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Encyclopedia > Bulgars
Bulgar soldiers, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century.
Bulgar soldiers, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century.

The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians[1]) were a seminomadic people, probably of Turkic descent[2], originally from Central Asia, who from the 2nd century onwards dwelled in the steppes north of the Caucasus and around the banks of river Volga (then Itil). A branch of them gave rise to the First Bulgarian Empire. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1683x1140, 480 KB) Bulgars slaughtering Byzantines, Menology of Basil II, 11th century The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1683x1140, 480 KB) Bulgars slaughtering Byzantines, Menology of Basil II, 11th century The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... Although the Latin word Menologium, in English also written Menology and Menologe, has been in some measure adopted for Western use, it is originally and in strictness a name describing a particular service-book of the Greek Church. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

Contents

Ethnicity and language

Racial type and descendants

Victorious Bulgar warrior with captive, featured on the ewer from the Treasure of Nagy Szent Miklos.
Victorious Bulgar warrior with captive, featured on the ewer from the Treasure of Nagy Szent Miklos.[3]

Anthropological data collected from early Bulgar necropolises from Dobrudja, Crimea and the Ukrainian steppe shows that Bulgars were a high-statured Caucasoid people with a small Mongoloid admixture [4] , and practiced artificial cranial deformation of the round type [5]. From historical point of view the present-day Chuvash and Bulgarians are believed to originate partly from the Bulgars. According to their DNA data, the genetic backgrounds of both populations are clearly different. The Chuvash have a Central European and some Mediterranean genetic background (probably coming from the Caucasus), while the Bulgarians have a classical eastern Mediterranean (probably coming from the Balkans) composition. It is possible that only a cultural and low genetic Bulgar influence was brought into the two regions, without modifying the genetic background of the local populations.[6] This article is about the social science. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... The artificial cranial deformation or the artificial deformation of the skull is a widespread phenomenon which exists among the primitive people of every continent. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Оrigins

The worldwide accepted theory about the origins of the Bulgars is that they were Turkic speaking people from Central Asia.[7] The now extinct Bulgar language belonged to a distant branch of the Turkic languages, broadly classified as Bulgar Turkic, whose only living representative is the Chuvash language.[8][9] Therefore, it is mainstream opinion that the Bulgars were a Turkic people.[10][11][12][13][14] It is supported, among other things, by the facts that some Bulgar words contained in the few surviving stone inscriptions,[15] and in other documents (mainly military and hierarchical terms such as tarkan, bagatur, and probably kan and kanartikin "prince") appear to be of Turkic origin, that the Bulgars apparently used a 12-year cyclic calendar similar to the one adopted by Turkic and Mongolian peoples from the Chinese, with names and numbers that are deciphered as Turkic, and that the Bulgars' supreme god was apparently called Tangra, a deity widely known among the Turkic peoples under names such as Tengri, Tura etc.[16] Some also point out the presence of a small number of Turkic loanwords in the Slavic Old Bulgarian language, and the fact that the Bulgars used an alphabet similar to the Turkic Orkhon script, although this alphabet hasn't been satisfactorily deciphered yet: fortunately, the Bulgar inscriptions were sometimes written in Greek or Cyrillic characters, most commonly in Greek, thus allowing the scholars to identify some of the Bulgar glosses. Supposedly, the name Bulgar is derived from the Turkic verb bulģa "to mix, shake, stir" and its derivative bulgak "revolt, disorder".[17] The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the Punjabi tribe called Tarkhan, see Tarkhan (tribe). ... Baghatur is an old Altaic term for a warrior, military commander or an epic hero. ... It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... Old Bulgarian may refer to: The first literary period in the development of the Bulgarian language. ... ABCs redirects here. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


Further evidence culturally linking the Danubian Bulgar state to Turkic steppe traditions was the layout of the Bulgars' new capital of Pliska, founded just north of the Balkan Mountains shortly after 681. The large area enclosed by ramparts, with the rulers' habitations and assorted utility structures concentrated in the center, resembled more a steppe winter encampment turned into a permanent settlement than it did a typical Roman Balkan city.[18] This is an article about the Danubian Neolithic culture For the River Danube go to Danube River The term Danubian culture was coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe for the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... ...


Another alternative view is that Bulgar, far from being affiliated to Chuvash, belonged instead to the same branch as all other surviving Turkic languages and more specifically Kazan Tatar. Bulgarian scholar Ivan Shishmanov speculated in 1900 that this was the case,[19] and the same view is espoused also by modern Bulgarist Kazan Tatar linguist Mirfatyh Zakiev.[20] The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça) is an Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ... Bulgarism is a political movement for the use of the Bolgar ethnonym among Kazan Tatars. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ...


Cäğfär Taríxı, a Russian language document of disputed authenticity, purports to be a 1680 compilation of ancient Bulgar annals. It was published by a Volga Tatar Bulgarist editor in 1993. Cäğfär Taríxı contains a very detailed description of Bulgar history. Among other things, it implies that the Bulgars were formed as a result of consolidation of many Turkic and Turkicized tribes. The Cäğfär Taríxı (Tatar Cyrillic: Җәгъфәр тарихы, Russian: Джагфар Тарихы, pronounced - roughly jagh-FAR tar-rik-HEE - often spelled in English as Djagfar Tarikhy via the Russian transliteration of Tatar; Tatar for History of Cäğfär) is a controversial Russian language text purporting to be a partial translation of a... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... Bulgarism is a political movement for the use of the Bolgar ethnonym among Kazan Tatars. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone non-Turkish is made to become Turkish. ...


Additional theories

The ancient Bulgar homeland according to Acad. S.T. Eremian’s reconstruction of the original ‘Ashharatsuyts’ map of Central Asia.
The ancient Bulgar homeland according to Acad. S.T. Eremian’s reconstruction of the original ‘Ashharatsuyts’ map of Central Asia.

A newer Aryan theory, claims that the Bulgar language was originally an Iranian language, and so according to this theory, the Bulgar people would be classified as an Aryan people, although some of its proponents concede that the language was later influenced by Turkic due to Hunnic military domination. This notion became popular in Bulgaria in the 1990s, with the works of Petar Dobrev, a specialist in economic history.[21] Supporters of this theory are some Bulgarian historians such as professor Georgi Bakalov[22] and professor Bozhidar Dimitrov.[23] The theory is supported mostly by linguistic arguments, as authors (who are usually not linguists[24]) attempt to prove the Iranian origin of a number of words and sometimes even grammatical features in Bulgar and modern Bulgarian.[25] Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past. ... Bozhidar Dimitrov (Bulgarian: ) (born 3 December 1945) is a well-known Bulgarian historian working in the sphere of Medieval Bulgarian history, the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria and the Macedonian Question. ... Bulgarian (Български език, Balgarski ezik) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ...


In the 19th century, even theories of a Slavic or Finno-Ugric affiliation were proposed on the basis of the little or no evidence.[19] These have practically no adherents among today's scholars.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ...

Toponyms that are identical or similar in proposed Bulgar locations as an argument for the Iranian theory.

Contemporaneous sources like Procopius, Agathias and Menander called the Kutrigur and Utigur Bulgars "Huns"[26] while others, like the Byzantine Patriarch Michael II of Antioch, called them "Scythians" or "Sarmatians". But this latter identification is clearly due to the Byzantine tradition of naming peoples geographically; for example, centuries later the obviously Turkic Petchenegs and Cumans, were still addressed with the respective terms. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus (c. ... Menander Protector (Greek for one of the imperial bodyguards), Byzantine historian, was born in Constantinople in the middle of the 6th century AD. The little that is known of his life is contained in the account of himself quoted by Suidas. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppe people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ...


Culture and society

Archaeological finds from the Ukrainian steppe suggest that the early Bulgars had the typical culture of the nomadic equestrians of Central Asia. They were primarily nomadic herdsmen who migrated seasonally in pursuit of pastures but also planted crops such as wheat and barley. The Bulgars were skilled blacksmiths, stone masons and carpenters. From the 7th century onwards they rapidly began to settle down. Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Social structure

The Bulgars had a well developed clan system and were governed by hereditary rulers. The members of the military aristocracy bore the title boil (boyar) which could be either inherited or acquired[citation needed]. There also were bagains - lesser military commanders. The nobility were further divided onto Small and Great Boyars. The latter formed the Council of the Great Boyars and gathered to take decisions on important state matters presided by the khan (king). Their numbers varied between six and twelve. These probably included the ichirgu boil and the kavkhan (vice khan), the two most powerful people after the khan. These titles were administrative and non-inheritable. The boyars could also be internal and external, probably distinguished by their place of residence - inside or outside the capital [27]. The heir of the throne was called kanartikin. Other non-kingly titles used by the Bulgarian noble class include boila tarkan (possibly the second son of the khan), kana boila kolobur (chief priest), boritarkan (city mayor). A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ...


The title khan for early Bulgar ruler is an assumed one as only the form kanasubigi is attested in stone inscriptions. Historians presume that it includes the word khan in its archaic form kana and there is a supporting evidence suggesting that the latter title was indeed used in Bulgaria, e.g. the name of one of the Bulgarian rulers Pagan occurs in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium as Καμπαγάνος (Kampaganos), likely an erroneous rendition of the phrase "Kan Pagan".[28] Among the proposed translations for the phrase kanasubigi as a whole are lord of the army, from the reconstructed Turkic phrase *sü begi, paralleling the attested Old Turkic sü baši,[29] and, more recently, (ruler) from God, from the Indo-European *su- and baga-, i.e. *su-baga (a counterpart of the Greek phrase ὁ ἐκ Θεοῦ ἄρχων, ho ek Theou archon, which is common in Bulgar inscriptions).[30] This titulature presumably persisted until the Bulgars adopted Christianity.[31] Some Bulgar inscriptions written in Greek and later in Slavonic refer to the Bulgarian ruler respectively with the Greek title archon or the Slavic title knyaz.[32]. Pagan was the ruler of Bulgaria 767–768. ... St. ... A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Old Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Common Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ...


Religion

The religion of the Bulgars is also obscure but it is supposed that it was monotheistic, worshiping the Turkic Sky god Tengri. However, the archaeological evidence shows that the Bulgar sanctuaries resembled the layout of the Zoroastrian temples of the fire. Therefore, the religion may have comprised elements of both, Turkic and Iranian cults[33]. In Pliska, the first capital of Danube Bulgaria, there is a building of this type - two entered one into another squares of ashlars.A second, much larger building, oriented towards the sunrise, was excavated near the Throne palace in Pliska. Its religious utilization is confirmed by the fact that after the adoption of Christianity the building was transformed into a Christian church (the so called Palace church). Similar buildings are also found in Preslav. Similar in plan is the pagan sanctuary at the Proto-Bulgarian religious complex of Madara, near the location Daul Tash. For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Madara ) is a manga series, light novel series, computer role-playing game, anime OVA and radio drama series. ...


History

Migration to Europe

Map showing the location of Bulgars, c. 650.
Map showing the location of Bulgars, c. 650.

In the early 2nd century, some groups of Bulgars migrated from Central Asia to the European continent and settled on the plains between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. The Bulgars appear (under the ethnonym of ‘Bulensii’) in certain Latin versions of Ptolemy’s second century AD mapping, shown as occupying the territory along the northwest coast of Black Sea east of Axiacus River (Southern Bug).[34][35][36] Image File history File links Khazar0. ... Image File history File links Khazar0. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ...


Between 351 and 389, some of the Bulgars crossed the Caucasus to settle in Armenia. Toponymic data testify to the fact that they remained there and were eventually assimilated by the Armenians. Events March 15 - Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, or assistant emperor, and is put in charge of the Western Roman Empire. ... Events All Pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library, are destroyed Births Geiseric, king of the Vandals and Alans (approximate date) Deaths Gregory Nazianzus, theologian Categories: 389 ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ...


Swept by the Hunnish wave at the beginning of the 4th century, other Bulgar tribes broke loose from their settlements in Central Asia to migrate to the fertile lands along the lower valleys of the Donets and the Don rivers and the Azov seashore, assimilating what was left of the Sarmatians. Some of these remained for centuries in their new settlements, whereas others moved on with the Huns towards Central Europe, settling in Pannonia. Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ...


Those Bulgars took part in the Hun raids on Central and Western Europe between 377 and 453. After the death of Attila in 453, and the subsequent disintegration of the Hunnish empire, the Bulgar tribes dispersed mostly to the eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Events Battle of the Willows, Roman troops fight an inconclusive battle against the Visigoths under Fritigern Births Deaths Tuoba Shi Yi Jian King of Dai Categories: 377 ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... The Hunnic Empire, at its height under Attila. ...


At the end of the 5th century (probably in the years 480, 486, and 488) they fought against the Ostrogoths as allies of the Byzantine emperor Zeno. From 493 they carried out frequent attacks on the western territories of the Byzantine Empire. Later raids were carried out at the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... For the processor, see Intel 80486. ... Events Theodoric the Great becomes king of the Ostrogoths. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Events February 25 - Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed by him personally. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


In the middle of the 6th century, war broke out between the two main Bulgar tribes, the Kutrigur and Utigur. At the end of the 6th century, the Kutrigur allied with the Avars to conquer the Utigur. The Bulgars fell under the domination of the Göktürk Khanate in 568. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ...


Establishment of Great Bulgaria

This sword was found in what is widely considered to be the tomb of Kubrat. The hilt bears a Greek inscription and is decorated with crosses, which might suggest that its owner (or the original owner at least) was a Christian.
This sword was found in what is widely considered to be the tomb of Kubrat. The hilt bears a Greek inscription and is decorated with crosses, which might suggest that its owner (or the original owner at least) was a Christian.
First Bulgarian Empire in 800AD, highlighting the Bulgarian Empire and showing its neighbors.
First Bulgarian Empire in 800AD, highlighting the Bulgarian Empire and showing its neighbors.
Main article: Old Great Bulgaria

United under Kubrat or Kurt of the Dulo clan (supposed[who?] to be identical to the ruler mentioned by Arabic chronicler At-Tabari under the name of Shahriar), they joined forces of the Utigur and Kutrigur Bulgars and probably the non-Bulgar Onogurs, and broke loose from the Turkic khanate in the 630s. They formed an independent state, the Onogundur-Bulgar (Oghondor-blkar or Olhontor-blkar) Empire, often called by Byzantine sources[37] ‘the Old Great Bulgaria’. The empire was situated between the lower course of the Danube to the west, the Black Sea and the Azov Sea to the south, the Kuban River to the east, and the Donets River to the north. It is assumed that the state capital was Phanagoria, an ancient city on the Taman peninsula (see Tmutarakan). However, the archaeological evidence shows that the city became predominantly Bulgarian only after Kubrat's death and the consequent disintegration of his state. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The hilt of Kubrats sword bears a Greek inscription and is decorated with crosses, indicating that its owner (or the original owner at least) was a Christian. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... The Dulo Clan or the House of Dulo was the name of the ruling dynasty of the early Bulgars. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Shahriar may refer to: Shahriar, an Iranian city to the southwest of Tehran Mohammad Hossein Shahriar, an Iranian poet This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Onogur or Onoghur was the name of the European Avar federation spreading from Pannonia to the Kuban during their 2nd Dynasty under the rule of the Bolgar house of Dulo (also Dub or Dubo, of the Unogundur tribe of Bolgars) from 635– 685 CE. It was during this dynasty that... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s - 660s - 670s - 680s Years: 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 Events: 630 - Serbs and Croats settle the Balkans in the provinces of Moesia, Pannonia and Dalmatia 632 - death of... Byzantine redirects here. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ... 1. ... Hermonassa and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BCE. Tmutarakan (Russian: Тмутаракань) is an ancient city that controlled the Cimmerian Bosporus, the passage from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. ...


Subsequent migrations

The legend tells that on his death-bed, Khan Kubrat had his sons gather sticks and bring them to him, which he then bundled together and told his eldest son Bayan to break the bundle. Bayan failed under the strength of the combined sticks, and, after the rest of the sons failed this test as well, Kubrat took the sticks back, separated each one, and broke them all one-by-one even in his weakened state. Then he told his sons the words "Unity makes strength", which have become a very popular Bulgarian slogan and now appears on the modern Bulgarian coat of arms. Batbayan (d. ... The coat of arms of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , Gerb na Balgariya) consists of a crowned golden lion rampant over a dark red shield; above the shield is the Bulgarian historical crown. ...


The Byzantine Patriarch Nicephorus I[38] tells that Kubrat's sons, however, did not heed these very specific words, and thus soon after the death of Kubrat around 665, the Khazar expansion eventually led to the dissolution of Great Bulgaria. Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ... Events Swithelm succeeded by Sighere and Sebbi as king(s) of Essex Seongnam renamed Hansanju. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ...

Bulgars' proposal homeland and subsequent migrations in Europe.
Bulgars' proposal homeland and subsequent migrations in Europe.

The khan’s eldest son, Batbayan (also Bayan or Boyan), remained the ruler of the land north of the Black and the Azov Seas, which was, however, soon subdued by the Khazars. Those Bulgars converted to Judaism in the 9th century, along with the Khazars, and were eventually assimilated. A different theory claims that the Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria may be the descendants of this Bulgar branch. Khan Asparoukh (681 - 700) THEN CAME ACROSS THE DANUBE Isperukh Khan. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ...


Another Bulgar tribe, led by Kubrat’s second son Kotrag, migrated to the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers in what is now Russia (see Volga Bulgaria). The present-day republics of Tatarstan and Chuvashia are considered to be the descendants of Volga Bulgaria in terms of territory and people, but only Chuvash is thought to be similar to the old Bulgar language. Volga Bulgar man by Mikhail Gerasimov. ... Kotrag Khan was the founder of Idil Bolgar. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ...


A third Bulgar tribe, led by the youngest son Asparukh, moved westward, occupying today’s southern Bessarabia. After a successful war with Byzantium in 680, Asparukh's khanate setteled in Dobrudja and conquered later Moesia Superior So it was recognized as an independent state under the subsequent treaty signed with the Byzantine Empire and emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus in 681. The same year is usually regarded as the year of the establishment of modern Bulgaria (see History of Bulgaria). Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh or Khan Asparuh (Bulgarian: Аспарух) (d. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: , ) was an ancient Greek city, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh or Khan Asparuh (Bulgarian: Аспарух) (d. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... The History of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ...


A fourth group of Bulgars, under Kuber, initially moved to Pannonia and subsequently settled in Macedonia. It probably formed a khanate there, which joined Slavs to attack the Byzantine Empire. For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


The fifth and smallest group, of Alcek (also transliterated as 'Altsek' and 'Altzek'), after many wanderings, ended up led by Emnetzur and settled in Italy, northeast of Naples. Alcek (Bulgar: Altsikurs) was the leader of the horde of Bulgar horsemen who in the 7th century settled with their families in the Matese mountains of Central Italy in the villages of Gallo, Sepino, Boiano, Isernia and others. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...

The Madara Rider (c. 710), a famous example of Bulgar art

Madara Horseman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Madara Horseman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Madara Rider The Madara Rider is a large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria. ...

List of Bulgar tribes

Tribes thought to have been Bulgar in origin include:

After the dissolution of Great Bulgaria these tribes formed: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ...

Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh or Khan Asparuh (Bulgarian: Аспарух) (d. ... Khan Asparoukh (681 - 700) THEN CAME ACROSS THE DANUBE Isperukh Khan. ... Kotrag Khan was the founder of Idil Bolgar. ... For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... Alcek (Bulgar: Altsikurs) was the leader of the horde of Bulgar horsemen who in the 7th century settled with their families in the Matese mountains of Central Italy in the villages of Gallo, Sepino, Boiano, Isernia and others. ...

See also

Bolgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Madara Rider The Madara Rider is a large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... The Balkar (малкъар /malqar/) people are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, thet titular population of Kabardino-Balkaria. ... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or...

References

  1. ^ The term proto-Bulgarians was introduced after WWII.
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bulgars
  3. ^ ЗЛАТНОТО СЪКРОВИЩЕ НА БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ ХАНОВЕ - анотация на проф. Иван Добрев. Военна Академия "Г. С. Раковски", София.
  4. ^ The Proto-Bulgarians in the Crimea in the VIII-IX cc.
  5. ^ D.Dimitrov,1987 History of the Proto-Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea.
  6. ^ HLA genes in the Chuvashian population from European Russia: Admixture of central European and Mediterranean populations - pg. 5
  7. ^ Rashev, Rasho. 1992. On the origin of the Proto-Bulgarians. p. 23-33 in: Studia protobulgarica et mediaevalia europensia. In honour of Prof. V. Beshevliev, Veliko Tarnovo
  8. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bolgar Turkic
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bulgars
  10. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press, 1994. page 6
  11. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bulgar
  12. ^ Bowersock, G. W. & Grabar, Oleg. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press, 1998. page 354
  13. ^ Chadwick, Henry. East and West: The Making of a Rift in the Church : from Apostolic Times. Oxford University Press, 2003. page 109
  14. ^ Reuter, Timothy. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press, 2000. page 492
  15. ^ Beshevliev, Vesselin. Proto-Bulgarian Epigraphic Monuments. Sofia, 1981. web page
  16. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press, 1994. page 141
  17. ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. Les Nomades : Les peuples nomades de la steppe des origines aux invasions mongoles. Paris: Errance, 2003: p.178.
  18. ^ Dennis P. Hupchick, The Balkans, 2001, pp.10, ISBN 0-312-21736-6
  19. ^ a b Шишманов, Иван. 1900. Критичен преглед на въпроса за произхода на прабългарите от езиково гледище и етимологиите на името българин
  20. ^ Закиев, Мирфатых. 2003. Происхождение тюрков и татар. 2003. in English
  21. ^ Добрев, Петър, 1995. "Езикът на Аспаруховите и Куберовите българи" 1995
  22. ^ Бакалов, Георги. Малко известни факти от историята на древните българи Част 1част 2
  23. ^ Димитров, Божидар, 2005. 12 мита в българската история
  24. ^ IST World Community Portal - Peter Dobrev
  25. ^ Peter Dobrev, The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar
  26. ^ The World of the Huns. Chapter IX. Language, by O. Maenchen-Helfen
  27. ^ [http://www.promacedonia.org/vb/vb_7.html Прабългарски епиграфски паметници В. Бешевлиев]
  28. ^ Източници за българската история - Fontes historiae bulgaricae. VI. Fontes graeci historiae Bulgaricae. БАН, София. p.305 (in Byzantine Greek and Bulgarian). Also available online
  29. ^ V. Beshevliev - Prabylgarski epigrafski pametnici - 5
  30. ^ Blackwell Synergy - Early Medieval Eur, Volume 10 Issue 1 Page 1-19, March 2001 (Article Abstract)
  31. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. "East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500", page 46
  32. ^ Manassias Chronicle, Vatican transcription, p. 145, see Battle of Pliska
  33. ^ The Proto-Bulgarians east of the Sea of Azov in the 8-9th c.
  34. ^ Dobrev, Petar. Unknown Ancient Bulgaria. Sofia: Ivan Vazov Publishers, 2001. 158 pp. (in Bulgarian) ISBN 9546041211
  35. ^ Fries, Lorenz and Claudius Ptolemy. Tabula IX. Europae. In: Servetus, Michael. Opus Geographiae. Lyon, 1535.
  36. ^ Germanus, Nikolaus and Claudius Ptolemy. Geographia. Ulm: Lienhart Holle, 1482. (fragment)
  37. ^ Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, "Historia syntomos, breviarium"
  38. ^ Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, Historia syntomos, breviarium

Byzantine Greek is an archaic variant of Greek language derived from Koine which was used by the administration of the Byzantine Empire from 395 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Commanders Krum Nicephorus I† Strength Unknown around 80,000 Casualties Light almost the whole army, including the emperor The Battle of Pliska (Battle of Vărbitsa pass) (Bulgarian: битката при Върбишкия проход) took place on July 26, 811, between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, resulting in one of the... St. ... St. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bulgars
  • History of Bulgaria
  • History of the Bulgars
  • Bulgars on Regnal Chronologies
  • The language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and grammar, by Peter Dobrev
  • Inscriptions and Alphabet of the Proto-Bulgarians, by Peter Dobrev
  • On the origins of the Proto-Bulgarians
  • Proto-Bulgarian Epigraphic Monuments, Vesselin Beshevliev
  • Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies, by Walter Pohl
  • History of the Proto-Bulgarians north and west of the Black Sea
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Arrival of the Bulgars

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bulgars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (930 words)
Swept by the Hunnish wave at the beginning of the 4th century AD, other Bulgar tribes broke loose from their settlements in central Asia to migrate to the fertile lands along the lower valleys of the Donets and the Don rivers and the Azov seashore, assimilating what was left of the Sarmatians.
After the defeat of the Huns in the Battle of Chalons on September 20, 451, and the subsequent disintegration of the Hunnish empire, the Bulgar tribes dispersed mostly to the eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.
The khan’s eldest son, Batbayan (Bayan, Boyan), remained the ruler of the land north of the Black and the Azov Seas, which was, however, soon subdued by the Khazars.
Bulgars - definition of Bulgars in Encyclopedia (731 words)
After the utter defeat of the Huns in the Battle of Chalons on September 20, 451 AD, the Bulgars redirected their attention to Byzantium where consecutive raids were undertaken in the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th century.
United under Kubrat (Kurt) of the Dulo clan, they broke loose from the khanate and formed an independent state between the lower course of the Danube to the west, the Black and the Azov Seas to the south, the Kuban river to the east, and the Donets river to the north.
The Bulgars converted to Judaism in the 9th century, along with the Khazars, and were eventually assimilated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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