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Encyclopedia > Bulgarians
Bulgarians
Българи
Bǎlgari
Total population

over 10 million1 (2007)

Regions with significant populations
Bulgaria: 6,655,2102 (2001)

Ukraine: 204,0002 (2002)
Spain: 119,799 (2007)3
Moldova: 84,0001 (2002)
USA: 60,000 to 250,000[1]2 (2002)
Argentina: 54,0004
Germany: 39,1703 (2005)
Greece: 37,230 3 (2001)
Brazil: 35,0002 (2006)
Russia: 32,0002 (2002)
Turkey: 300,000[2]4
UK: 30,0003
Serbia: 21,5002 (2002)
Italy: 15,3703 (2004)
Canada: 15,1952 (2001)
Ireland: 10,0005 (2001)
Romania: 8,0002 (2001)
Kazakhstan: 7,0002 (1999)
Austria: 5,3883 (2001)
Czech Republic: 4,3807 (2001)
France:4,000 [citation needed] (2003)
Hungary: 3,0002 (2001)
Republic of Macedonia: 1,4222 (2002)
Poland: 1,1122 (2002)
Slovenia: 1382 (2002)
Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Languages
Bulgarian
Religions
Predominantly Bulgarian Orthodox including Atheist, Muslim, Roman Catholic and Protestant minorities.

The Bulgarians (Bulgarian: българи or bǎlgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language. There are Bulgarian minorities or immigrant communities in a number of other countries, too. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Bulgarian (Български език, IPA: Bɤlgarski É›zik) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ...

Contents

Ethnogenesis

Bulgarians are said to have descended from three main ethnic groups which mixed on the Balkans during the 6th - 10th century. The first one being the local tribes - the Thracians, the second one - the Slavs, who gave their language to the modern ethnic Bulgarians and the third - the Bulgars, from whom the ethnonym and the statehood were inherited. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ...


In physical appearance, Bulgarian population is characterized by the features of the southern European anthropological type with some additional influence of other ethnic groups. Genetically, modern Bulgarians are more closely related to the other Balkan populations - ethnic Macedonians, Greeks and Romanians, than to the rest of the Europeans and the Mediterranean people [1][2]. Southern Europe is a region of Europe. ... Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The Thracians

Main article: Thracians

The ethnic contribution of the indigenous Thracian and Daco-Getic population, who had lived on the territory of modern Bulgaria before the Slavic invasion has been long debated among the scientists during the 20th century. Some recent genetic studies suggest that these peoples have indeed made a significant contribution to the genes of the modern Bulgarian population.[3] This is also apparent in the Mediterranean physical anthropological type of the modern Bulgarians. The ancient languages of the local people had already gone extinct before the arrival of the Slavs, and their cultural influence was highly reduced due to the repeated barabaric invasions on the Balkans during the early Middle Ages by Huns, Goths, Celts and Sarmatians, accompanied by persistent hellenization, romanisation and later slavicisation. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa ( Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by the Tyras ( Dniester or Nistru... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... This article is about the European people. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Slavicisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Slavic becomes Slavic. ...


The Slavs

Main article: South Slavs

The Slavs emerged from their original homeland (most commonly thought to have been in Eastern Europe) in the early 6th century, and spread to most of the eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches - the West Slavs, the East Slavs and the South Slavs. The easternmost South Slavs became part of the ancestors of the modern Bulgarians, which however, are genetically clearly separated from the tight DNA cluster of the most Slavic peoples. This phenomenon is explained by “the genetic contribution of the people who lived in the region before the Slavic expansion” [4]. Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


The Bulgars

Main article: Bulgars

The Bulgars were a seminomadic people thought to have spoken a Turkic language, who during the 2nd century migrated from Central Asia into the North Caucasian steppe. Between 377 and 453 they took part in the Hunnic raids on Central and Western Europe. After Attila's death in 453, and the subsequent disintegration of the Hunnic Empire, the Bulgar tribes dispersed mostly to the eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. In the late 7th century, some Bulgar tribes, led by Asparukh and others, led by Kouber, permanently settled in the Balkans, joining the southern Slavic tribes[5]. Together, the two peoples formed the First Bulgarian Empire in 680-681. Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Events Battle of the Willows, Roman troops fight an inconclusive battle against the Visigoths under Fritigern Births Deaths Tuoba Shi Yi Jian King of Dai Categories: 377 ... Events Theodoric II succeeds his brother Thorismund as king of the Visigoths. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Events Theodoric II succeeds his brother Thorismund as king of the Visigoths. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh or Khan Asparuh (Bulgarian: Аспарух) (d. ... For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the...


The Others

Part of a series of articles on
Bulgarians

Culture of Bulgaria
Literature · Music · Art
Cinema · Names · Cuisine
Dances · Costume · Sport Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bulgarian culture is a mix mostly of Thracian, Slavic and Bulgar cultures, but there are Byzantine, Turkish, Greek and other influences. ... Bulgarian literature is literature written by Bulgarians or residents of Bulgaria, or written in the Bulgarian language; usually the latter is the defining feature. ... Bulgarian music is part of the Balkan tradition, which stretches across Southeastern Europe, and has its own distinctive sound. ... Compared to other systems, the Bulgarian name system can be said to be rather simple. ... Bulgarian cuisine (Bulgarian: българска кухня) is representative of the cuisine of the Balkans, showing Turkish, Greek and Middle Eastern influences and to a lesser extent Italian, Mediterranean and Hungarian ones. ... Bulgarian folk dances are intimately related to the music of Bulgaria. ...

By region or country
(including the diaspora)

Republic of Macedonia
Serbia · Banat (Serbia/Romania)
Bessarabia (Ukraine/Moldova)
United States · Hungary · Turkey
(Pomaks, Eastern Thrace, Anatolia)
Greece Bulgarians are an ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia. ... A map of the Western Outlands The Western Outlands (Bulgarian: Zapadni pokraynini) or the Western Bulgarian Outlands is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several territorially separate regions in southeastern Serbia and in the southeast of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... The Anatolian Bulgarians or Bulgarians of Asia Minor (Bulgarian: , maloaziyski balgari) were Eastern Orthodox Bulgarians who settled in Ottoman-ruled northwestern Anatolia (today in Turkey), possibly in the 18th century, and remained there until 1914. ...

Religion
Bulgarian Orthodox · Muslim
Roman Catholic · Protestant The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... A mosque in Madan in the Rhodopes, a region largely populated by Muslim Bulgarians The Bulgarian Muslims or Bulgarian-Mohammedans (Bulgarian: българи-мохамедани; locally called pomak, ahryan, poganets, marvak, poturnak) are Bulgarians of the Islamic faith. ... Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria: Roman Catholicism is the third largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. ... Protestantism in Bulgaria: Protestantism is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Roman Catholicism. ...

Languages and dialects
spoken by Bulgarians

Bulgarian · Banat Bulgarian Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ...

History · Rulers The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ... This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ...

v  d  e

Other steppe peoples who also contributed to the Bulgarian ethnogenesis include small numbers of Kumans, Pechenegs and Avars who after the disintegration of their tribal unions during the Middle Ages spread all over the Balkans eventually fully assimilating with the local populations. Presently the significant minorities of Bulgaria include Turks, Armenians, Vlachs, Roma and Greeks. Even though they have preserved their cultural heritages to a certain exent, they are being gradually assimilated through intermarriages, especially in the Greek, Vlach and Armenian communities. The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


The "Ex"

Bulgarians are culturally, linguistically and genetically very closely related to ethnic Macedonians, with their both languages being mutually intelligible. The overwhelming majority of the ancestors of the present-day ethnic Macedonians did, in fact, identify themselves as Bulgarians until the middle of the 20th century. A high profile example included Lazar Koliševski who succeeded Tito as President of Yugoslavia. Originally born Kolishev, he later adopted an ethnic Macedonian identity and chanded his surname as many others who were forced to in that period. Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia who identify as ethnic Bulgarians have nevertheless survived, and composed about 0.5% of the population at the last census. Bulgaria has maintained a policy of making the procedure as easy as possible for Macedonian nationals who claim Bulgarian origin to claim citizenship.[6] During the last few years in which Bulgaria saw rising economic prosperity and admission to the EU, many citizens of Republic of Macedonia have applied for Bulgarian citizenship in this way. [3] Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Lazar KoliÅ¡evski (Лазар Колишевски) also Lazar Penev Kolishev (Лазар Пенев Колишев) (1914–2002) was a Communist political leader in Socialist Republic of Macedonia closely allied with Tito. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Lazar KoliÅ¡evski (Macedonian: ) also Lazar Penev Kolishev (Macedonian: ) (12 February 1914 – June 2000) was a Communist political leader in Socialist Republic of Macedonia closely allied with Tito. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Population

Most Bulgarians live in the Republic of Bulgaria. There are significant traditional Bulgarian minorities in Moldova and Ukraine (Bessarabian Bulgarians), as well as smaller communities in Romania (Banat Bulgarians), Serbia (the Western Outlands), Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, and Hungary. Many Bulgarians also live in the diaspora, which is formed by representatives and descendants of the old (before 1989) and new (after 1989) emigration. The old emigration was made up of some 160,000 economic and several tens of thousands of political emigrants, and was directed for the most part to the USA, Canada, Argentina and Germany. The new emigration is estimated at some 700,000 people and can be divided into two major subcategories: permanent emigration at the beginning of the 1990s, directed mostly to the USA, Canada, Austria, and Germany and labour emigration at the end of the 1990s, directed for the most part to Greece, Italy, the UK and Spain. Migrations to the West have been quite steady even in the late 1990s and early 21st century, as people continue moving to countries like the US, Canada and Australia. Most Bulgarians living in the US can be found in Chicago, IL. However, according to the 2000 US census most Bulgarians live in the cities of New York and Los Angeles, and the state with most Bulgarians in the US is California. The largest urban populations of Bulgarians are to be found in Sofia (1,241,000), Plovdiv (378,000), and Varna (352,000)[7]. The total number of Bulgarians thus ranges anywhere from 7 to 8 million, depending solely on the estimation used for the diaspora. The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... The area referred to as the Western Outlands The Western (Bulgarian) Outlands (Bulgarian: , Zapadni (balgarski) pokraynini) is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several territorially separate regions in southeastern Serbia and in the southeast of the Republic of Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Position of Varna in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Bulgaria Province Varna Province Government  - Mayor Kiril Yordanov Area  - City 205 km²  (79. ...


Culture

Contribution to humanity

The old version of the Cyrillic alphabet

Image File history File links Ocslavonic. ... Image File history File links Ocslavonic. ...

Cyrillic alphabet

Medieval Bulgaria was the most important cultural centre of the Slavic people at the end of the 9th and throughout the 10th century. The two literary schools of Preslav and Ohrid developed a rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav, John Exarch, Chernorizets Hrabar, Clement and Naum of Ohrid. In the first half of the 10th century, the Cyrillic alphabet was devised in the Preslav Literary School based on the Glagolitic and the Greek alphabets. Modern versions of the alphabet are now used to write five more Slavic languages such as Belarusian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian and Ukrainian as well as Mongolian and some other 60 languages spoken in the former Soviet Union. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... Constantine of Preslav (Konstantin Preslavski) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... John Exarch (John the Exarch, also transcribed Joan Exarch, Joan Ekzarh) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... Chernorizetz Hrabar (Chernorizetz the Brave) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar and writer working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian: , IPA: ) (ca. ... Saint Naum of Preslav (Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Bulgaria exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid to late 14th century, at the time of the Turnovo Literary School, with the work of Patriarch Evtimiy, Grigoriy Tsamblak, Constantine of Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki). Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in Wallachia and Moldova where the Cyrillic alphabet was used until 1860, while Slavonic was the official language of the princely chancellery and of the church until the end of 17th century. The Turnovo Literary School was a Bulgarian literary school in the 14th century. ... Patriarch Evtimiy (Bulgarian: Патриарх Евтимий) was a 14th century Bulgarian scholar. ... Constantine (or Konstantin) of Kostenets (born c. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chancellery is the office of the chancellor, sometimes also reffered to as the chancery. ...


Art and science

Bulgarians have made valuable contributions to world culture in modern times as well. Julia Kristeva and Tzvetan Todorov were among the most influential European philosophers in the second half of the 20th century. Nicolai Ghiaurov, Boris Christoff, Raina Kabaivanska and Ghena Dimitrova made a precious contribution to opera singing with Ghiaurov and Christoff being two of the greatest bassos in the post-war period. The artist Christo is among the most famous representatives of environmental art with projects such as the Wrapped Reichstag. Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Tzvetan Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on March 1, 1939 in Sofia) is a Franco-Bulgarian philosopher. ... Nicolai Ghiaurov (13 September 1929–2 June 2004) was a Bulgarian opera singer and probably the most famous bass of the postwar period. ... Boris Christoff Boris Christoff (Bulgarian: ) (May 18, 1914, Plovdiv, Bulgaria – June 28, 1993, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the greatest basses of the 20th century. ... Raina Kabaivanska Raina Kabaivanska is a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the most renowned sopranos in the second half of the 20th century. ... Ghena Dimitrova (May 6, 1941 – June 11, 2005) was a Bulgarian operatic soprano. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... A basso (or bass) is a male singer who sings in the lowest vocal range of the human voice. ... Christo Yavasheff (born June 13, 1935) is an artist popularly known as Christo. ... Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site specific art, also environmental art, is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ... In 1992, Sir Norman Foster won yet another architectual contest for the reconstruction of the Reichstag building in Berlin, Germany. ...


Bulgarians in the diaspora have also been active. American scientists and inventors of Bulgarian descent include John Atanasoff, Peter Petroff, and Assen Jordanoff. Bulgarian-American Stephane Groueff wrote the celebrated book "Manhattan Project", about the making of the first atomic bomb and also penned "Crown of Thorns", a biography of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria. John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903-June 15, 1995) was a prominent American computer engineer of Bulgarian and Irish origin. ... Peter Petroff (October 21, 1919 – February 7, 2003) was a Bulgarian-American inventor, engineer, NASA scientist, and adventurer of Bulgarian origin. ... Assen Jordanoff Assen Jerry Jordanoff (Bulgarian: ) (born Assen Khristov Yordanov, September 2, 1896, Sofia, Bulgaria – d. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second...


Sport

In sports, Hristo Stoichkov was one of the best soccer players in the second half of the 20th century, having played with the national team and FC Barcelona. He received a number of awards and was the joint top scorer at the 1994 World Cup alongside Russia's Oleg Salenko. High-jumper Stefka Kostadinova was one of the top ten female athletes of the last century and holds one of the oldest unbroken world records in athletics. In the beginning of the 20th century Bulgaria was famous for two of the best wrestlers in the world - Dan Kolov and Nikola Petroff. Hristo Stoichkov alternatively spelt Stoitchkov (Bulgarian: ) (born February 8, 1966, in Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a football manager and former striker who was a member of the Bulgaria national team that finished fourth at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. ... Futbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (IPA: baɾ.sə), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... -1... Oleg Salenko (born October 25, 1969 in Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Russian soccer striker, who set a World Cup record by scoring five goals in one game, for Russia against Cameroon on June 28, 1994. ... Stefka Kostadinova (born March 25, 1965) is a Bulgarian former athlete specialising in the high jump and current President of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee. ... Dan Kolov 1892 - 1940 Dan Kolov, born as Doncho Kolеv (Bulgarian: Дончо Колев) in the village of Sennik, Bulgaria to modest peasant family, was a famous Bulgarian wrestler. ... Nikola Petrov Nikola Petrov (Bulgarian: ), better known as Nikola Petroff, (19 December 1873 – 2 January 1925) was a Bulgarian wrestler. ...


Language

Main article: Bulgarian language

Bulgarians speak a Southern Slavic language which is closely related to Serbo-Croatian and is often( mostly words, not sentences ) mutually intelligible with it. The Bulgarian language is also, to a degree, mutually intelligible with Russian on account of the influence which Russian has had on the development of Modern Bulgarian since 1878, as well as the earlier effect of Old Bulgarian on the development of Old Russian. Although related, Bulgarian and the Western and Eastern Slavic languages are not mutually intelligible. Bulgarian (Български език, IPA: Bɤlgarski É›zik) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ... Bulgarian (Български език, IPA: Bɤlgarski É›zik) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bulgarian (Български език, IPA: Bɤlgarski É›zik) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


Bulgarian demonstrates several linguistic developments that set it apart from other Slavic languages. These are, however, shared with Romanian, Albanian and Greek (see Balkan linguistic union). Until 1878 Bulgarian was influenced lexically by medieval and modern Greek, and to a lesser extent, by Turkish. More recently, the language has borrowed many words from Russian, German and French. The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ...


Some members of the diaspora do not speak the Bulgarian language (mostly representatives of the old emigration in the USA, Canada and Argentina) but are still considered Bulgarians by ethnic origin or descent.


The majority of the Bulgarian linguists, as well as some international ones, consider the officialized since 1944 Macedonian language a local variation of Bulgarian. However, the linguistic consensus suggests that a language is a language if its speakers define it as such. The Macedonian language (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Bulgarian language is written in the Cyrillic alphabet. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Name system

Main article: Bulgarian name

There are several different layers of Bulgarian names. The vast majority of them have either Christian (names like Lazar, Ivan, Anna, Maria, Ekaterina) or Slavic origin (Vladimir, Svetoslav, Velislava). After the Liberation in 1878, the names of historical Bulgar rulers like Asparuh, Krum, Kubrat and Tervel were resurrected. The old Bulgar name Boris has spread from Bulgaria to a number of countries in the world with Russian tsar Boris Godunov and German tennis player Boris Becker being two of the examples of its use. Compared to other systems, the Bulgarian name system can be said to be rather simple. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Ivan (Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian: Иван, Ukrainian: ) is a male given name of Slavic origin common among Bulgarians, Croats, Russians, Serbs, Slovenians, and Ukrainians, equivalent to English name John, the Gaelic name Ian, the French name Jean, the German name Johann, or the Serbian name Jovan. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh (d. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Khan Tervel or Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of the Bulgars from 700 or 701-718. ... // Boris is a Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbo-Croatian language name of Bulgar origin, common in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia and Slovenia. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Boris Franz Becker (born November 22, 1967) is a former World No. ...


Most Bulgarian male surnames have an -ov surname suffix (Cyrillic: -ов). This is sometimes transcribed as -off (John Atanasov — John Atanasoff, but more often as -ov e.g. Hristo Stoichkov). The -ov suffix is the Slavic gender-agreeing suffix, thus Ivanov (Bulgarian: Иванов) really means "Ivan's". Bulgarian middle names use the gender-agreeing suffix as well, thus the middle name of Nikola's son becomes Nikolov, and the middle name of Ivan's son becomes Ivanov. Since names in Bulgarian are gender-based, Bulgarian women have the -ova surname suffix (Cyrillic: -овa), for example, Maria Ivanova. The plural form of Bulgarian names ends in -ovi (Cyrillic: -ови), for example the Ivanovi family (Иванови). Family name affixes are a clue for family name etymology and determining ethnic origin of a person. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903-June 15, 1995) was a prominent American computer engineer of Bulgarian and Irish origin. ... Hristo Stoichkov alternatively spelt Stoitchkov (Bulgarian: ) (born February 8, 1966, in Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a football manager and former striker who was a member of the Bulgaria national team that finished fourth at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ... Family name affixes are a clue for family name etymology and determining ethnic origin of a person. ...


Other common Bulgarian male surnames have the -ev surname suffix (Cyrillic: -ев), for example Stoev, Ganchev, Peev, and so on. The female surname in this case would have the -eva surname suffix (Cyrillic: -ева), for example: Galina Stoeva. The last name of the entire family then would have the plural form of -evi (Cyrillic: -еви), for example: the Stoevi family (Стоеви). Family name affixes are a clue for family name etymology and determining ethnic origin of a person. ... Family name affixes are a clue for family name etymology and determining ethnic origin of a person. ...


Another typical Bulgarian surname suffix, though much less common, is -ski. This surname ending also gets an –a when the bearer of the name is female (Smirnenski becomes Smirnenska). The plural form of the surname suffix -ski is still -ski, e.g. the Smirnenski family (Bulgarian: Смирненски).


The surname suffix -ich can be found sometimes, primarily among Catholic Bulgarians. The ending –in (female -ina) also appears sometimes, though rather seldom. It used to be given to the child of an unmarried woman (for example the son of Kuna will get the surname Kunin and the son of GanaGanin). The surname ending –ich does not get an additional –a if the bearer of the name is female. Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria: Roman Catholicism is the third largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. ...


Religion

The St. George Rotunda (4th century AD), Sofia

Most Bulgarians are at least nominally members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church founded in 870 AD (autocephalous since 927 AD). The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and is considered an inseparable element of Bulgarian national consciousness. The church has been abolished twice during the periods of Byzantine (1018—1185) and Ottoman (1396—1878) domination but was revived every time as a symbol of Bulgarian statehood. In 2001, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church had a total of 6,552,000 members in Bulgaria (82.6% of the population) and between one and two million members in the diaspora. The problem with the allegiance of the Orthodox Bulgarian minorities in Serbia, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine has not yet been settled and Bulgarians in those countries still hold allegiance to the respective national orthodox churches. Image File history File links The Saint George Rotunda (4th cent. ... Image File history File links The Saint George Rotunda (4th cent. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


Despite the position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as a unifying symbol for all Bulgarians, smaller or larger groups of Bulgarians have converted to other faiths or denominations through the course of time. In the 16th and the 17th century Roman Catholic missionaries converted the Bulgarian Paulicians in the districts of Plovdiv and Svishtov to Roman Catholicism. Nowadays there are some 40,000 Catholic Bulgarians in Bulgaria and additional 10,000 in Banat in Romania. The Catholic Bulgarians of the Banat are also descendants of Paulicians who fled to Banat at the end of the 17th century after an unsuccessful uprising against the Ottomans. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Svishtov is a Bulgarian town at Danube river, nearly 235 km north-east from Sofia. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the...


Between 15th and 18th century, during the Ottoman rule, a large number of Orthodox Bulgarians converted to Islam. Their descendants now form the second largest religious congregation among the Bulgarians. In 2001, there were 131,000 Muslim Bulgarians in Bulgaria, some 30,000 in the Xanthi and Rhodope Prefectures in northeastern Greece and around 100,000 in Turkey, mainly in Edirne. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the 16th and the 18th century. ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Rhodope (Greek: Ροδόπη, Rodopi) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ... Location of Edirne Province Edirne is the westernmost province of Turkey, located in European Turkey (known in antiquity as Thrace) along the Greek border. ...


Protestantism was introduced in Bulgaria by missionaries from the United States in 1857. Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. In 2001, there were some 25,000 Protestant Bulgarians in Bulgaria. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian...

Further information: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Islam in Bulgaria, Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria, Protestantism in Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Banya Bashi mosque, built in 1576 by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, is the only functioning mosque that remains of 500 years of Ottoman domination in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Tatars, lives mainly in northeastern Bulgaria and in... Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria: Roman Catholicism is the third largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. ... Protestantism in Bulgaria: Protestantism is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Roman Catholicism. ...

Symbols

Flag of Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria
Coat of Arms of Bulgaria

The national symbols of the Bulgarians are the Flag of Bulgaria and the Coat of Arms of Bulgaria. Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Bulgarian coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Bulgarian coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The flag of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , zname na Balgariya) is a tricolour consisting of three equal-sized horizontal bands of (from top to bottom) white, green, and red. ... The coat of arms of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , Gerb na Balgariya) consists of a crowned golden lion rampant over a dark red shield; above the shield is the Bulgarian historical crown. ...


The national flag of Bulgaria is a rectangle with three colors: white, green, and red, positioned horizontally top to bottom. The color fields are of same form and equal size. The colors of the flag mean: white — peace, purity; green — nature; red — blood, symbolizing soldiers' blood that had been shed throughout Bulgaria's military history.


The Coat of Arms of Bulgaria is a state symbol of the sovereignty and independence of the Bulgarian people and state. It represents a crowned rampant golden lion on a dark red background with the shape of a shield. Above the shield there is a crown modelled after the crowns of the kings of the Second Bulgarian Empire, with five crosses and an additional cross on top. Two crowned rampant golden lions hold the shield from both sides, facing it. They stand upon two crossed oak branches with acorns, which symbolize the power and the longevity of the Bulgarian state. Under the shield, there is a white band lined with the three national colors. The band is placed across the ends of the branches and the phrase "Unity Makes Strength" is inscribed on it. The coat of arms of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , Gerb na Balgariya) consists of a crowned golden lion rampant over a dark red shield; above the shield is the Bulgarian historical crown. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ...


Both the Bulgarian flag and the Coat of Arms are also used as symbols of various Bulgarian organisations, political parties and institutions.


Population data

1This total population estimate includes only ethnic Bulgarians born in Bulgaria and their descendants abroad.


² Results according to the latest available census held in the country in question and year of the census: Bulgaria (Census 2001), Canada (2001), Kazakhstan 1999, Russia (2002), Serbia and Montenegro (2002), Ukraine (2001), USA (2002), Slovenia (2002). Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ...


³ Official number of citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria in Austria, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain. The numbers do not include Bulgarian-speaking people without Bulgarian citizenship, except for Spain.


4 Estimates of the Agency for Bulgarians Abroad for the numbers of ethnic Bulgarians living for the country in question based on data from the Bulgarian Border Police, the Bulgarian Ministry of Labour and reports from immigrant associations. The numbers include legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, students and other individuals permanently residing in the country in question as of 2004.


5 Bulgarian embassy, Dublin statistics


6 Government of the Czech Republic: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001


References

  1. ^ HLA polymorphism in Bulgarians defined by high-resolution typing methods in comparison with other populations.
  2. ^ Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language
  3. ^ Paleo-MtDNA Analysis and population genetic aspects of old Thracian population from South-Eastern Romania
  4. ^ Anthropological Evidence and the Fallmerayer Thesis
  5. ^ On the origin of the Proto-Bulgarians, by Rasho Rashev
  6. ^ Shkodrova, Albena, 2005. Bulgaria's Warm Embrace. Institute for War and Peace Reporting
  7. ^ Главна Дирекция Гражданска Регистрация и Административно Обслужване

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bulgarian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5032 words)
Bulgarian demonstrates several linguistic innovations that set it apart from other Slavic languages, such as the elimination of noun declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan linguistic union), the lack of a verb infinitive, and the retention and further development of the proto-Slavic verb system.
Bulgarian is closely related to Macedonian, generally recognized as a distinct language, although the prevalent opinion in Bulgaria, to some extent in Greece, and that of certain international linguists is that Bulgarian and Macedonian are two standard forms of the same diasystem.
Bulgarian verbs express lexical aspect: perfective verbs signify the completion of the action of the verb and form past aorist tenses; imperfective ones are neutral with regard to it and form past imperfect tenses.
Bulgarian (977 words)
Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th century, also called Old Church Slavonic) was the language used by St. Cyril, St. Methodius and their disciples to translate the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek.
Bulgarian is the official language of the Republic of Bulgaria.
Bulgarian is the medium of instruction at all levels of education and is used in all electronic and print media.
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