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Encyclopedia > Bullfights
Bull ring (Plaza de Toros) La Malagueta in Málaga (Spain)
Bull ring (Plaza de Toros) La Malagueta in Málaga (Spain)

Bullfighting or tauromachy (Spanish toreo, corrida de toros or tauromaquia; Portuguese tourada, corrida de touros or tauromaquia) is a tradition that involves professional performers (in Spanish toreros or matadores, in Portuguese toureiros) who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the bull itself. Such manoeuvers are performed at close range, and conclude (in Spanish-style bullfighting) with the death of the bull by a well-placed sword thrust as the finale. In Portugal the finale consists of a tradition called the pega, where men (Forcados) are dressed in a traditional costume of damask or velvet, with long knit hats as worn by the famous Ribatejo campinos (bull headers). Download high resolution version (892x650, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (892x650, 157 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385. ... Matador Antonio Barrera in the capote de paseo (dress cape) before a bullfight during the 2003 Aste Nagusia festival in Bilbao, Spain A torero (roughly bull handler) is the main performer in bullfighting events in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Italian silk damask, 1300s. ... Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. ... Ancient province of Ribatejo The Tagus river crossing Ribatejo. ...


Labeled as a blood sport and considered a traditional event by some, or an example of animal cruelty by others, the practice generates heated controversy in many areas of the world, including Spain where the "classic" bullfighting was born. There is contention between supporters of bullfighting — who claim it is a long held and culturally important tradition — and animal rights groups — who oppose bullfighting due to the suffering of the bull and horses during the bullfight. Bull fighting is an example of a modern blood sport. ... Look up Controversy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Origins

Bull-leaping: Knossos
Bull-leaping: Knossos

Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice. The killing of the sacred bull (tauromachy) is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, which was commemorated in the mithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. Many of the oldest bullrings in Spain are located on the sites of, or adjacent to the locations of temples to Mithras. Image File history File links Fresco of an acrobat on a bull with two female acrobats on either side {{Archaeological Museum of Herakleion}} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Fresco of an acrobat on a bull with two female acrobats on either side {{Archaeological Museum of Herakleion}} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... Tauromachy (tauromachia the killing of a bull) is a name for the cultural ritual of Bullfighting and also for the iconic central action of Mithras, the savior-god of Mithraism. ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century AD) Mithras was the central god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... A mithraeum found in the ruins of Ostia Antica, Italy. ... Bullring in Málaga, Spain A bullring is the location where bullfighting is performed. ...


Bullfighting is often linked to ancient Rome where, when many human-versus-animal events were held as a warm-up for gladiatorial sports. Alternatively, it may have been introduced into Hispania by the Moors in the 11th century, although there are theories that it was introduced into Hispania a millennium earlier by the Emperor Claudius when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial games, as a substitute for those combats. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves. In its original Moorish and early Iberian form, the bull was fought from horseback using a javelin. (Picadors are the remnants of this tradition, but their role in the contest is now a relatively minor one limited to "preparing" the bull for the matador.) Bullfighting spread from Spain to its Central and South American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I of England The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including present day Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal) as well as the Maghreb and western Africa, whose culture is often called Moorish. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Robert Graves (circa 1974) by Rab Shiell Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 5 November 1955) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Picador is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers, a publisher owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...

Plaza de Acho in Lima, Peru - the oldest bullring in South America, dating back to 1766
Plaza de Acho in Lima, Peru - the oldest bullring in South America, dating back to 1766

Another belief is that bullfighting as is in present times has its roots based largely in wars that occurred between Iberians and Moors. As history has it,[citation needed] a common war strategy of the Moors was to set fire to the tails of bulls which would cause the herd to stampede into opposing armies in a frenzy. This tactic on the part of the Moors created a need to devise a way of overcoming the oncoming stampede on the part of the Iberian peninsula's previous inhabitants. According to this theory,[citation needed] what we see today in modern bullfighting: swords, horses, Spanish style, muletas, facing the bull without weapons as is seen in Portugal's forcados, etc., was born from the necessity of survival in battles against the Moors. Download high resolution version (600x800, 61 KB)Bullring in Lima, Peru - the largest bullring in South America. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 61 KB)Bullring in Lima, Peru - the largest bullring in South America. ... Image:Corrida de toros en la Plaza de Acho. ... This article is about Lima, Peru. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Categories: Stub ... The Forcado is the third and final event in a typical Portuguese bullfight and it is a very old tradition. ...


French ethnologist Dominique Aubier considers according to an epistemological study that there is no relationship between the Spanish bullfight and either Greek sacrifice (a ritualistic agricultural celebration) or Roman gladiators. She sees the corrida as arising from a Paleolithic hunting tradition, and considers the theory of a so-called Arabic introduction of the corrida in Spain to be an 'extravagance'. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... The hunting hypothesis is the hypothesis that human evolution was primarily influenced by the activity of hunting, and that the activity of hunting distinguished human ancestors from other primates. ...

Mithras killing a bull.
Mithras killing a bull.

Bullfighting was practiced by nobility as a substitute and preparation of war, in the manner of hunting and jousting. Religious festivities, royal weddings were celebrated by fights in the local plaza, where noblemen would ride competing for royal favor and the populace enjoyed the excitement. In the 18th century, the Spanish introduced the practice of fighting on foot, Francisco Romero generally being regarded as having been the first to do this, about 1726. As bullfighting developed, men on foot started using capes to aide the horsemen in positioning the bulls. This type of fighting drew more attention from the crowds, thus the modern corrida, or fight, began to take form, as riding noblemen were substituted by commoners on foot. This new style prompted the construction of dedicated bullrings, initially square like the plaza de armas, later round, to discourage the cornering of the action. The modern style of Spanish bullfighting is credited to Juan Belmonte, generally considered the greatest matador of all time. Belmonte introduced a daring and revolutionary style, in which he stays within a few inches of the bull throughout the fight. Although extremely dangerous (Belmonte himself was gored on many occasions), his style is still seen by most matadors as the ideal to be emulated. Today, bullfighting remains similar to the way it was in 1726, when Francisco Romero, from Ronda, Spain, used the estoque, a sword to kill the bull, and the muleta, a small cape used in the last stage of the fight. Image File history File links Fresque_Mithra_Doura_Europos. ... Image File history File links Fresque_Mithra_Doura_Europos. ... Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... This article is about the 1982 arcade game. ... Plaza is a Spanish word related to field which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. ... Francisco Romero (1700 - 1763) was a significant Spanish matador. ... Cover of Time Magazine (January 5, 1925 Juan Belmonte y García (April 14, 1892-April 8, 1962) was considered the greatest matador of all time, and he revolutionised the art of bullfighting. ...


Styles of bullfighting

Originally, there were at least five distinct regional styles of bullfighting practiced in southwestern Europe: Andalusia, Aragon-Navarre, Alentejo, Camargue, Aquitaine. Over time, these have evolved more or less into standardised national forms mentioned below. The "classic" style of bullfight, in which the bull is killed, is the form practiced in Spain and many Latin American countries. Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ... NUTS II Alentejo region. ... Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès The Camargue is the land south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the River Rhône delta at the approximate coordinates 43°32′N 4°30′E . ... Location Administration Capital Bordeaux Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Départements Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,309 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ...


Spanish

Starting a corrida (paseíllo)
Starting a corrida (paseíllo)

Spanish-style bullfighting is called a corrida de toros (literally a "running of bulls"), or fiesta brava. In traditional corrida, three toreros, also called matadores or, in French, toreadores, each fight two out of a total of six bulls, each of which is at least four years old and weighs up to about 600 kg (with a minimum weight limit of 460 kg for the bullrings of the first degree). Bullfighting season in Spain runs from March to October. The fights that attract most spectators are the ones held during fiestas patronales, named ferias taurinas. The most prestigious of such fights is held for the fiesta of San Isidro in Madrid. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2354 KB) Description: Beginning of a corrida Subject: Toreros, Picadores and banderilleros Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2354 KB) Description: Beginning of a corrida Subject: Toreros, Picadores and banderilleros Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link... Matador Antonio Barrera in the capote de paseo (dress cape) before a bullfight during the 2003 Aste Nagusia festival in Bilbao, Spain A torero (roughly bull handler) is the main performer in bullfighting events in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries. ... Saint Isidore the Farmer (c1070 - May 15, 1130) is the Catholic patron Saint of farmers and of Madrid. ... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


Each matador has six assistants — two picadores ("lancers") mounted on horseback, three banderilleros ("flagmen"), and a mozo de espada ("sword servant"). Collectively they comprise a cuadrilla or team of bullfighters. The crew also includes an ayuda (aide to sword servant) and subalternos (subordinates) including at least two peones (pages, singular peón). The apoderado acts as a manager for the cuadrilla negotiating their tours. There are also the areneros (arena personnel): Alguacilillo (there are two men of this title who represent the presiding dignitary on the ground and apply his orders) and a number of servants named monosabios (they are in charge of the ring after each individual fight but their most active participation is when they help the picador and his mount on foot) and mulilleros (they lead the set of mules that drags out the bull's body after the corrida). Picador is an imprint of Macmillan Publishers, a publisher owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... The words peon and peonage are derived from the Spanish peón (). In its obsolete usage in Spain itself, the word denoted a person who travelled by foot rather than on a horse (caballero). ... A barren of mules. ...

The suerte de capote
The suerte de capote

The modern corrida is highly ritualized, with three distinct parts or tercios, start of each announced by a trumpet sound. The participants first enter the arena in a parade or paseíllo to salute the presiding dignitary; presidente, accompanied by band music. The ritual is a key factor, for example the oldest matador goes to the far left, while the newest will be placed in the middle. If a matador is new to the Plaza, he will do the "paseíllo" without his hat on. Torero costumes are inspired by 18th century Andalusian clothing. Matadores are easily distinguished by their spectacular and quite costly "suit of lights" (traje de luces), custom-made and embroidered with silver or golden thread. Bull attacks matador, Arles, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bull attacks matador, Arles, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba. ...


Next, the bull enters the ring to be tested for ferocity by the matador and banderilleros with the magenta and gold capote, or dress cape. Bulls are raised on the open range by specialist breeding estates called ganaderías. Each bull is recorded meticulously with its name, weight, and age to profile the estate, which keeps their pedigrees. The bull enters the arena with a rosette on its back bearing the colours of the estate it belongs to. For example, Miura colours are green-black in Madrid and green-blue in the provinces. Each estate owner is represented by a mayoral and if his bulls display an exceptional performance, in the end he will be invited to share a lap around the ring with the toreros. Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...

The tercio de varas
The tercio de varas

In the first stage, the tercio de varas ("Lances third"), the behavior of the bull is observed by the matador, who observes the way in which the bull behaves, and the manner in which he attacks capes thrust by the banderilleros. The matador is particularly interested to know which horn the bull prefers to use, and whether the bull charges in straight or curved lines. He will observe whether or not the bull has eyesight problems; poor vision in one eye, for example, could result in unusual head movements. Sometimes the bull will head for a particular part of the ring: a querencia, or territory. A bull trying to reach its querencia is often more dangerous than a bull that is attacking the cape directly. The matador will note the bull's peculiarities and then decide his strategy: how long the fight will last, which passes he'll try, and how close he will get to the bull. The matador then goes and confronts his adversary; if he performs with art and courage he will be rewarded with an ovation. This initial section is called suerte de capote ("luck of the cape"), and there are a number of fundamental "lances" or passes that matadors make with the cape; the most common being the "veronica". Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1644, 3187 KB) Description: Picador Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bullfighting Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1644, 3187 KB) Description: Picador Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Bullfighting Metadata This file contains...


Next, two picadores enter the arena, each armed with a lance or varas. The picadores are mounted on large heavily padded and blindfolded horses. The bull is encouraged to attack the horse which is protected by its padding and generally treats the attack with stoic patience. The way the bull charges the horse provides further important clues to the matador on its bravery and persistence. The picador stabs a mound of muscle on the bull's neck, leading to the animal's first loss of blood. Although most people believe that a picador's primary purpose is the weaken the bull's massive neck muscles, this is not the case. The picador's primary function is to pierce the animal's circulatory system, and thereby lower its blood pressure, so that the enraged bull does not have a heart attack (as they sometimes do, without a picador). The bull's charging and trying to lift the picador's horse with its neck muscles, does weaken its massive neck and muscles. If the picador does his job well, the bull will hold its head and horns lower during the following stages of the fight. This makes him slightly less dangerous while enabling the matador to perform the elegant passes of modern bullfighting. More importantly, this tempering of the bull's strength allows the human to take on substantially more risk. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


This is the first major test of the bull's bravery, and most bulls' behaviour changes dramatically after encountering the lance. This stage is viewed as a crucial and mandatory step in the corrida, and regulations require that the plaza judge ensures a certain number of hits are made before it is completed. In some rings a torero may request more or fewer hits in order to correct any perceived defects.

The tercio de banderillas
The tercio de banderillas

In the next stage, the tercio de banderillas ("banderillas third"), the three banderilleros each attempt to plant two barbed sticks (banderillas, literally "little flags" as they are decorated with paper in the local colors) on the bull's flanks. These further weaken the enormous ridges of neck and shoulder muscle (which set fighting bulls apart from ordinary cattle) through loss of blood, while also frequently spurring the bull into making more ferocious charges. The placing of the banderillas into is the last chance to correct or fine-tune the charging tendencies of the bull. Some of the more skilled matadors will often do this themselves, notably Carlos Arruza. If the bull proves to be extraordinarily weak or unwilling to fight, the presidente may order, to the disgrace of the breeder, the use of black banderillas. The suerte de banderillas, Arles, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The suerte de banderillas, Arles, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Carlos Arruza (born Carlos Ruiz Camino, February 17, 1920, Mexico City; died May 20, 1966, near Mexico City) was one of the most prominent bullfighters of the 20th century. ...

Faena
Faena

In the final stage, the tercio de muerte ("death third"), the matador re-enters the ring alone with a small red cape or muleta in one hand and a sword in the other. This cape is stretched with a wooden dowel (as a batten stiffens a sail), and, in right-handed passes, the sword as well. Lighter muletas are handier but, since regulations require the heavier ones, ring doctors routinely provide certifications on "hand injures" allowing the matador to use the light variant. Having dedicated the bull to an individual or the whole audience, he uses his cape to attract the bull in a series of passes, both demonstrating his control over it and risking his life by getting especially close to it. The red colour of the cape is a matter of tradition, as bulls are actually colour blind: they attack moving objects. There are a number of distinct styles of pass, each with its own name. The fundamental pass with the muleta is the "natural," traditionally meaning a left-handed pass with the muleta without the aid of the sword to prop it up. Image File history File links Torero. ... Image File history File links Torero. ... Look up batten in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sail is any type of surface intended to generate thrust by being placed in a wind — in essence a vertically-oriented wing. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ...


The Faena ("work") is the entire performance with the muleta, which is usually broken down into a series of "tandas" or "series". A typical tanda might consist of three to five basic passes and then a finishing touch, or "remate," such as a "pase de pecho," or "pase de desprecio." The faena ends with a final series of passes in which the matador with a muleta attempts to manoeuvre the bull into a position to stab it between the shoulder blades and through the aorta or heart. The entire part of the bulfight with the muleta is called el tercio de muerte ("third of death") suerte de muleta ("act of muleta"). A faena is the series of final passes performed by a matador preparatory to killing a bull in a bullfight. ...

Bull in the arena with banderillas on flanks
Bull in the arena with banderillas on flanks

The act of thrusting the sword (estoca or estoque) is called an estocada. A clumsy estocada that fails to give a "quick and clean death" will often raise loud protests from the crowd and may ruin the whole performance. If estocada is not successful, the matador must then perform a descabello and cut the bull's spinal cord with a second sword called verdugo, to kill it instantly and spare the animal pain. Although the matador's final blow is usually fatal, it may take the bull some time to die. A coup de grâce is therefore administered by a peón named a puntillero, using a dagger to further pierce the spinal cord. The matador must kill the bull in fifteen minutes after the first muleta pass, at most. After ten minutes, if the bull is still alive, the presidente will order an aviso, a warning given with a trumpet sound, followed by a second after further three minutes and a following third after further two. The presidente will then give an order to have the bull returned to its pen (corral). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2109 KB) Description: Bull Subject: Bull withs banderillas Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Spain... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2109 KB) Description: Bull Subject: Bull withs banderillas Place : Plaza de Toros Las Ventas City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : October, 9th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Spain... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...

Matador in the tercio de muerte
Matador in the tercio de muerte

The bull's body is dragged out by a set of galloping mules. If the presidente is impressed by the performance of the bull, he orders a tour around the ring to honour the animal. Very rarely , a bull will be allowed to survive a fight as an indulgence granted in recognition of an exceptional performance. The spectators will demand an indulto from the presidente, by waving handkerchiefs, before the estocada. The matador will stop and look at the presidente. If he stands still, he will resume his action and kill the bull. But if he has an orange handkerchief hung on his balcony, the matador will imitate the estocada with a banderilla(flag) or with the palm of his hand and the bull will be "freed". Such bulls are generally retired from competition and raised as studs, as their experience in the ring makes them extremely dangerous opponents. A fighting bull is never used in the ring twice, because they learn from experience, and the entire strategy of the matador is based on the assumption that the bull has not learned from previous experience. The Matador File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Matador File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


A trofeo (trophy) is the usual indicator of a successful faena. When the records of bullfights are kept, trofeos earned by the matador are always mentioned. If the crowd demands, the matador is allowed to take a lap of victory around the ring. If more than or about half the spectators petition the presidente by waving handkerchiefs, the presidente is obliged to award the matador with one ear of the bull. To award the matador with another ear or with two ears and the tail; los máximos trofeos, depends solely on the presidente's appreciation. The matador who won at least two ears is given the permission to be carried on the shoulders of the admirers (salida en hombros).


Hazards

A bull after a bullfight.
A bull after a bullfight.

Bullfighting is normally fatal for the bull, and it is very dangerous for the matador. (Picadors and banderilleros are sometimes gored, but this is not common. They are paid less and noticed less, because their job takes less skill and, in particular, less courage.) The suertes with the capote are risky, but it is the faena that is supremely dangerous, in particular the estocada. A matador of classical style--notably, Manolete--is trained to divert the bull with the muleta but always come close to the right horn as he makes the fatal sword-thrust between the clavicles and through the aorta. At this moment, the danger is the greatest. A lesser matador can run off to one side and stab the bull in the lungs--and may even achieve a quick kill--but it will not be a clean kill, because he will have avoided the difficult target, and the mortal risk, of the classical technique. Such a matador will often be booed. Image File history File links Toro224. ... Image File history File links Toro224. ... Manolete Manuel Laureano Rodríguez Sánchez (July 4, 1917 in Córdoba, Spain - August 28, 1947 in Linares, Spain), better known as Manolete, was a famous Spanish bullfighter. ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Some matadors, notably Juan Belmonte, have been gored many times: according to Ernest Hemingway, Belmonte's legs were marred by many ugly scars. A special type of surgeon has developed, in Spain and elsewhere, to treat cornadas, or horn-wounds: they are well paid and well respected and are invited to the best parties. The bullring normally has an infirmary with an operating room, reserved for the immediate treatment of matadors with cornadas.. Cover of Time Magazine (January 5, 1925 Juan Belmonte y García (April 14, 1892-April 8, 1962) was considered the greatest matador of all time, and he revolutionised the art of bullfighting. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Surgeon may refer to: a practitioner of surgery the moniker of British electronic music producer and DJ, Anthony Child; see Surgeon (musician) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The bullring has a chapel where a matador can pray before the corrida, and where a priest can be found in case an emergency sacrament is needed. The most relevant sacrament is now called "Anointing of the Sick"; it was formerly known as "Extreme Unction", or the "Last Rites". It is administered to Catholics who are in seriously ill or injured and in danger of death in the near future. Since bullfighting is a tradition in Spain and other Catholic countries, it is traditionally assumed that a matador is a Catholic. The traditional procedures don't allow for other possibilities, but special arrangements could be made by a matador who was willing to take the trouble--and to acknowledge his own mortality. It is also assumed that a matador is male, which complicates emergency medical care when the assumption is wrong: there have been female matadors, who took the same risks and must have dealt with these complications, as well as others.[citation needed] . ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ...


Special Events

Although most bullfights take the form described above, there are bullfights that have distinctive properties:

  • Mano-a-mano corridas are bullfights where two matadores fight three bulls each in competition. Often, they are rivals; sometimes, even enemies.
  • Novilladas are bullfights where younger bulls of two to four years of age (novillos) and apprentice toreros (novilleros) are involved. Novilladas with novillos younger than three are held without picadores, for novillos aged three, a shorter vara is used.
  • '""Festival"" are bullfights where toreros, novilleros, and amateurs alike can attend. They are held for charity purposes. The costume worn at festivales is not the ornate ""traje de luces"" but the more staid, hubble ""traje corto"" . The bulls used for a festival are often ones whose horn-tips have been shaved or truncated, a practice that is deprecated by some writers. Some people think these bulls are safer, but this is not a reliable belief: the bull will not hit his target accurately, but the force of the blow will be unreduced. The wound may be more of a bruise that a sharp cut, but the surgeon will have a difficult time repairing it.
  • Corridas Goyescas are special events that intend to reflect the visuality of bullfights represented in the works of Francisco de Goya. This type of bullfights was originally introduced at Ronda back in 1954.

Mano-a-mano is a Spanish construction meaning hand-to-hand. It was used originally in bullfights where just the matador and the bull confront each other. ... A festival is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... The Plaza de Toros in Ronda, seen from the entrance Built in 1785, the Plaza de Toros found in Ronda is one of the oldest operational bullrings in Spain. ...

Other lesser spectacles

Paseíllo in a corrida de rejones

Professional Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1509x816, 127 KB) Paseíllo de una corrida de rejones en la Feria de San Lucas 05 (Jaén). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1509x816, 127 KB) Paseíllo de una corrida de rejones en la Feria de San Lucas 05 (Jaén). ...

  • The rejoneo or corrida de rejones — A rider on horseback (a rejoneador (lancer)) tries to stab javelins called rejones de castigo in the first stage and banderillas in the second. In the final stage, kills the bull with a lance called rejón de muerte, also in some occasions, the rejoneador will kill the bull on foot by the traditional way with muleta and estoca.
  • The recortadores — Where a bullfighter dodges around the bull and does not use a cape or sword [1]. Bulls are not killed during this type of bullfight. Most specialists of bullfighting of this art come from Aragon.
  • Comedy spectacles, such as El bombero torero y los enanitos toreros ("The bullfighting fireman and the bullfighting dwarfs").

Rejoneador (lancer) is the name given to a bullfighter who fights the bull on horseback. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...

Amateur
  • The encierro — A "running" of the bulls through the streets. Customarily, runners run before the bulls to guide them from the pen to the plaza, where the bulls will await the afternoon's bullfight. The most famous are those of Pamplona in July, although encierros exist in towns throughout Spain. A dangerous activity, care should be taken by those who wish to participate. In Segorbe, bulls are herded to the bullring by riders on horseback, an event called Entrada de toros y caballos, which is a tourist attraction.
  • The Toro de la Vega — in September at Tordesillas. A bull is carried to an open terrain by the river. There a crowd (on foot and on horse) tries to kill it with lances. Considered as an espectáculo tradicional (traditional spectacle) by the government of Castilla y León.
  • The vaquillas (sokamuturra in Basque) — A young cow is freed in a small ring (often built for the period of the festival and then dismantled) among local youths who tease her. The cow may have a dangling rope for recovery purposes. This is also practiced in Pamplona after the traditional running of the bulls.
    • A Mediterranean variation is placed on a dock. When youths are cornered, they jump into the water.
    • Another variation is the nightly toro embolado ("fire bull"). Balls of flammable material are placed on the horns, frightening the bull. Nowadays the bull is often substituted by a runner carrying a chassis on which fireworks are lit. Dodgers run to avoid the sparks.

Before the diffusion of modern sports premises, bull rings were used in the Basque Country for challenges of resistance running. The public made bets on the number of laps the runner could make. No bulls were involved. An encierro in Pastrana, Spain. ... Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from 7 July to 14 July in the city of Pamplona (Navarre), in northern Spain. ... Segorbe is a municipality in the mountainous coastal province of Castelló, Valencian Community, Spain. ... The Crest of Tordesillas Tordesillas is a village and municipality in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon in central Spain. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,480,369  5. ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from 7 July to 14 July in the city of Pamplona (Navarre), in northern Spain. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ...


Portuguese

The Portuguese now practice a type of bullfighting which is in many respects different from its original form. An idea of the original form can be constructed from the Spanish style. Portuguese corrida de touros has four main figures:

  • Cavaleiro - A horseman (rider), dressed in traditional 18th century costumes fights the bull from horseback. The horses are Portuguese Lusitanos, specially trained for the fights. These horses are usually skilled in dressage and may exhibit their art in the arena. The purpose of this fight is to stab three or four banderillas (small javelins) in the back of the bull. Horseback bullfighters are frequently members of old aristocratic families.
  • Forcados - The forcados are a group of eight men who challenge the bull directly, without any protection or weapon of defense. The front man provokes the bull into a charge to perform a pega de cara or pega de caras (face catch). The front man secures the animal's head and is quickly aided by his fellows who surround and secure the animal until he is subdued. Forcados were usually people from lower classes who, to this day, practice their art through amateur associations.
  • Matadores - Same as the Spanish matadores, but they do not kill the bull in the end.
  • Bandarilheiros - These men are the matador's and/or cavaleiro's helpers in the arena. They are skillful and wear the suit of light as the matador, except not with the gold sequins. While in the arena, they are holding the gold/pink cape to distract or position the bull.

Most Portuguese bullfights are held in two phases: the spectacle of the cavaleiro, followed by the pega. In Portugal, the main stars of bullfighting are the cavaleiros, as opposed to Spain, where the matadores are the most prominent bullfighters. Nevertheless, bullfights with matadores are frequent, notably with Portuguese matadores who practice their trade in Spain and who, when in Portugal, replace the sword in their final strike with a bandarilha. Examples of famous Portuguese matadores are Vítor Mendes and Pedrito de Portugal. This page is a list of horse and pony breeds. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... The Forcado is the third and final event in a typical Portuguese bullfight and it is a very old tradition. ...


The bull is not killed in the ring and, at the end of the corrida, leading oxen are let into the arena and two campinos on foot herd the bull along them back to its pen. The bull is usually killed, away from the audience's sight, by a professional butcher. It can happen that some bulls, after an exceptional performance, are healed, released to pasture until their end days and used for breeding. Nevertheless, tradition was so strong at the small frontier town of Barrancos, where the bull was illegally put to death in the arena, that the government was forced to relent and permit the town to follow its ancient matador tradition and kill the bull in the arena. Coat of Arms Barrancos is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 168. ...


In Portugal, some bulls have their horns severed and covered in a way that they do not present sharp points. This practice is believed to have been introduced by King Joseph I of Portugal after a tragic event in a bullfight he was presiding. The son and heir of the Marquis of Marialva was fighting a bull on horseback when the animal wounded his horse. The young man fell, was kicked by the bull and killed. The Marquis himself, then around 70 years of age, jumped from the royal cabin that he shared with the king, drew his sword and killed the animal. Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ...


There are many forms of traditional, popular bullfighting in Portugal, differing from the "official" version, some of which involve groups of people doing a tug-of-war with young bulls, by holding large wooden structures into which the animals charge. In the Azores, bullfighting is often remniscent of the running of the bulls in Pamplona, Spain, in which those most at risk are human beings, not the bulls themselves. A widely popular event would be the "Touradas a Corda" (bull on rope). Motto: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem: A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the Regional Government) Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court)1 Horta (Legislative Assembly)2 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese...


Bullfights are not accepted in some parts of Portuguese society, as it is in some parts of Spanish society, and to that extent, has seen a decline in the number of spectators in those sectors. However, southern and central regions such as Ribatejo and Alentejo, and the Azores are traditionally more interested in the corrida de touros, than Portugal's northern regions, where it has little presence. Part of this decline is traceable, for good or bad, to the homogenization and uniform moral subjectivity of European culture and ethical standards. Ancient province of Ribatejo The Tagus river crossing Ribatejo. ... NUTS II Alentejo region. ... The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ...


History

The primary factor for not killing bulls in Portuguese bullfights was the Battle of Salga, on the island of Terceira. This battle, also known as the Battle of the Bloody Sea, occurred on July 5, 1581, when a fleet of ten Spanish ships anchored off the shore of Terceira. Early in the morning on July 20, the Spanish sent their army in to invade. Near midday, as the fighting still seemed indecisive a friar named Pedro thought of the idea of driving a thousand wild cattle toward the Spanish lines. The strategy was a success, driving the Spanish back to the beach in an attempt to reach their ships. Almost all of the invaders were killed or drowned in their attempt to flee, hence the name Battle of the Bloody Sea. Terceira Island is a Portuguese island in the Azores Archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ...


Much later, in 1836, Portugal deemed the killing of bulls to be immoral, and passed a law banning the public killing of bulls. However, this law only lasted for a year; the next time a law was passed prohibiting the public killing of bulls was in 1928.


The Portuguese Parliament made bullfights to the death legal again in 2002, saying that it has been a social tradition. Previously when the Portuguese government deemed it illegal to kill the bulls, there was a great social outcry to re-legalize it. In contrast, there was again a social outcry in 2002, but this time to keep killing the bulls in the fights illegal.


French

Freestyle bullfighting

Freestyle bullfighting is a style of bullfighting developed in American rodeo. The style was developed by the rodeo clowns who protect bull riders from being trampled or gored by an angry bull. Freestyle bullfighting is a 70-second competition in which the bullfighter (rodeo clown) avoids the bull by means of dodging, jumping and use of a barrel. Competitions are organized in the US as the World Bullfighting Championship (WBC) and the Dickies National Bullfighting Championship under auspices of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR). Steer roping Rodeo is a traditional sport from Brazil that has been adopted in North America. ... A rodeo clown or bull fighter is a rodeo performer who works on bull riding contests. ... Bull Riding in Del Rio, Texas Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a large bovine, and attempting to stay mounted and hard for at least 8 seconds. ... Headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colo. ...


Cultural aspects of bullfighting

Artistic representation of a bullfight
Artistic representation of a bullfight

Many supporters of bullfighting regard it as a deeply ingrained integral part of their national cultures. The aesthetic of bullfighting is based on the interaction of the man and the bull. Rather than a competitive sport, the bullfight is more of a ritual which is judged by aficionados (bullfighting fans) based on artistic impression and command. Ernest Hemingway said of it in his 1932 non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist is in danger of death and in which the degree of brilliance in the performance is left to the fighter's honour." Image File history File links Summary Mosaik, by Bernard Sandoz (1909) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bullfighting ... Image File history File links Summary Mosaik, by Bernard Sandoz (1909) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Bullfighting ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1932 books | Ernest Hemingway works ...


The bullfight is above all about the demonstration of style and courage by its participants. While there is usually no doubt about the outcome, the bull is not viewed as a sacrificial victim — it is instead seen by the audience as a worthy adversary, deserving of respect in its own right. Bulls learn fast and their capacity to do so should never be underestimated. Indeed, a bullfight may be viewed as a race against time for the matador, who must display his bullfighting skills before the animal learns what is going on and begins to thrust its horns at something other than the cape. If a matador is particularly poor, the audience may shift its support to the bull and cheer it on instead. A hapless matador may find himself being pelted with seat cushions as he makes his exit.

Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865-1866.
Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865-1866.

The audience looks for the matador to display an appropriate level of style and courage and for the bull to display aggression and determination. For the matador, this means performing skillfully in front of the bull, often turning his back on it to demonstrate his mastery over the animal. The skill with which he delivers the fatal blow is another major point to look for. A skillful matador will achieve it in one stroke. Two is barely acceptable, while more than two is usually regarded as a botched job. Download high resolution version (2536x2115, 656 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2536x2115, 656 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar) Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 - April 30, 1883) was a noted French painter. ...


The moment when the matador kills the bull is the most dangerous point of the entire fight, as it requires him to reach between the horns, head on, to deliver the blow. Matadors are at the greatest risk of suffering a goring at this point. Gorings are not uncommon and the results can be fatal. Many bullfighters have met their deaths on the horns of a bull, including one of the most celebrated of all time, Manolete, who was killed by a bull named Islero, raised by Miura, and Paquirri, who was killed by the bull named Avispado. Islero was the name of the Miura bull that gored and killed the famous bullfighter Manolete. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


If the bull charges through the cape when the matador is holding, the crowd cheers and mostly saying Olé in Spanish-speaking countries. If the matador has done particularly well, he will be given a standing ovation by the crowd, who wave white handkerchiefs and sometimes throw hats and roses into the arena to show their appreciation. Occasionally, if the bull has done particularly well, it will get the same treatment as its body is towed out of the ring (although an even greater honor is for the bull to be allowed to survive due to an exceptional performance). The successful matador will be presented with colours to mark his victory and will often receive one or two severed ears, and even the tail of the bull, depending on the quality of his performance.


Social aspects

Bullfighting is traditionally a male sport. A very small number of women have been matadors and "cavaleiras" (in Portugal), recent example being Cristina Sánchez or Sónia Matias, but they have experienced considerable resistance and hostility from aficionados and other matadors. Cristina Sánchez de Pablos (born February 20, 1972 in Madrid) is a famous former bullfighter. ...


The introduction of ground fighting became a means for poor people to achieve fame and fortune. When a famous torero was asked why he risked his life, he reportedly answered Más cornadas da el hambre ("The horns of hunger hit harder"). The maletilla or espontáneo was a poor person who illegally jumped into the ring trying to show that he could bullfight before being taken away. While the authorities and the audience despised this disruption of the show, a figure like El Cordobés started his career in this way. Bull breeders have extensive properties (the dehesas generally in Andalusia, Extremadura or Castilla-La Mancha) where the bulls are raised free-range. They try to select cattle with a characteristic combination of intelligence, strength and attack-proneness. Often a star matador buys a ranch where he retires rich to breed his own pedigreed bulls. The bullfighting season coincides in each city with the local yearly festivals. Often the plazas are run by charities. After especially shocking disasters, charity corridas are organized. Manuel Benítez Pérez, born 4th May 1936 (probable date) in Palma del Río near Córdoba is known as El Cordobés (The Cordobese), the famous matador of the 1960s, who brought to the bullring an unorthodox acrobatic and theatrical style, totally indifferent to his own safety. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Capital Mérida Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41 634 km²  8,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 12th  1 083 879  2,5%  26,03/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  extremeño/a, castúo Statute of Autonomy February 26, 1983 ISO 3166-2 EX Parliamentary representation... Categories: Castile-La Mancha | Autonomous communities of Spain ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds and cages, as in factory farming. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ...


Influence in art

The corrida happens to the tune of live-played Pasodobles, many of which were were composed to honour famous toreros. Pasodoble is a Spanish march-like musical style. ...


Bullfighting is seen as a symbol of Spanish character. It has inspired Francisco de Goya, Georges Bizet, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Julio Romero de Torres, Pablo Picasso,Salvador Dalí, Ernest Hemingway, Federico García Lorca, Cantinflas, Pedro Almodóvar, Fernando Botero, Gabriel García Márquez, Joaquín Sabina, among many Spanish and foreign artists. The culture of Spain has roots in Iberian and Latin influences, Catholicism, Moorish Islam, tension between the centralized Castilian state and its regions, and its minority peoples. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... Georges Bizet. ... Woman Triumphant, by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez - a translation of La maja desnuda Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (January 29, 1867 - January 28, 1928) was a Spanish novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director. ... Julio Romero de Torres ( November 9, 1874 – May 10, 1930 ) was a Spanish painter. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech, Marquis of Pubol or Salvador Felip Jacint Dalí Domènech (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known popularly as Salvador Dalí, was a Spanish (Catalan) artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Mario Moreno Reyes (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993) was a comedian of the Mexican theatre and film industry. ... Pedro Almodóvar Caballero (pronounced ) (born September 24, 1951, in Calzada de Calatrava, Spain) is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and producer. ... Familia (1989) Fernando Botero (born April 19, 1932) is a neo-figurative Colombian artist, self-titled the most Colombian of Colombian artists. ... Gabriel José García Márquez, also known as Gabo (born March 6, 1927) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, publisher, political activist, and recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


A curious example of bullfighting technique--in a surprising place--occurs in the first fight scene of the Wolfgang Peterson film Troy. Achilles is faced by a one-on-one duel as an alternative to a pitched battle between two armies. Many lives depend on the outcome. Achilles's opponent is Boagrius, a seven-foot-tall, shaven-headed, heavily-muscled hero, who would have cowed anyone but Achilles. Achilles approaches him nonchalantly; the two throw their javelins, harmlessly; and the warriors approach for the final sword-fight. Surprisingly, Achilles runs toward Boagrius, leaps up, raises his sword high, and stabs him with the sword through the upper trapezius muscle, between the clavicles, and through the heart, aorta, or other vital point. A cardiologist was asked whether this was possible and confirmed that it was, just barely, possible to pierce the aorta that way, given precise knowedge of anatomy , great skill, and perfect timing. It is precisely the technique for an estocada, but on an animal of a different species: a human rather than a bull. Boagrius reacts much like a bull: he grunts, staggers forward one step, falls on his face, and stops moving.. Wolfgang Petersen Wolfgang Petersen (born March 14, 1941 in Emden, Lower Saxony, Germany) is a German film director. ... Troy is a movie that was released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, which is described in Homers Iliad and other Greek myths as having taken place in Anatolia (modern Turkey) around the 13th or 12th century BC; however, the plot differs greatly from Homer (see deviations... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles, also Akhilleus or Achilleus (Ancient Greek ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Trapezius In human anatomy, the trapezius is a large superficial muscle on a persons back. ... Collarbone and collar bone redirect here. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Cardiology is the branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart and blood vessels. ...


Criticisms of bullfighting

Anti-bullfight graffiti in Bogotá, Colombia

Animal welfare campaigners object strongly to bullfighting because they believe that animals should not be killed or abused for entertainment. Some also believe that the bull suffers severe stress or a slow, painful death. Bullfighting is banned in many countries; people taking part in such activity would be liable for terms of imprisonment for animal cruelty. "Bloodless" variations, though, are permitted and have attracted a following in California, and France. Spanish laws against cruelty to animals have abolished most archaic spectacles that had involved animals while including specific exceptions for bullfighting. As time goes by, the Spanish regulations have reduced the goryness of the fight, introducing the padding for picadors' horses and mandating full-fledged operating theatres in the premises, allowing modern injured bullfighters to survive where their forebearers would die of septicaemia or blood loss. A protest behind the Spanish embassy in Washington DC. Bullfighting has for many years been a controversial activity; while it has passionate supporters forming a vocal minority, it is reviled by critics as a gratuitously cruel blood sport. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 591 KB) Summary Anti-bullfight grafitti in Bogotá, taken 6 February 2005 by me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 591 KB) Summary Anti-bullfight grafitti in Bogotá, taken 6 February 2005 by me. ... Bogotá (known officially in Spanish as Bogotá D.C., formerly Santafé de Bogotá D.C.), is the capital and largest city in Colombia, with a population of roughly 7. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... An operating theatre or operating room is a room within a hospital within which surgical operations are carried out. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...

Poster advertising a bullfight in Leganés Graffited.
Poster advertising a bullfight in Leganés Graffited.

A number of animal rights or animal welfare activist groups undertake anti-bullfighting actions in Spain and other countries. In Spanish, opposition to bullfighting is referred to as taurofobia. Some separatists despise bullfighting because of its association with the Spanish nation and its blessing by the Franco regime as the fiesta nacional.[citation needed] However, even a former Basque Batasuna leader was a novillero before becoming a politician. Barcelona came out a few years ago with a symbolic vote against bullfighting.[citation needed] Catalan nationalism naturally played an important role in this decision. Bullfighting in Barcelona continues to this day[2], but the contract of La Monumental expires in 2007 and will not be reneewed. Bullfighting has been banned in the Canary Islands, but cockfighting is still legal.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2691 KB) Bullfighting advertisement taken by Juan García in Leganés at 2005-08-12 The ad is graffited with words like killers, pigs, shame on you, no bullfighting, shit of tradition File links The following pages link to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2691 KB) Bullfighting advertisement taken by Juan García in Leganés at 2005-08-12 The ad is graffited with words like killers, pigs, shame on you, no bullfighting, shit of tradition File links The following pages link to... Leganés streets Leganés is a town in central Spain. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November or possibly 19 November[1] 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and commonly known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco (pron. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Ciudad Condal (Spanish) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Catalan nationalism, or Catalanism, is a political movement that advocates the political autonomy of Catalonia or the Catalan Countries and in some cases, independence from Spain and France. ... The Canaries is the nickname of Norwich City FC. The Canaries is also the nickname of Hitchin Town F.C.. Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... The Cock Fight by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1847) A cockfight is a contest, held in a cockpit between two fighting cocks (roosters) trained to severely injure and/or kill one another. ...


Another current of criticism comes from aficionados themselves, who may despise modern developments such as the defiant style ("antics" for some) of El Cordobés or the lifestyle of Jesulín de Ubrique, a common subject of Spanish gossip magazines. His "female audience"-only corridas were despised by veterans, many of whom reminisce about times past, comparing modern bullfighters with early figures. Manuel Benítez Pérez, born 4th May 1936 (probable date) in Palma del Río near Córdoba is known as El Cordobés (The Cordobese), the famous matador of the 1960s, who brought to the bullring an unorthodox acrobatic and theatrical style, totally indifferent to his own safety. ... Confidential, July 1957 Gossip magazines, which featured scandalous gossip about the personal lives of celebrities, were at their peak in the 1950s. ...


Fin-de-siecle Spanish regeneracionista intellectuals protested against what they called the policy of pan y toros ("bread and bulls"), an analogue of Roman panem et circenses promoted by politicians to keep the populace content in its oppression. Later this criticism has shifted to the more popular pastime of football. The phrase panem et circenses (bread and circuses) is attributed to Juvenal, a Roman satiric poet of the 1st century AD, to describe the primary pursuits of the Roman populace. ... The Spanish football league (La Liga) is divided into divisions. ...


See also

Plaza de toros de La Santa Maria, in Bogotá, Colombia.

Image File history File links Santamaría_Bullring. ... Image File history File links Santamaría_Bullring. ... Bogotá (known officially in Spanish as Bogotá D.C., formerly Santafé de Bogotá D.C.), is the capital and largest city in Colombia, with a population of roughly 7. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Natonal champions of 2006 In Chile the Rodeo is the second sport but practiced, after soccer. ... A cow fight in the amphitheatre at Martigny, Switzerland. ... The Plaza de Toros in Ronda, seen from the second (highest) story. ... Ordóñez is a bullfighter family that has florished since 1917 in Ronda; it is one of two significant bullfighter families from the same city; the other one is the Romero family. ... Romero dynasty were the bullfighter family from Ronda,Spain that dates back 18th century, the only other family with history like the Romeros are Ordóñez dinasty whos founder is El Niño de la Palmas Cayetano Ordóñez who is also from Ronda. ... A fighting bull in a Spanish bull fighting arena Fighting Cattle or Fighting Bull (toro de lidia, toro lidiado, ganado bravo, Touro de Lide) is a Iberian cattle breed. ... The following is a list of noted bullfighters: Note: One thing that must be said is that most of these people have been known for been mentally sick. ... Jallikattu is a South Indian celebration involving bull taming, somewhat similar to the Spanish running of the bulls. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Iberian horse is native to the Iberian peninsula. ... The Lusitano is a breed of horse from Portugal that closely resembles the Andalusian. ... Andalusian horse The Andalusian horse or Spanish horse is one of the purest breeds of horses in the world today. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1932 books | Ernest Hemingway works ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... The Dangerous Summer is a 1960 book written by Ernest Hemingway. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Antonio Ordóñez born Antonio Ordóñez Araujo on February 16, 1932 Ronda, Málaga, Andalucía, Spain - December 19, 1998 He was one of the top bullfighters in his time he is the father of Carmen Ordóñez, he was married to Carmen González and Pilar Lezcano. ...

References

Further reading

  • The definitive encyclopedia on bullfighting is Los Toros ISBN 84-239-6008-0, a twelve-volumes work in Spanish started by José María de Cossío in 1943 (hence it is known as el Cossío) and updated by Editorial Espasa-Calpe up to 1996.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

Anti-bullfighting sites Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... One of the most successful and influential producers in the entertainment industry-responsible for classics such as Roots (TV miniseries), The Thorn Birds, L.A. CONFIDENTIAL, and Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory. ...

Bull fighting is an example of a modern blood sport. ... Contemporary picture of Bull-baiting Bait or Baiting is the act to worry or torment a chained or confined animal by setting dogs upon it for sport. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dog fighting is a violent fight between dogs. ... Flying a Saker Falcon Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for man. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Angling. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coursing. ... Hunter and Huntress redirect here. ... Insect fights are basically fight clubs for bugs. ... Pigsticking, boar-hunting, or hog-hunting is a form of hunting in which wild boars are pursued on horseback and killed with spears. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bullfighting - MSN Encarta (1168 words)
Traditionally, the bullfight is a combination of ritual and mortal combat, with an attempt, at the risk of the principal contestant's life, to maneuver a bull gracefully and kill it in a manner both courageous and aesthetically unrepugnant.
Bullfights were popular spectacles in ancient Rome, but it was in the Iberian Peninsula that these contests were fully developed.
As bullfighting developed, the men on foot, who by their capework aided the horsemen in positioning the bulls, began to draw more attention from the crowd, and the modern corrida began to take form.
bullfighting: Information from Answers.com (6463 words)
Bullfighting may trace its roots to Minoan Crete, where the bull-leaping ritual practiced by youths of both sexes is memorialized in the famous wall-frescos at Knossos.
Many bullfighters have met their deaths on the horns of a bull, including one of the most celebrated of all time, Manolete, who was killed by a bull named Islero, raised by Miura and Paquirri who was killed by the bull named Avispado.
Bullfighting has for many years been a controversial activity; while it has passionate supporters forming a vocal minority, it is reviled by critics as a gratuitously cruel blood sport.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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