. ...


History of bullying

High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usually receive most media attention, but lower-level forms of violence such as bullying, has only in recent years started to be addressed by researchers, educators, parents and legislators (Whitted & Dupper, 2005).


It is only in recent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as a separate and distinct offence, but there have been well documented cases the were recorded in a different context. The Fifth Volume of the Newgate Calendar [14] contains at least one example where Eton Scholars George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith were charged, at Aylesbury Assizes, with killing and slaying the Hon. F. Ashley Cooper on February 28, 1825 in an incident that would now, surely be described as "lethal hazing"[15]. The Newgate calendar contains several other examples that, while not as distinct, could be considered indicative of situations of bullying. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ...


Types of bullying

School bullying

Main article: School bullying

In schools, bullying usually occurs in all areas of school. It can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, though it more often occurs in PE, recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and waiting for buses, classes that require group work and/or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of, or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. These bullies will taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target. Targets of bullying in school are often pupils who are considered strange or different by their peers to begin with, making the situation harder for them to deal with. Some children bully because they have been isolated, and they have a deep need for belonging, but they do not possess the social skills to effectively keep friends (see social rejection).[7] "When you're miserable, you need something more miserable than yourself." This may explain the negative actions towards others that bullies exhibit.[citation needed] However, just like with adults, there are also those who simply enjoy hurting other people. Silent treatment redirects here. ...


Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: there is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse, humiliation, or exclusion - even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.[16][17]


School shootings receive an enormous amount of media attention. The children who perpetrate these shootings sometimes claim that they were victims of bullying and that they resorted to violence only after the school administration repeatedly failed to intervene.[8] In many of these cases, the victims of the shooters sued both the shooters' families and the schools.[18] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ...


Some suggest these rare but horrific events have led schools to try harder to discourage bullying, with programs designed to teach students cooperation, as well as training peer moderators in intervention and dispute resolution techniques, as a form of peer support.[citation needed] See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... It has been suggested that Adjudication be merged into this article or section. ... Peer support is a support initiative, normally within a school or university, to help pupils deal with issues such as bullying, stress, or other problems that they may come across while at school. ...


American victims and their families have legal recourse, such as suing a school or teacher for failure to adequately supervise, racial or gender discrimination, or other civil rights violations. Special education students who are victimized may sue a school or school board under the ADA or Section 504. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, signed into law on July 26, 1990 by George H. W. Bush. ... The 1973 Rehabilitation Act was an American piece of legislation that guaranteed certain rights to people with disabilities. ...


Workplace bullying

Main article: Workplace bullying

According to the Workplace Bullying and Trauma Institute workplace bullying is "repeated, health-harming mistreatment, verbal abuse, or conduct which is threatening, humiliating, intimidating, or sabotage that interferes with work or some combination of the three."[19]. Statistics show that bullying is 3 times as prevalent as illegal discrimination and at least 1,600 times as prevalent as workplace violence. Statistics also show that while only one employee in every 10,000 becomes a victim of workplace violence, one in six experiences bullying at work. Bullying is also far more common than sexual harassment and verbal abuse. Workplace bullying, like childhood bullying, is the tendency of individuals or groups to use persistent aggressive or unreasonable behavior against a co-worker. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... For the band, see Verbal Abuse. ...


Unlike the more physical form of schoolyard bullying, workplace bullying often takes place within the established rules and policies of the organization and society. Such actions are not necessarily illegal and may not even be against the firm's regulations; however, the damage to the targeted employee and to workplace morale is obvious.


Particularly when perpetrated by a group, workplace bullying is sometimes known as mobbing. Mobbing is a new term referring to a group behavioural phenomenon in workplaces and a type of animal behaviour. ...


Cyberbullying

Main article: Cyberbullying

According to Canadian educator Bill Belsey, it: A new phenomena that involves bullying through means of communication devices, with the internet in particular. ...

...involves the use of information and communication technologies such as e-mail, cell phone and pager text messages, instant messaging, defamatory personal Web sites, blogs, online games and defamatory online personal polling Web sites, to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others.

Cyberbullying: An Emerging Threat to the Always On Generation[20]

Bullies will even create blogs to intimidate victims worldwide.[21]


Political bullying

Main article: Jingoism

Jingoism occurs when one country imposes its will on another. This is normally done with military force or threats. With threats, it is common to ensure that aid and grants will not be given to the smaller country or that the smaller country will not be allowed to join a trading organization. Often political corruptions, coup d'états, and kleptocracies are the solution and response to the countries being bullied.[citation needed] Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... Coup redirects here. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ...


Military bullying

In 2000, the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) defined bullying as: “...the use of physical strength or the abuse of authority to intimidate or victimize others, or to give unlawful punishments.”[22] A review of a number of deaths by suicide at Princess Royal Barracks, Deepcut by Nicholas Blake QC indicated that whilst a culture of bullying existed during the mid to late 1990s many of the issues were being addressed as a result of the Defence Training Review.[23] The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... The Princess Royal Barracks, Deepcut, commonly referred to as Deepcut Barracks is the headquarters of the Royal Logistic Corps of the British Army. ... For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ...


Some argue that this behaviour should be allowed because of a general academic consensus that "soldiering" is different from other occupations. Soldiers expected to risk their lives should, according to them, develop strength of body and spirit to accept bullying.[24]


In some countries, ritual hazing among recruits has been tolerated and even lauded as a rite of passage that builds character and toughness; while in others, systematic bullying of lower-ranking, young or physically slight recruits may in fact be encouraged by military policy, either tacitly or overtly (see dedovschina). Also, the Russian army usually have older/more experienced candidates abusing - kicking or punching - less experienced soldiers.[25]. Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ... For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ... Dedovshchina (Russian: ) is the name given to the informal system of subjugation of new junior recruits for the Russian armed services, MVD, and border guards to soldiers of the last year of service. ...


Hazing

Main articles: Hazing and Ragging

Hazing is an often ritualistic test which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform meaningless tasks; sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. The term can refer to either physical (sometimes violent) or mental (possibly degrading) practices. It is a subjective matter where to draw to line between 'normal' hazing (somewhat abusive) and a mere rite of passage (essentially bonding; proponents may argue they can coincide), and there is a gray area where exactly the other side passes over into sheer degrading, even harmful abuse that should not even be tolerated if accepted voluntarily (serious but avoidable accidents do still happen; even deliberate abuse with similar grave medical consequences occurs, in some traditions even rather often). Furthermore, as it must be a ritual initiation, a different social context may mean a same treatment is technically hazing for some, not for others, e.g. a line-crossing ceremony when passing the equator at sea is hazing for the sailor while the extended (generally voluntary, more playful) application to passengers is not. Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ... Ragging (known in the USA as hazing) is the systematic ritual physical and psychological abuse of freshmen or other juniors by their seniors in an educational setup, with the purported intent of socially inducting the newcomers into the group. ... For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crossing the Line. ...


Hazing has been reported in a variety of social contexts, including:

  • Sports teams
  • Academic fraternities and sororities (see fraternities and sororities)These practices are not limited to American schools. Swedish students undergo a similar bonding period, known as nollningen, in which all members of the entering class participate.
  • College and universities in general.
  • Associated groups, like fan clubs, school bands
  • Secret societies and even certain service clubs, or rather their local sections (such as some modern US Freemasons; not traditional masonic lodges)
  • Similarly various other competitive sports teams or clubs, even 'soft' and non-competitive ones (such as arts)
  • The armed forces — e.g., in the U.S., hard hazing practices from World War I boot camps were introduced into colleges. In Poland army hazing is called Polish fala "wave" adopted pre-World War I from non-Polish armies. In the Russian army (formerly the Red Army) hazing is called "Dedovshchina".
  • Police forces (often with a paramilitary tradition)
  • Rescue services, such as lifeguards (also drilled for operations in military style)
  • In workplaces
  • Inmate hazing is also common at confinement facilities around the world, including frequent reports of beatings and sexual assaults by fellow inmates.

Hazing is considered a felony in several US states, and anti hazing legislation has been proposed in other states. While the term fraternity can be used to describe any number of social organizations, including the Lions Club and the Shriners, fraternities and sororities are most commonly known as social organizations of higher education students in the United States and Canada but there are fraternities in the whole world (for... While the term fraternity can be used to describe any number of social organizations, including the Lions Club and the Shriners, fraternities and sororities are most commonly known as social organizations of higher education students in the United States and Canada but there are fraternities in the whole world (for... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Rotary International, Optimist International, or the Shriners. ... A Service club is a type of voluntary organization where members meet regularly for social outings and to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organisations. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Boot Camp is a software assistant made available by Apple Inc. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Dedovshchina (Russian: ) is the name given to the informal system of subjugation of new junior conscripts for the Russian armed forces, Interior Ministry, and (to a much lesser extent) FSB border guards to brutalization by the conscripts of the last year of service as well as NCOs and officers. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...


See also

In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Silent treatment redirects here. ... Social defeat refers losing access to resources due to competition with a conspecific animal. ... Teasing is the act of playfully disturbing another person, either with words or with actions. ... A protection racket is an extortion scheme whereby a powerful organization coerces individuals or businesses to pay protection money which allegedly serves to purchase the organizations protection services against various external threats, whereas the actual threat comes from the organization itself. ... // [edit] Books on Bullying [edit] Non-Fiction Bully In Sight - book by Tim Field The Fight That Never Ends by Tim Brown Bullycide, Death at Playtime by Neil Marr and Tim Field A Journey Out of Bullying: From Despair to Hope by Patricia L. Scott Peer Abuse Know More! Bullying... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

References

  1. ^ Harassment, Discrimination and Bullying Policy - University of Manchester
  2. ^ At least 15 states have passed laws addressing bullying among school children. Dave was here![1]
  3. ^ Olweus, D. A Research Definition of Bullying
  4. ^ Student Reports of Bullying, Results From the 2001 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, US National Center for Education Statistics
  5. ^ a b Ross, P.N. (1998). Arresting violence: A resource guide for schools and their communities. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation.
  6. ^ a b Anti-Bullying Center Trinity College, Dublin,
  7. ^ a b Williams, K.D., Forgás, J.P. & von Hippel, W. (Eds.) (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, & Bullying. Psychology Press: New York, NY.
  8. ^ a b School Bullying. National Conference of State Legislatures, Washington, D.C. (retrieved 7 December 2007).
  9. ^ The Harassed Worker, Brodsky, C. (1976), D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, Massachusetts.
  10. ^ Petty tyranny in organizations , Ashforth, Blake, Human Relations, Vol. 47, No. 7, 755-778 (1994)
  11. ^ Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice, Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.)(2003), Taylor & Francis, London.
  12. ^ Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools, Batsche, G. M., & Knoff, H. M. (1994) School PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW, 23 (2), 165-174. EJ 490 574.
  13. ^ Areas of Expert Agreement on Identification of School Bullies and Victims, Hazler, R. J., Carney, J. V., Green, S., Powell, R., & Jolly, L. S. (1997). School Psychology International, 18, 3-12.
  14. ^ Complete Newgate Calendar Tarlton Law Library The University of Texas School of Law
  15. ^ GEORGE ALEXANDER WOOD AND ALEXANDER WELLESLEY LEITH The Complete Newgate Calendar Volume V, Tarlton Law Library The University of Texas School of Law
  16. ^ Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). And Words CAN Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. The Free Press: New York NY.
  17. ^ Whitted, K.S. (2005). Student reports of physical and psychological maltreatment in schools: An under-explored aspect of student victimization in schools. University of Tennessee.
  18. ^ Brownstein, A. The Bully Pulpit: Post-Columbine, Harassment Victims Take School To Court. TRIAL - the Journal of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America, December 2002.
  19. ^ Namie, Gary and Ruth Workplace Bullying Institute Brochure
  20. ^ Belsey, W Cyberbullying: An Emerging Threat to the Always On Generation
  21. ^ Striking back at the cyberbullies Page, Chris, BBC, UK.
  22. ^ The Values and Standards of the British Army – A Guide to Soldiers, Ministry of Defence, UK March 2000, paragraph 23.
  23. ^ Deepcut Review accessed 14 Jan 07
  24. ^ Social Psychology of the Individual Soldier, Jean M. Callaghan and Franz Kernic 2003 Armed Forces and International Security: Global Trends and Issues, Lit Verlag, Munster
  25. ^ Military bullying a global problem, BBC, UK Monday, 28 November 2005

Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... D.C. Heath And Company is a small publishing company located at 125 Spring Street in Lexington, Massachusetts. ...

External links

Look up Bullying in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Bully Prevention Resources
  • Canadian anti-bullying Website
  • Bullying in schools (Australia - schools)
  • Bullying in schools (UK - schools)
  • Bullying in the Workplace
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... The term band geek refers to a division of high school and college subculture, primarily in the United States, which involves the students who are heavily involved in marching bands and concert band. ... When George Carlin released Class Clown in 1972, he was relatively well known for tame satirical routines about the entertainment industry. ... The character of Pedro Sanchez runs for Class President in the 2003 film Napoleon Dynamite A Class President is usually the leader of a class cabinet or organization within a Student Council at an elementary, junior high, high school, or college. ... Dropping out means to withdraw from established society, especially because of disillusion with conventional values. ... Freshman redirects here. ... Head Boy and Head Girl are terms commonly used in the British education system, and in private schools throughout the Commonwealth. ... An honors student is a student recognized for achieving high level grades. ... Eleventh grade (called Grade 11 in some regions, also known as junior year in the U.S.) is a year of education in the United States and many other nations. ... A peer tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. ... For the concept in category theory, see pushout. ... Twelfth grade (called Grade 12 in some regions, also known as senior year in the U.S.) is the final year of secondary education in the United States and many other nations. ... This article is about basic idea of special needs. ... Sophomore is used (especially in the USA) for describing a student in the second year of study (generally referring to high school or university study). ... Front page view of student newspaper The Daily Toreador. ... A students union, student government, or student council is a student organization present at many colleges and universities, often with its own building on the campus, dedicated to social and organizational activities of the student body. ... A super senior is a student in an American 4-year educational institution such as a high school or university who is in his or her 5th (or later) year or has more than the usual number of credits required to graduate without achieving a diploma or Bachelors degree. ... In general sense, a teachers pet refers to a student at school who particularly respects the authority of a teacher(s), and therefore receives special treatment from the teacher(s). ... A certified teacher is a teacher who has earned credentials from an authoritative source, such as the government, a higher education institution or a private source. ... The head coach in sports coaching is the coach who is in charge of the other coaches. ... Educational research is research which investigates the behaviour of pupils, students, teachers, and other participants in schools and other educational institutions. ... The Education Specialist, also referred to as Educational Specialist, Specialist in Education, or , is a terminal academic degree in the U.S. that is designed for individuals who wish to develop additional skills or increase their knowledge beyond the masters degree level, but do not wish to pursue a... In the UK and elsewhere, a head teacher is the most senior teacher in a school. ... The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe Arcimboldo A librarian is an information professional trained in library science and information science: the organization and management of information and service to people with information needs. ... Lunch lady is an American slang term for a woman who serves lunch in a school cafeteria. ... A paraprofessional educator, alternatively known as para-pros, instructional assistants or teachers aides, is a teaching-related position within a school generally responsible for specialized or concentrated assistance for students in elementary and secondary schools. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Principal Teacher (PT), in Scotland is the head of a particular department within a school. ... A schoolmaster or simply master once referred to a male school teacher. ... A board of education or a school board or school committee is the title of the board of directors of a school, local school district or higher administrative level. ... // A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and are often referred to as guidance counselors or educational counselors. In professional literature, the term school counselor is preferred. ... In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, School Governors are members of a schools Governing Body. ... School nursing is a specialized practice of professional nursing that advances the well being, academic success, and life-long achievement of students. ... Educational psychology or school psychology is the psychological science studying how children and adults learn, the effectiveness of various educational strategies and tactics, and how schools function as organizations. ... In schools, the science technician is the person who prepares the practical equipment and makes up the solutions used in school science labs. ... // School social work has an extensive history, dating to 1906-07, when it was established in New York, Boston, Chicago and New Haven, CT. At its inception, school social workers were known, among other things, as advocates for equity and fairness as well as home visitors. ... For other uses, see Secretary (disambiguation). ... A student teacher is college student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a degree in education. ... A substitute teacher is a person who teaches a school class when the regular teacher is unavailable because of illness or other reason. ... In education, a superintendent is an individual that has executive oversight and administration rights, usually within an educational entity or organization. ... A state education agency (SEA), or state department of education, is a formal governmental label for the state-level government agencies within each U.S. state responsible for providing information, resources, and technical assistance on educational matters to schools and residents. ... The title Teaching Artist refers to an actor, musician, dancer, writer, or visual artist who has the expertise to share their artistry in arts and non-arts curricula. ... A teaching assistant (often abbreviated to TA) in British schools is a person who supports a teacher in the classroom. ... A teacher-librarian is a certified teacher who also has training in running a school library. ... An assistant principal is an administrator at an elementary, middle, or a high school. ...

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Bully - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2229 words)
An extreme case of school-yard bullying is that of an eighth grader named Curtis Taylor at a middle school in Iowa.
In recent years, many victims have been suing bullies directly for intentional infliction of emotional distress, and including their school as a defendant under the principle of joint and several liability.
Workplace bullying, like childhood bullying, is the tendency of individuals or groups to use aggressive or unreasonable behavior to achieve their ends.
Bullying Prevention - Teasing - Lesson Plans - Elementary (1380 words)
Write a letter to an imaginary bully, telling this person what he or she is doing that you don't like, why you don't like it, and how you want this person to behave instead.
As your child deals with bullying situations at home or school, be open to discussing ways in which he or she can safely handle those situations.
Help your child become sensitive to his or her own behaviors or language that may be of a bullying nature as he or she deals with siblings or friends.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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