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Encyclopedia > Bulking agent
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Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Image File history File links Portal. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Look up bacon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...



To regulate these additives, and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number. Initially these were the "E numbers" used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Committee to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use. For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ...

E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Additive 103, alkanet, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Binomial name Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch The name alkanet generally refers to Alkanna tinctoria or Dyers Bugloss (though it may be used for Anchusa officinalis or Common Bugloss). ...

The United States Food and Drug Administration listed these items as "Generally recognized as safe" or GRAS and these are listed under both their Chemical Abstract Services number and FDA regulation listed under the US Code of Federal Regulations hi “FDA” redirects here. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is an FDA designation that a chemical or substance (including certain pesticides) added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual FFDCA food additive tolerance requirements. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS): Designation by the FDA that a chemical or substance (including certain pesticides) added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual FFDCA food additive tolerance requirements. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States. ...

This is (intended to be) a comprehensive alphabetical list of food additives. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.

Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid.
Acidity regulators 
Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.
Anticaking agents 
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.
Antifoaming agents 
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.
Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to health.
Bulking agents 
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value.
Food coloring 
Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.
Color retention agents 
In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color.
Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk.
Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.
Flavour enhancers 
Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. They maybe extracted from natural sources (through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other methods) or created artificially.
Flour treatment agents 
Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking.
Humectants prevent foods from drying out.
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.
Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions.
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.
Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties.

Acidity redirects here. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Malic acid is a tart-tasting organic acid that plays a role in many sour or tart foods. ... Fumaric acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-butenedioic acid), also called allomaleic acid, boletic acid or lichenic acid, is a colorless crystalline flammable carboxylic acid based on butene and molecular formula C4H4O4. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives added to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Anticaking agents are used in such things as table salt to keep the product from forming lumps, making it better for packaging, transport and for the consumer. ... An antifoaming agent is a food ingredient intended to curb effusion or effervescence in preparation or serving. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Flavour enhancers are commonly added to commercially produced food products (eg. ... יחכיטכיגיגיוגקאטגקעיגקDistillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents) are food additives added to flour in order to improve its properties. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... A humectant is a hygroscopic substance that is used as a food additive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sugar substitute. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Thickening agents, or thickeners, are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties, like eg. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. ...

Other Info

Food additives have been used for centuries. Salt, sugar and vinegar were among the first and used to preserve foods. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of processed foods, there has been a massive explosion in the chemical adulteration of foods with additives. Considerable controversy has been associated with the potential threats and possible benefits of food additives.

Most food additives are considered safe. However, some are known to be carcinogenic or toxic. Hyperactivity in children, allergies, asthma, and migraines are often associated with adverse reactions to food additives.

Since 1987 Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. Each food additive has to be named or numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix 'E'.


  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1993). Everything Added to Food in the United States. Boca Raton, FL: C.K. Smoley (c/o CRC Press, Inc.).

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Sugar beet pulp bulking agent and process - Patent 4451489 (4057 words)
The sugar beet pulp bulking agent produced in accordance with this present invention is bland and decolorized.
The bulk density of the sugar beet pulp bulking agent is within the range of 0.1 to 0.5 grams per cc.
The water binding capacity of the sugar beet pulp bulking agent was determined analytically as being the weight of water retained in a pellet formed by centrifuging a slurry of sugar beet pulp bulking agent in excess water.
Periurethral Bulking Agents for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence (1209 words)
Periurethral bulking agents are substances that are injected periurethrally to increase tissue bulk around the urethra as a treatment of stress incontinence.
Bulking agents may be injected over a course of several treatments until the desired effect is achieved.
Periurethral bulking agents have been widely used for incontinence in women, and their FDA-labeled indication is limited to their use in women.
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