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Encyclopedia > Bulk carrier
Bulk carrier
The Sabrina I is a modern Handymax bulk carrier.
The Sabrina I is a modern Handymax bulk carrier.
General characteristics
Type : Cargo ship
Epoch : ~1850–present
Location : Worldwide
In use : 6,225 (above 10,000 DWT).[1]
Classes : Handymax, Handysize, Panamax, Capesize
Current characteristics
Size : 10 - 364,000 DWT
Propulsion : 2-stroke Diesel, 1 propeller
Materials : steel
Other : rear house, full hull, series of large hatches
Plans of a Panamax bulker.
Plans of a Panamax bulker.
Main article: Merchant ship

A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. Ships recognizable as bulk carriers began to appear in the mid-19th century[2] and have steadily grown in sophistication. Today, bulkers make up a third of the world's merchant fleet and range from small coastal trading vessels of under 500 deadweight tons (DWT) to mammoths of 365,000 DWT. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 522 pixelsFull resolution (1337 × 873 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixelsFull resolution (4193 × 2189 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixelsFull resolution (4193 × 2189 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... A mini-bulker taking on cargo in Brest. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... A container ship // “Water transport” redirects here. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...


Bulkers must be carefully designed and maintained to withstand the rigors of their work. They may carry cargo that is very dense, corrosive, or abrasive, and they are especially exposed to the dangers of cargo shifting which can cause a ship to capsize.[2] A bulker's large hatchways, important for efficient cargo handling, add to the risk of catastrophic flooding. Weight distribution refers to the apportioning of weight within a vehicle, but is used most often to refer to cars, airplanes, and watercraft. ... A team at the 2005 ISAF Team Racing World Championship narrowly avoids capsizing. ...


Historical forces including economic pressures, disasters, and a maturing body of international regulations have combined to mold today's bulker fleet, affecting aspects from architecture to day-to-day operational procedures.[3]

Contents

Definition

Cross section of a typical bulker. 1. Cargo hold. 2. Hatch cover. 3. Upper hopper tank for water ballast or oil. 4. Double bottom. 5. Lower hopper tank, for water ballast.
Cross section of a typical bulker. 1. Cargo hold. 2. Hatch cover. 3. Upper hopper tank for water ballast or oil. 4. Double bottom. 5. Lower hopper tank, for water ballast.

There are various ways to define bulk carriers. For example, the Safety of Life at Sea convention defines a bulk carrier as "a ship constructed with a single deck, top side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces and intended to primarily carry dry cargo in bulk; an ore carrier; or a combination carrier."[4] However, most classification societies use a broader definition where a bulker is any ship that carries dry unpackaged goods.[5] Multipurpose cargo ships can carry bulk cargo, but can also carry other cargoes and are not specifically designed for bulk carriage. Some consider tankers, like oil and chemical tankers as carriers of liquid bulk cargo.[6] The distinction between bulker and general cargo ship becomes unclear when considering small ships below 10,000 deadweight tons (DWT). For these vessels, the classification will depend on the ship's owner and classification society. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ... A Classification Society is an organisation that establish and apply technical standards in relation to the design, construction and survey of marine related contructions including ships and offshore structures. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Tanker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ...


A number of acronyms are frequently used to describe bulkers. OBO describes a bulker which carries a combination of ore, bulk, and oil, and O/O is used for combination oil and ore carriers.[7] The acronym VLBC, for Very Large Bulk Carrier, was adapted from the very large crude carrier designation used for tankers.[8] Similarly, ULBC, which stands for Ultra Large Bulk Carrier, was adapted from Ultra Large Crude Carrier.[8]


History

The four-masted barque Pamir carried nitrates, corn, and barley. Shown here in 1905.
The four-masted barque Pamir carried nitrates, corn, and barley. Shown here in 1905.

Bulk carriers evolved from general cargo ships,[2] gradually becoming more specialized after the development of the steam engine. The first steam ship regarded as being a bulk carrier was the British coal carrier SS John Bowes in 1852.[9][10] She featured a metal hull, a steam engine, and a ballasting system using seawater instead of sandbags which made it possible for this ship to compete very effectively in the British coal market.[9] The first bulkers with diesel propulsion began to appear in 1911.[9][10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Pamir on a 5p stamp of the Falkland Islands The Pamir was one of the Flying P-Liners, the famous sailing ships of the German shipping company F. Laeisz. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... A ballast tank is a compartment within a boat or ship, that holds water. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Before World War II, the demand for bulk products was low, about 25 million tons for metal ores,[11][12] and most of this trade was coastal.[13] However, two defining characteristics of bulkers were already emerging: the double bottom, which was adopted in 1890, and the triangular structure of the ballast or hopper tanks, which was introduced in 1905.[9] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... A double bottom is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship, perhaps a few...


In the 1950s, an international bulk trade began to develop among industrialized nations, particularly between the European countries, the United States and Japan.[11] Due to the economics of this trade, bulkers became larger and more specialized.[3][12] A developed country is a country that is technologically advanced and that enjoys a relatively high standard of living. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Before the appearance of bulk carriers, there were two methods to ship what we now consider bulk goods. The first was to package it in sacks, stack the sacks onto pallets, and use a crane to move the pallets into the cargo hold of a general purpose freighter.[2] The second method was to charter an entire ship, and build plywood grain bins, feeders and shifting boards into the ship’s holds.[14] Then the loose grain was loaded with a conveyor, pneumatic tube or grabs, while men with shovels kept the cargo trimmed. These methods were time consuming, labor intensive and inefficient. Like the container ship, the modern bulker has evolved to solve the problem of loading and unloading cargo efficiently. A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Crane or Cranes may refer to any of the following: A crane is a piece of industrial machinery used for hoisting and handling materials, working on tall buildings, excavation with a clam bucket or dragline, pile driving, or loading and unloading cargo/containers onto and off of ships/rail cars. ... Point of contact between a power transmission belt and its pulley A conveyor belt or belt conveyor consists of two end pulleys, with a continuous loop of material that rotates about them. ... Pneumatic tubes, also known as capsule pipelines or Lamson tubes, are systems in which cylindrical containers are propelled through a network of tubes by compressed air or by vacuum. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Shovel with wide blade - especially appropriate for lifting snow or coal A shovel is a tool for lifting and moving loose material such as coal, gravel, snow, soil, or sand. ... Labor intensity is the relative proportion of labor (compared to capital) used in a process. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ...


Modern bulk carriers

Growth of bulk carrier deadweight tonnage in green and percentage of bulkers to the entire fleet in red, from 1977 to 1999.
Growth of bulk carrier deadweight tonnage in green and percentage of bulkers to the entire fleet in red, from 1977 to 1999.[15]

The world's bulk transport has reached immense proportions: in 1996, 1,092 million tons of coal, iron ore, grain, bauxite, and phosphate were transported in bulk; in addition to 703 million tons of steel, cement, pig iron, fertilizer and sugar.[16] Today, bulkers represent 40% of the world fleet in terms of tonnage[17] and 39.4% in terms of vessels.[17] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... Pig iron is raw iron, the immediate product of smelting iron ore with coke and limestone in a blast furnace. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ...


The world's bulker fleet includes 5,849 ships with a total capacity of 303.2 million tons.[18] "Pure bulkers" made up the clear majority, with 5,632 ships and a capacity of 279.2 million tons. Ore carriers are the second largest sub-class, with 157 ships and a capacity of 20.7 million tons. The Great Lakes bulker fleet includes 101 ships with a capacity of 3.3 million tons.


41% of the world's bulkers are over 20 years old.[19] Another 20% are between 10 and 20 years old, and 39% are less than 10 years old.[19] All of the 98 bulkers registered in the Great Lakes trade are over 20 years old.[19]




Size categories

Bulkers can be divided into these major size categories:[20]

Bulk Carrier Size Categories
Illustration Description Ships Traffic[21] Price
Small, less than 10,000 DWT,[22] This category includes Mini-bulkers, which can carry from 500 to 2,500 tons, have a single hold, and are designed mainly for river transport and often to pass under bridges. They have small crews, usually from three to eight people. Shown is Aladin, a mini-bulker designed to pass under low bridges. No data. No data. No data.
Handysize, from 10,000 to 35,000 DWT,[22] These smaller Handysize and Handymax vessels are general purpose in nature,[5] and not only comprise 71% of all bulkers, but also have the highest rate of growth.[23] This is partly due to new regulations coming into effect which put greater constraints on the building of larger vessels.[23] 34%[5][24] 18%[5] $30,000,000 [sic][25] for a new Handymax and $30,000,000 [sic] for a 5-year-old Handymax in 2004.[26]
Handymax, from 35,000 to 65,000 DWT,[22] A Handymax vessel is typically 150–200 meters in length, 52,000–58,000 DWT, with five cargo holds and four cranes.[5] 37%[5][24]
Panamax, from 65,000 to 80,000 DWT,[22] determined by the Panama canal's lock chambers, 32.26 metres in width, 320.0 metres long, and 25.9 metres deep.[27] Sea Phoenix, a 40,000 ton Handymax[28] is shown passing through the Panama Canal. 19%[5][24] 20%[5] $35,000,000 [sic][25] for a large new Panamax and $41,000,000 [sic] for a comparable five-year-old in 2004.[26]
Capesize, from 80,000 to 200,000 DWT,[22] too large to traverse the Suez or Panama Canals and must round the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn to travel between oceans. Capesize bulkers are specialized, 93% of their cargoes being iron ore and coal.[5] 10%[5][24] 62%[5] $61,000,000 for a new 170,000 DWT Capesize and $57,000,000 for a comparable five-year-old in 2004.[26]
Very Large Bulk Carriers, for ships over 200,000 DWT.[22] The Berge Stahl, shown at left, is 364,768 deadweight metric tons and is the world's largest bulker. It is 343 m long, has a beam of 65 m, and a draft of 23 m. Bulk carriers of this size almost always carry iron ore.[22]


Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x640, 89 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Panamax ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... The Gatun Locks of the Panama Canal, looking north towards the Atlantic Ocean. ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Cape of Good Hope; looking towards the west, from the coastal cliffs above Cape Point. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... Specialization is the separation of tasks within a system. ... The MS Berge Stahl is the largest bulk cargo ship in the world. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ... The draft of a ships hull is the vertical distance from the bottom of the hull to the waterline. ...


General types

General Bulk Carrier Types
Illustration Description
Basic bulk carriers feature a series of holds (from 5 for a 35,000 ton vessel to 9 for a 250,000 ton vessel[29]) covered by prominent hatch covers. They have cranes which allow them to discharge cargo in ports without shore-based equipment. They are designed to be flexible with respect to the cargoes they can carry and the routes they can travel. (Photo: A traditional bulker equipped with cranes.)
Combined carriers can carry ore and bulk simultaneously, and may carry oil in the wing tanks. Combined carriers require special design and are expensive. They were prevalent in the 1970s, but their numbers have dwindled since 1990. (Photo: The Captain Diamantis, carrying bulk and ore.)
Gearless carriers are bulkers without cranes or conveyors. These ships depend entirely on the shore-based equipment of the ports they visit for loading and unloading. Due to their large size, they can only dock at the largest and most advanced ports. The use of gearless bulkers avoids the costs of installing, operating, and maintaining cranes. (Photo: Berge Athen, a 225,000 ton gearless bulker.)
Self-dischargers are bulkers with conveyor belts which allow them to discharge their cargo quickly and efficiently. (Photo: The John B. Aird a self-discharger on the Great Lakes.)
Lakers are the bulkers prominent on the Great Lakes, often identifiable by having a forward house which helps in transiting locks. Operating in fresh water, these ships suffer much less corrosion damage and have a much longer lifespan than saltwater ships.[30] As of 2005, there were 98 lakers of 10,000 deadweight tons or over.[31] (Photo: Edmund Fitzgerald, a Great Lakes bulker.)
BIBO or "Bulk In, Bags Out" bulkers are specially equipped to provide the service of bagging cargo at loading time. The CHL Innovator, shown in the photo, is a BIBO bulker. In one hour, this ship can load and package 300 tons of bulk sugar into 50 kg sacks.[32]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Crane or Cranes may refer to any of the following: A crane is a piece of industrial machinery used for hoisting and handling materials, working on tall buildings, excavation with a clam bucket or dragline, pile driving, or loading and unloading cargo/containers onto and off of ships/rail cars. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x592, 64 KB) MV Berge Athene, a bulk carrier of 225,200 DWT, built in 1979. ... Crane or Cranes may refer to any of the following: A crane is a piece of industrial machinery used for hoisting and handling materials, working on tall buildings, excavation with a clam bucket or dragline, pile driving, or loading and unloading cargo/containers onto and off of ships/rail cars. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2037 KB) John B. Aird transiting the Welland Canal, just north of St. ... This article is about industrial conveyor belts. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ... The word lock came from Anglo-Saxon loca = a secure enclosure. Currently lock has several meanings: A lock (device) is a mechanical fastening device which may be used on a door, vehicle, safe, or other container. ... See corrosive for the hazard. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1218 × 812 pixel, file size: 171 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) CHL Innovator (BIBO type vessel) leaving Gdansk, Poland CHL Innovator (statek typu BIBO) wychodzący z gdańskiego portu File history Legend: (cur) = this is the...

Today's fleet

Bulk carriers by flag state.[33] (source data)
Flag states

As of 2005, the United States Maritime Administration's statistics count 6,225 bulkers of 10,000 deadweight tons or greater worldwide.[1] More bulkers are registered in Panama, with 1,703 ships, than any four other flag states combined.[1] In terms of the number of bulk carriers registered, the top five flag states also include Hong Kong with 492 ships, Malta (435), Cyprus (373), and China (371).[1] Panama also dominates bulker registration in terms of deadweight tonnage. Positions two through five are held by Hong Kong, Greece, Malta, and Cyprus.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag State refers to that authority under which a country exercises regulatory control over the Commercial vessel which is registered under its flag. ...

Largest fleets

Greece, Japan, and China are the top three owners of bulk carriers, with 1,326, 1,041, and 979 vessels respectively.[34] These three nations account for 3,346 vessels or over 53% of the world's fleet.[34]


There are number of large private fleets, for example Gearbulk Holdings Ltd., a multinational, has 78 bulkers.[35] Fednav in Canada operates a fleet of 70 bulkers, including two that are specially designed for work in icy environments.[36] Croatia's Atlantska Plovidba has a fleet of 14 bulkers.[37] H. Vogemann in Hamburg, Germany operates a fleet of 13 bulkers.[38] Portline in Portugal, owns 11 bulkers.[39] TORM in Denmark and Elcano in Spain also own notable bulker fleets.[40] Some companies specialize in Mini-bulker operations. For example, England's Stephenson Clarke Shipping Limited owns a fleet of eight Mini-bulkers and five small Handysize bulkers.[41] Cornships Management and Agency Inc. in Turkey owns a fleet of seven Mini-bulkers which specialize in markets in Europe, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and West Africa.[42] This article is about the city in Germany. ...

Builders

Asian companies dominate the construction of bulk carriers. Of the world's 6,225 bulkers, 3,841 or almost 62% were built in Japan[43] by shipyards such as Oshima and Sanoyas Hishino Meisho.[5] South Korea, with notable shipyards Daewoo and Hyundai Heavy Industries[5] ranked second among builders, accounting for 643 ships. The People's Republic of China with large shipyards such as Dalian Shipyard, Chengxi, and Shanghai Waigaoqiao ranked third, with 509 ships.[43] Taiwan, with shipyards such as China Shipbuilding Corporation[5] ranked fourth, accounting for 129 ships.[43] Shipyards in these top four countries accounted for over 82% of bulkers afloat.[43] This article is about the chaebol Daewoo Group. ... Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. ...

Freight charges

Representative freight charges for transporting a Capesize load of coal from South America to Europe in 2005 was $15–25/ton in 2005. A Panamax load of aggregate materials between the Gulf of Mexico and Japan cost $40–70/ton that same year. Freight rate for charters varied during 2005 between $40,000 and $70,000 for a Capesize ship, $20,000-$50,000/day for a Panamax ship and $18,000-$30,000/day for a Handymax ship.[26] Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Chartering is part of the shipping industry. ...

Scrap prices

Generally, ships are removed from the fleet through a process known as scrapping.[44] Ship-owners and buyers negotiate scrap prices based on factors such as the ship's empty weight (called light ton displacement or LDT) and prices in the scrap metal market.[45] In 1998, almost 700 ships went through the scrapping process at shipbreakers in places like Alang, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh.[44] In 2004, 500,000 deadweight tons worth of bulkers were scrapped, representing 4.7% of all scrapped ships.[26] That year, bulkers sold for particularly high scrap prices, between $340 and $350 per LDT.[26]
Alang is a census town in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat, India. ... This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ...


Operation

Crew

Typical Bulk Carrier Crew
Captain/Master
Deck
department
Engine
department
Steward's
department

1 -Chief Officer
1 -2nd Officer
1 -3rd Officer
1 -Boatswain
2-6-Able Seamen
0-2-Ord. Seamen
Captain Sir Arthur Henry Rostron receiving a loving cup from Margaret Brown for his rescue of RMS Titanic survivors Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. ... The head of the deck department on a merchant vessel, second in command after the ships Master (the Captain). ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Second Mate (2/M) or Second Officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... The third officer of a merchant vessel. ... The bosun of a civilian sail-training ship. ... This article is about a civilian occupation. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks In the United States Merchant Marine, an Ordinary Seaman or OS is an entry-level position in a ships deck department. ...

1 -Chief Engineer
1 -1st Asst. Engr.
1 -2nd Asst. Engr
1-2-3rd Asst. Engr.
0-2-QMED/Jr. Engr.
1-3- Oiler
0-3-Greaser/s
1-3-Entry-level
The Chief Engineer on a merchant vessel is the official title of someone qualified to oversee the entire engine department; the qualification is colloquially called a Chiefs Ticket. The Chief Engineer commonly referred to as The Chief or just Chief is responsible for all operations and maintenance that has... A First Assistant Engineer (also called the Second Engineer in some countries) is a licensed member of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... A Second Assistant Engineer or Third Engineer is a licensed member of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Qualified Member of the Engineering Department or QMED is a senior unlicensed crewmember in the engine room of a ship. ... For alternate meanings see Edmonton Oilers and Houston Oilers An oiler is a ship, also called a tanker, that can carry a liquid cargo of petroleum, or a naval support vessel that carries fuel to naval ships at sea, and can transfer the fuel during underway operations. ...

1-Chief Steward
1-Chief Cook
1-Stwd's Asst
Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Steward (often shortened to steward) is the senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards Department of a ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Cook (often shortened to Cook) is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Stewards Assistant or SA is an unlicensed, entry-level crewmember in the Stewards Department of a merchant ship. ...

The crew on a typical bulker includes 20 to 30 people, though smaller ships can be handled by 8. The crew will include the captain or master, the deck department, the engineering department, and the steward's department. The practice of taking passengers aboard cargo ships, once almost universal, is very rare today and almost non-existent on bulkers.[46] The Deck Department is a reference to a division on a U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, or Merchant Marine vessel which is comprised of sailors who perform maintenance and upkeep on the ship (chippers and painters, as theyre commonly referred to) and are knowledgable in basic seamanship. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Main article: Ship transport Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ...


During the 1990s, bulkers were involved in an alarming number of shipwrecks, leading ship-owners to commission a study seeking to explain the effect of various factors on the crew's effectiveness and competence.[47] The study showed that bulk carrier crews' performance was the lowest of all groups studied, with the best bulker performance aboard younger and Capesize ships.[47] A correlation was also found between competence and the better maintained ships. The study also showed higher competence aboard ships on which fewer languages were spoken.[47] Shipwreck of the SS American Star Shipwreck in the Saugatuck River mouth in Westport, Connecticut A shipwreck or sunken ship can refer to the remains of a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the... Ship owners can be owners of small personal watercraft such as motor boats or sailboats. ...


Fewer deck officers are employed on bulkers than on similarly sized ships of other types.[47] A mini-bulker will have 2 to 3 deck officers, while larger Handysize and Capesize bulkers will carry 4.[47] A LNG tanker of the same size will have an extra deck officer and another unlicensed mariner.[47] Officer of the Deck (OOD) is a position in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard that confers certain authority and responsibility. ... An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ...


Voyages

Wilson Bar being loaded with a gantry in Gdansk.
Wilson Bar being loaded with a gantry in Gdansk.

A bulker's voyages are determined by market forces, and often vary. For example, a ship may engage in the grain trade during the harvest season and later move on to carry other cargoes or work on a different route. Aboard a coastal carrier in the tramp trade, one will often not know the next port of call until the cargo is fully loaded. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ...


Due primarily to inefficiencies in discharging bulk cargo, bulkers spend more time in port than other ships. A study of Mini-bulkers found that it takes, on average, twice as much time to unload a ship than it does to load it.[47] For example, a Mini-bulker will spend 55 hours at a time in port, compared to 35 hours for a similar-sized lumber carrier.[47] For the larger bulkers, this time in port increases to 74 hours for Handymax and 120 hours for Panamax vessels.[47] Compared with the 12-hour turnarounds common with container ships, 15-hour turnarounds for car carriers, and 26-hour turnarounds for large tankers, bulker crews have much greater opportunities to spend some time ashore.[47]


Loading and unloading

Sulphur loading in Vancouver.
Sulphur loading in Vancouver.

Loading and unloading a bulker is time-consuming and dangerous. The process is planned by the ship's captain, often with assistance from the chief mate. International regulations require the captain and terminal master agree on a detailed plan before operations begin.[48] Deck officers and stevedores oversee the operations. Still, from time to time, a ship will be incorrectly loaded and capsize or break in half at the pier.[49] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x750, 205 KB)Large sulfur pile at North Vancouver, B.C., Canada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x750, 205 KB)Large sulfur pile at North Vancouver, B.C., Canada. ... Captain Sir Arthur Henry Rostron receiving a loving cup from Margaret Brown for his rescue of RMS Titanic survivors Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. ... The head of the deck department on a merchant vessel, second in command after the ships Master (the Captain). ... Officer of the Deck (OOD) is a position in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard that confers certain authority and responsibility. ... Stevedores on a New York dock loading barrels of corn syrup onto a barge on the Hudson River. ...


The actual work of loading can be done in a variety of ways, depending on the cargo, equipment available on the ship, equipment available on the dock. In the least advanced ports, cargo can be loaded with shovels or bags poured from the hatch cover. This system is being replaced with faster, less labor-intensive methods.[50] Double-articulation cranes, which can load at a rate of 1000 tons per hour, represent a very widely used method,[50] and the use of shore-based gantry cranes, reaching 2000 tons per hour, is growing.[50] A crane's discharge rate is limited by the bucket's capacity (from 6 to 40 tons) and by the speed to which the crane can take a load, deposit it at the terminal, and to return to take the next. For modern gantry cranes, the total time of the grab-deposit-return cycle is about 50 seconds.[5] A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen by a portainer crane A portainer (also known as a gantry crane, container crane, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, STS crane or a dockside crane) is a very large crane used to load and unload container ships, and...


Conveyor belts offer a very efficient method of loading, with standard loading rates varying between 100 and 700 tons per hour, although the most advanced ports can offer rates of 16,000 tons per hour.[51][50] However, there is a danger with conveyors: start-up and shutdown procedures are complicated and require time to carry out.[51] Self-discharging ships also use conveyor belts with load rates of around 1000 tons per hour.[50]


Once the ship has discharged its cargo, the crew begins to clean the holds. This is particularly important if the next cargo is of a different type.[52] The immense size of the cargo holds and irritating qualities of many cargoes add to the difficulty of cleaning the holds. When the holds are clean, the actual loading begins.


During all stages of loading, it is crucial to keep the cargo level to maintain stability.[53] As the hold is filled, machines such as excavators and bulldozers are often used to keep the cargo in check. Levelling is particularly important when the hold only is partially filled, due to increased risks of shifting cargo.[54] In this case, extra precautions are taken, such as adding longitudinal divisions and securing wood atop the cargo.[2] If a hold is filled entirely, a technique called tomming is used,[53] which involves digging out an area directly below the hatch cover to a depth of about 6 feet and re-filling this area with bagged cargo or weights.[53] A tracked excavator by Daewoo. ... A Caterpillar D10N bulldozer at work A bulldozer is a very powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ...

A typical bulker offload
1. A bulldozer is loaded into the hold. 2. The bulldozer pushes cargo to the center of the hold. 3. The gantry crane picks up the cargo. 4. The gantry crane removes the cargo from the ship. 5. The gantry crane moves the cargo to a bin on the pier.
Photos courtesy of Danny Cornelissen of portpictures.nl.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture by Danny Cornelissen from the portpictures. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture by Danny Cornelissen from the portpictures. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (528 × 704 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ...

Architecture

Examples of bulker architectural plans
Line plan of a 1990 Capesize ore carrier.
Line plan of a 1990 Capesize ore carrier.
 
Line plan of a 1990 Capesize ore carrier.
Simplified general arrangement of a 1980 Panamax bulker.
Line plan of a 1990 Capesize ore carrier.
Typical midship section of a bulker with a single hull and double bottom.

A bulk carrier's design depends greatly on the cargo it will carry. The cargo's density is particularly important. Densities for common bulk cargoes vary greatly, from 0.6 tons per cubic meter for light grains to 3 tons per cubic meter for iron ore.[5] Ore carriers, for example, are governed by the limiting factor of overall weight as ore has high density. Coal carriers, on the other hand, are limited by overall volume as coal has a lower density and thus fills the holds before the ship reaches its maximum draught.[5] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixelsFull resolution (4193 × 2189 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Steamer New York in c. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... The volume of a solid object is the three-dimensional concept of how much space it occupies, often quantified numerically. ...


For a given tonnage, the second factor which governs the ship's dimensions is the size of the ports and waterways it will travel to. For example, a vessel that will pass the Panama Canal will be limited in its beam, or width. Generally, the ratio of length-to-width ranges between 5 and 7, with an average of 6.2. The ratio of length-to-height will be between 11 and 12.[5]


Hull shape and machinery

Bulkers are designed to be easy to build and to store cargo efficiently. To facilitate construction, bulkers are built with a single hull curvature.[5] Also, while a bulbous bow allows a ship to move more efficiently through the water, designers lean towards simple vertical bows, especially on the largest bukers.[5] Full hulls, with large block coefficients, are almost universal, and as a result, bulkers are inherently slow.[5] This is offset by their efficiency. One measure of this efficiency is found in the ratio of the empty ship's weight to its deadweight tonnage. For bulkers this figure ranges between 12% for a large Capesize bulker to 20% for a smaller Handymax ship.[5] // Several basic ship types are considered. ... The bulbous bow of the U.S. Navy carrier USS Ronald Reagan is clearly visible in this photograph. ... A hull is the body of a ship or boat. ...


A bulker's engine room is generally located near the stern, under the house and above fuel tanks to decrease the length of piping. Larger bulkers, from Handymax up, have a two-stroke diesel engine which directly moves a single propeller. An alternator is coupled directly with the propeller shaft, and an auxiliary generator is used.[5] On the smallest bulkers, one or two four-stroke diesels are used, and coupled with the propeller via a gear box.[5] The average design ship speed for bulkers of Handysize and above is between 13.5 and 15 knots.[22] The propeller speed is relatively low, at about 90 revolutions per minute.[5] Location of a ships engine room In a ship, an engine room is where the main engine(s), generators, compressors, pumps, fuel/lubrication oil purifiers and other major machinery are located. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ... It has been suggested that Racing Fuel Cell be merged into this article or section. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... A propeller shaft connects a propeller to an engine. ... Look up generator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... In mechanics, a transmission or gearbox is the gear and/or hydraulic system that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover (which can be an engine or electric motor), to some form of useful output device. ...


In the late 1970s and early 1980s, coal-fuelled ships were regarded as a viable alternative to petroleum due to the rise in price of fuel oil. The Australian New Lines company constructed the 74,700-ton, 19,000-horsepower steamship River Boyne which was a coal-burner. This strategy gave an interesting advantage to carriers of bauxite and similar fuel cargoes, but suffered from problems with poor engine yield, maintenance problems, and high initial costs.[55] Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Oil crisis may refer to: 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1990 spike in the price of oil Oil price increases of 2004 and 2005 Hubbert peak theory Energy crisis This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... hp, see HP (disambiguation) The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ...


Hatches

The sliding hatchcovers of the Zaira.
The sliding hatchcovers of the Zaira.

A hatch or hatchway is the opening at the top of a cargo hold. The mechanical devices which allow hatches to be opened and closed are called hatch covers. In general, hatch covers are between 45% and 60% of the ship's breadth, or beam, and 57% to 67% of the length of the holds.[5] To efficiently load and unload cargo, hatches must be large, but large hatches present structural problems. Hull stress is concentrated around the edges of the hatches, and these areas must be reinforced.[56] This reinforcement is usually achieved by locally increasing the scantlings or by adding structural members called stiffeners. Both of these options have the undesired effect of adding weight to the ship. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


There are a variety of arrangements for opening and closing hatches. As recently as the 1950s, bulk carriers had wooden covers that would be manually disassembled and reassembled, rather than opened and closed.[57] On newer vessels, hatches are opened and closed by use of hydraulic systems, and can generally be operated by one person.[58] Many systems involve the hatch cover sliding forwards, backwards, or to the sides. It is key that the hatch covers be watertight: unsealed hatches lead to accidental cargo hold flooding, which has caused many bulkers to sink.[59]


Regulations regarding hatch covers have evolved since the investigation following the loss of the MV Derbyshire.[60] The Load Line Conference of 1966 imposed a load of 1.74 tons/m² due to sea water, and a minimum scantling of 6 mm for the tops of the hatch covers. The IACS then introduced the Unified Requirement S21 in 1998 where the pressure due to sea water is computed as a function between freeboard and speed, especially for hatch covers located on the forward portion of the ship.[5] The MV Derbyshire, was built in 1976 by Swan Hunter, as an ore-bulk-oil combination carrier, she was registered at Liverpool, and owned by Bibby Line. ...


Hull

Bulkers have a cross-section typical of most merchant ships. The upper and lower corners of the hold are used as ballast tanks, as is the double bottom area. The corner tanks are reinforced and serve another purpose besides controlling the ship's trim. Designers choose the angle of the corner tanks to be less than that of the angle of repose of the anticipated cargoes.[13] This greatly reduces the possibility of side-to-side movement, or "shifting," of cargo which can seriously endanger the ship.[13] A ballast tank is a compartment within a boat or ship, that holds water. ... A double bottom is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship, perhaps a few... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ...


The double bottoms are subject to a number of design constraints as well. The primary concern is that they be sufficiently high to allow the passage of pipes and cables. These areas must also be roomy enough to allow people safe access to perform surveys and maintenance. On the other hand, concerns of excess weight and wasted volume keep the double bottoms very tight spaces.


Bulker hulls are made of steel, usually mild steel.[61] Some manufacturers have preferred high-tensile steel recently in order to reduce the tare weight.[62] However, the use of high-tensile steel for longitudinal and transverse reinforcements can reduce the hull's rigidity and resistance to corrosion.[13] Forged steel is used for some ship parts, such as the propeller shaft support.[5] Transverse partitions are made of corrugated iron, reinforced at the bottom and at connections.[5] The construction of bulker hulls using a concrete-steel sandwich has been investigated.[63] Mild steel is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. ... Corrugated iron is a building material made by taking sheet iron or steel and pressing it into corrugations to give the flat sheet stiffness without the need for a frame. ... Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Double hulls have become popular in the past ten years.[5] Designing a vessel with double sides adds primarily to its breadth, since bulkers are already required to have double bottoms.[64] One of the advantages of the double hull is to make room to place all the structural elements in the sides, removing them from the holds.[65] This increases the volume of the holds, and simplifies their structure which helps in loading, unloading, and cleaning.[66] Double sides also improve a ship's capacity for ballasting, which is particularly important in the carriage of light goods: the ship may have to increase its draught for stability or seakeeping reasons, which is done by ballasting water. A double bottom is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship, perhaps a few... A ships hold, in older ships, was below the orlop deck, the lower part of the interior of a ships hull, especially when considered as storage space, as for cargo. ...


A recent design, called Hy-Con, seeks to combine the strengths of single-hull and double-hull construction. Short for Hybrid Configuration, this design doubles the forward-most and rear-most holds and leaves the others single-hulled.[67] This approach increases the ship's solidity at key points, while reducing the overall tare weight.[68]


Since the adoption of double hull has been more of an economic than a purely architectural decision, some argue that ships with double sides will receive less comprehensive surveys and suffer more from hidden corrosion.[69] In spite of opposition, double hulls became a requirement for Panamax and Capesize vessels in 2005.[70]


Scantlings

Freighters are in continual danger of "breaking their back"[71] and thus longitudinal strength is a primary architectural concern. A naval architect uses the correlation between longitudinal strength and a set of hull thicknesses called scantlings to manage problems of longitudinal strength and stresses. A ship's hull is comprised of individual parts called members.[71] The set of dimensions of these members is called the ship's scantlings.[71] Naval architects calculate the stresses a ship can be expected to be subjected to, add in safety factors, and then can calculate the required scantlings.[71] Scantling, measurement of prescribed size, dimensions, particularly used of timber and stone and also of vessels. ...


These analyses are conducted for a number of conditions, from travelling empty, loading and unloading scenarios, partial loads, full loads, to conditions of temporary overloading.[5] Places subject to the largest stresses are studied carefully, such as hold-bottoms, hatch-covers, bulkheads between holds, and the bottoms of ballast tanks.[5] Great Lakes bulkers also must be designed to withstand springing, or developing resonance with the waves, which can cause fatigue fractures.[72] Springing as a nautical term refers to global vertical resonant hull girder vibration due to oscillating wave loads along the hull of the ship. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Ocean waves Ocean surface waves are surface waves that occur in the upper layer of the ocean. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ...


Since April 1, 2006, the International Association of Classification Societies has adopted the Common Structural Rules. The rules apply to bulkers more than 90 meters in length and require that scantlings' calculations take into account items such as the effect of corrosion, the harsh conditions often found in the North Atlantic, and dynamic stresses during loading. The rules also establish margins for corrosion, from 0.5 to 0.9 mm.[73] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Safety

The 1980s and 1990s were a very unsafe time for bulk carriers. Many bulkers sank during this time, 99 were lost between 1990 and 1997 alone.[11] Most of these losses happened very quickly, making it impossible for the crew to escape: more than 650 sailors were lost during this same period.[11] Due partly to the shipwreck of the MV Derbyshire, a number of international safety resolutions regarding bulkers were adopted during the 1990s.[29] The MV Derbyshire, was built in 1976 by Swan Hunter, as an ore-bulk-oil combination carrier, she was registered at Liverpool, and owned by Bibby Line. ...


Stability problems

Cargo shifting poses a great danger for bulkers. The problem is even more pronounced with grain cargoes, since grain settles during a voyage and creates extra space between the top of the cargo and the top of the hold.[2] Cargo is then free to move from one side of the ship to the other as the ship rolls. This can cause the ship to list, which, in turn, causes more cargo to shift. This kind of chain reaction can capsize a bulker very quickly.[2]


The 1960 SOLAS Convention sought to control this sort of problem.[16] These regulations required the upper ballast tanks designed in a manner to prevent shifting. They also required cargoes to be levelled, or trimmed, using excavators working directly in the holds.[74] The practice of trimming reduces the amount of the cargo's surface area in contact with air[75] which has a useful side-effect: reducing the chances of spontaneous combustion in cargoes such as coal, iron, and metal shavings.[75]


Another sort of risk that can effect dry cargoes, is absorption of ambient moisture.[76] When carrying very fine concretes and aggregates, the mixture with water can create mud at the bottom of the hold, which shifts very easily and can produce a free surface effect.[76] The only way to control these risks is by good ventilation practices and careful monitoring for the presence of water.[76] The metacentric height (GM) is a characteristic of a ship which helps determines its stability in the water. ...


Structural problems

Diagram showing the wreck of the Seledang Ayu, and the double-bottom tank leaks.
Diagram showing the wreck of the Seledang Ayu, and the double-bottom tank leaks.

In 1990 alone, 20 bulk carriers sank, taking with them 94 crewmen. In 1991, 24 bulkers sank, killing 154.[77] This level of loss focused attention on the safety aspects of bulk carriers, and a great deal was learned. The American Bureau of Shipping concluded that the losses were "directly traceable to failure of the cargo hold structure"[30] and Lloyd's Register of Shipping added that the hull sides could not withstand "the combination of local corrosion, fatigue cracking and operational damage."[77] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1596 × 700 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source No source specified. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1596 × 700 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source No source specified. ...


The accident studies showed a clear pattern:[59]

  1. Sea water enters the forward hatch, due to a large wave, a poor seal, corrosion, etc.[59]
  2. The extra water weight in hold number one compromises the partition to hold number two,[59]
  3. Water enters hold number two and alters the trim so much that more water enters the holds[59]
  4. With two holds rapidly filling with water, the bow submerges and the ship quickly sinks, leaving little time for the crew to react.[59]

Previous practices had required ships to withstand the flooding of a single forward hold, but did not guard against situations where two holds would flood. The case where two after (rear) holds are flooded is no better, because the engine room is quickly flooded, leaving the ship without propulsion. If two holds in the middle of the ship are flooded, the stress on the hull can become so great that the ship snaps in two.

Seledang Ayu suffered a catastrophic fracture in number 4 hold in December 2004.
Seledang Ayu suffered a catastrophic fracture in number 4 hold in December 2004.

Other contributing factors were identified: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 749 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1596 × 1277 pixel, file size: 471 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 749 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1596 × 1277 pixel, file size: 471 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • The majority of shipwrecks involved ships over 20 years in age. A glut of ships of this age occurred in the 1980s, caused by an overestimate of the growth of international trade.[2]
  • Corrosion, due to a lack of maintenance, affected the seals of the hatch covers and the strength of the bulkheads which separate holds. The corrosion is difficult to detect due do the immense size of the surfaces involved.[78][79]
  • Advanced methods of loading, and in some cases overloading, were not foreseen when the ships were designed. These unexpected shocks, over time, can damage the hull's structural integrity.[51]
  • Recent use of high-tensile steel in construction has negative side-effects. This material is prone to corrosion and can develop metal fatigue in choppy seas.[72]
  • According to Lloyd's Register, a principal cause was the attitude of ship-owners, who sent ships with known problems to sea.[80]

The new rules adopted in the 1997 annexes to the SOLAS convention focused on a number of problems, such as reinforcing bulkheads and the longitudinal frame, more stringent inspections (with a particular focus on corrosion) and routine in-port inspections.[2] The 1997 additions also required bulkers with restrictions (for instance, forbidden from carrying certain types of cargoes) to mark their hulls with large, easy-to-see triangles.[81] The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ...


Crew safety

Launch of a free-fall lifeboat.

Since December 2004, Panamax and Capesize bulkers have been required to carry free-fall lifeboats located on the stern, behind the house.[2] This arrangement allows the crew to abandon ship quickly in case of a catastrophic emergency.[82] One argument against the use of free-fall lifeboats is that the evacuees require "some degree of physical mobility, even fitness."[83] Also, injuries have occurred during launches, for example, in the case of incorrectly secured safety belts.[83] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Severn class lifeboat in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England. ...


In December 2002, Chapter XII of the SOLAS convention was amended to require the installation of high-level water alarms and monitoring systems on all bulkers. This safety measure quickly alerts watchstanders on the bridge and in the engine room in case of flooding in the holds.[2] In cases of catastrophic flooding, these detectors could speed the process of abandoning ship.


See also

Nautical Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The bulk carrier M/V Bright Field was a bulk cargo ship which allided with the Riverwalk Marketplace shopping complex in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, on the afternoon of Saturday, December 14, 1996, after losing engine power. ... Erling Dekke Næss, (1901 - 1993) was a Norwegian shipowner and businessman. ... The Great Belt Fixed Link (Danish: Den faste Storebæltsforbindelse) is the fixed link between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen across the Great Belt. ... The MV Lake Illawarra was a handyweight bulk carrier of 7274 tons in the service of the shipping company Australian National Lines, which famously and dramatically collided with pylon 19 of Hobarts giant high concrete arch style Tasman Bridge on the evening of 5 January 1975 at 9. ... It has been suggested that Ships preserved in museums be merged into this article or section. ... MV Flare, a bulk carrier en route from Rotterdam to Quebec, broke in two during severe weather approximately 45 min west of Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon on January 16, 1998. ... The Sygna was a 53,000 tonne Norwegian bulk carrier, which ran aground on Stockton Beach, New South Wales on May 26, 1974. ... Starlight is a song by English alternative rock band Muse and is the second track on their 2006 album Black Holes and Revelations. ... SS Edmund Fitzgerald (nicknamed The Fitz or The Big Fitz) was a lake freighter that sank suddenly during a gale storm on Lake Superior on November 10, 1975. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:6.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bulk Carrier - Improving Cargo Safety. United Nations Atlas of the Oceans. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  3. ^ a b International Maritime Organization, 1999:1,2.
  4. ^ Maritime Safety Committee's 70th Session, January 1999. American Bureau of Shipping. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Lamb, Thomas. Ship Design and Construction. Jersey City: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. ISBN 0939773406. 
  6. ^ For instance, the organisation Armateurs de France ("French ship-owners") describes tankers as transporteurs de vrac liquide ("liquid bulk carriers"), see [1].
  7. ^ Maritime Glossary. Berg Business Research. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  8. ^ a b Acronyms and Abbreviations. The Nautical Institute. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  9. ^ a b c d Bruno-Stéphane Duron, Le Transport maritime des céréales DOC, mémoire de DESS, 1999.
  10. ^ a b Ship. 1911 Encoclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  11. ^ a b c d International Maritime Organization, 1999:1.
  12. ^ a b Bulk Carriers. United Nations Ocean Atlas. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  13. ^ a b c d IMO and the safety of bulk carriers (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  14. ^ Hayler, 2003:5–13.
  15. ^ (2000) Lloyd's Register World Fleet Statistics Tables. London: Lloyd's. 
  16. ^ a b International Maritime Organization, 1999:2.
  17. ^ a b Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:1.
  18. ^ The Bulk Carrier Register 2004. Clark Research. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  19. ^ a b c Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:2.
  20. ^ Other categories occur in regional trade, such as Kamsarmax, with a maximum length of 229 meters, the maximum length that can load in Kamsarin the Republic of Guinea. (See Kamsarmax 82BC. Tsuneishi Corp.. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.) Other terms such as Setouchemax, Dunkirkmax, and Newcastlemax also appear in regional trade. (See Propulsion Trends in Bulk Carriers (PDF). MAN Diesel Group. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.)
  21. ^ This is measured in terms of the tonnage of cargo carried multiplied by the distance traveled, and could be expressed in terms of (miles x tons), for example.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Propulsion Trends in Bulk Carriers (PDF). MAN Diesel Group. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  23. ^ a b (Janurary 2006) "Handysize re-vamp: the next move in bulk carriers?". The Naval Architect. 
  24. ^ a b c d From the 2005 CIA World Factbook. See also graph and table at Wikipedia commons.
  25. ^ a b Indeed sometimes second-hand vessels can cost as much if not more than new ones.
  26. ^ a b c d e f United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2005). Review of Maritime Transport 2005. United Nations. 
  27. ^ Vessel Requirements, from the Panama Canal Authority
  28. ^ Cosco Corporation (Singapore) Limited 2005 Annual Report (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
  29. ^ a b Improving the safety of bulk carriers (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  30. ^ a b International Maritime Organization, 1999:6.
  31. ^ Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:1.
  32. ^ CHL INNOVATOR. Port of Rijeka, Croatia. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
  33. ^ The CIA World Factbook, 2005. cia.gov. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  34. ^ a b Office of Data and Economic Analysis, 2006:4.
  35. ^ Gearbulk: Fleet. Gearbulk Holding Limited. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  36. ^ Fednav Fleet. Fednav Limited. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  37. ^ Atlantska Plovidba Fleet. Atlantska Plovidba d.d. Dubrovnik.. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  38. ^ Ship-Management. H. Vogemann. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  39. ^ Portline Frota. PORTLINE Transportes Marítimos Internacionais, S.A.. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  40. ^ According to description of the main ship-owners, from the French Marine-Marchande website.
  41. ^ Stephenson Clarke Fleet. Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  42. ^ The Cornships Fleet. Cornships Management & Agency Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
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  45. ^ Maritime Transport Coordination Platform (November 2006). "3: The London Tonnage Convention", Tonnage Measurement Study (pdf), MTCP Work Package 2.1, Quality and Efficiency, 3.3. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. 
  46. ^ Some companies specialize in providing cruises on various kinds of freighters, for example Freighter World Cruises.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lane, Tony (2001). Bulk Carrier Crews; Competence, Crew composition & Voyage Cycles. Cardiff University. 
  48. ^ MSC Circular 947: Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers (PDF). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  49. ^ George, 2005:245.
  50. ^ a b c d e Packard, William V. (1985). Sea-trading. Fairplay Publications. 
  51. ^ a b c International Maritime Organization, 1999:7.
  52. ^ Hayler, 2003:5–11.
  53. ^ a b c Hayler, 2003:5–13.
  54. ^ George, 2005:341, 344.
  55. ^ Ewart, W.D. (1984). Bulk Carriers. Fairplay Publications Ltd,. ISBN 0-905045-42-4. 
  56. ^ International Maritime Organization, 1999:7.
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  66. ^ Det Norske Veritas (28). Oshima looks ahead. Retrieved on 2007-04-15.
  67. ^ Oshima Hy-Con Bulker. Oshima Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
  68. ^ "Ultra Handymax" Semi-Double Hull Handymax Bulk Carrier. Oshima Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  69. ^ Double-Hull Tanker Legislation: An Assessment of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (1998). Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
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In computing, DOC or doc (an abbreviation of document) is a file extension for word processing documents; most commonly for Microsoft Word. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... DNV or Det Norske Veritas is a Norwegian company established in 1864. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Frankel, Ernst G. (1985). Bulk Shipping and Terminal Logistics. ISBN 082130531X. 
  • George, William (2005). Stability and Trim for the Ship's Officer. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-87033-564-8. 
  • Hayler, William B. (2003). American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Pr. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. 
  • International Maritime Organization (September 1999). IMO and the safety of bulk carriers (PDF). Focus on IMO. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  • Isbester, Jack (1993). Bulk Carrier Practice. ISBN 1870077164. 
  • Office of Data and Economic Analysis (July 2006). World Merchant Fleet 2001–2005 (PDF). United States Maritime Administration. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
  • Thompson, Mark L. (1994). Queen of the Lakes. ISBN 0814323936. 
  • Zera, Thomas F. (1996). Ore-Oil Bulk: Pictorial History of Bulk Shipping Losses of the 1980's. ISBN 0964393778. 

Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

In French

  • (2005) Navires de commerce français (in French). ISBN 2915379173. 
  • Billard, Jérôme (1999). La Mar mar : La Marine marchande française de 1914 à nos jours (in French). Caen. ISBN 2726884598. 
  • Le Petit, Karine. Carnets de bord : Caen-Ouistreham, un port de commerce (in French). ISBN 2-9508601-9-2. 
  • Terrassier, N. (2001). Les Transports maritimes de marchandises en vrac (in French). Éditions Moreux. ISBN 2-851120-26-3. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bulk carrier
  • Listing and information on bulk carriers
  • Bulk Carriers @ United Nations Atlas of the Oceans
  • Super Cargo Ships book
  • Google Maps Satellite Image of bulk carrier in Sunda Strait, Indonesia
  • Bulk Carriers at MRI Netherlands
  • Histories of WWII Bulkers


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 309 pixel Image in higher resolution (2394 × 924 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Barge Ferry Tugboat... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... The reefer is a type of ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs. ... Roll-on/roll-off is a method of transport (as a ferry, train, or airplane) that vehicles roll onto at the beginning and roll off of at the destination. ... A tanker is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. ... A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... Pride of Bilbao, a cruise ferry operated by P&O Ferries. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, ca. ... A cable layer is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. ... The Le Four manoeuvering in Brest harbour A tugboat, or tug, is a boat used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. ... Dredging is the process by which either new waterways are created or existing waterways are deepened. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St Lawrence Seaway. ... Handymax is a naval architecture term for a Bulk carrier between 30,001 and 50,000 DWT. Length 150-200 m (492-656 feet). ... Handysize refers to a dry bulk vessel or product tanker with deadweight of 15,000–50,000 tons. ... An Aframax ship is an oil tanker with capacity between 80,000 dwt and 120,000 dwt. ... Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ... A supertanker is a tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids, especially crude oil. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bulk Cargo Carrier (1771 words)
Bulk cargo means unsegregated mass commodities including, without limitation, items such as petroleum products, coal and bulk salt which are carried loose and which are customarily loaded and unloaded by pumping, shoveling, scooping or other similar means.
In case of the conventional unloader, bulk cargo in a ship's hold is carried by a vertical, upward-conveying section inserted in the bulk cargo through a horizontal boom to a downward-conveying section which is connected to the base of the horizontal boom.
Bulk cargo is loaded on board the multi-mode ship and is discharged from some or all of the vehicle decks, where the bulk cargo flows downward through the vehicle decks and settles on the bottom of the multi-mode ship.
bulk carrier: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (882 words)
A bulk carrier is ocean-going vessel used to transport bulk cargo items such as ore or food staples (rice, grain, etc.) and similar cargo.
In the past, moving bulk cargo was often inefficient and unwieldy.
When grain or similar bulk cargoes are loaded into a ship, they tend to pile in the middle of the hold and slope down to the bulkheads.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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