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Encyclopedia > Bulgarian language
Bulgarian
Български
Balgarski
Spoken in: Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, the Western Outlands region in Serbia, Romania, Greece, Turkey, among emigrant communities worldwide 
Region: The Balkans 10+ million speakers
Total speakers: 10 million (Ethnologue)

approx. 12 million (Omniglot)
10+ million (Dalby 2007, Dictionary of Languages) The area referred to as the Western Outlands The Western (Bulgarian) Outlands (Bulgarian: , Zapadni (balgarski) pokraynini) is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several territorially separate regions in southeastern Serbia and in the southeast of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...

Language family: Indo-European
 Balto-Slavic
  Slavic
   South Slavic
    Eastern South Slavic
     Bulgarian 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
Flag of Europe European Union
Regulated by: Institute of Bulgarian at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Институт за български език)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: bg
ISO 639-2: bul
ISO 639-3: bul

Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80.000 speakers in Russia, Ukraine etc. Modern bulgar is a dirty dialect of Shopic-macedonian language which the Bulgar hordes coming in Europ were forced to speak and abandoned their original Bulgar Chuvashi language (inteliglible with Avar / Magyar). If Bulgars made the cyrillics Slavs would be speaking Magyar by now. A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The hypothetical Balto-Slavic language group consists of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Bulgaristanians have a little respect towards the people who gave you your language. Macedonians are NOT Bulgars.


Bulgarian (IPA: [bɤlgarski ɛzik]) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Tatar branch of the Turkic and Ugrofin languages. Bulgarian demonstrates several linguistic innovations that set it apart from other Slavic languages, such as the elimination of case declension, the development of a suffixed definite article (see Balkan linguistic union), the lack of a verb infinitive, and the retention and further development of the proto-Slavic verb system. Various verb forms exist to express unwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and all the other Slavic languages later emerged. ...


Bulgarian is a part of the Turkic linguistic group, which also includes Chuvashi. Most of these languages share some of the above-mentioned characteristics (for example, definite article, infinitive loss, complicated verb system) and many more. An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Bulgarian

The development of the Bulgarian language may be divided into several historical periods. The History of the Bulgarian language can be divided into four major periods: prehistoric period (from the time of the settlement of the Bulgarian Slavs on the Balkans until the late 9th century); Old Bulgarian (from the late 9th until the 11th century); Middle Bulgarian (from the 12th century to...

  • Prehistoric period - occurred between the Slavonic migration to eastern Balkans and the mission of St. Cyril and St. Methodius to Great Moravia in the 860s.
  • Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th century, also referred to as Old Church Slavonic) - a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Common Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved. It was used by St. Cyril, St. Methodius and their disciples to translate the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic.
  • Middle Bulgarian (12th to 15th century) - a literary norm that evolved from the earlier Old Bulgarian, after major innovations were accepted. It was a language of rich literary activity and the official administration language of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
  • Modern Bulgarian - dates from the 16th century onwards, undergoing general grammar and syntax changes in the 18th and 19th centuries. Present-day written Bulgarian language was standardized on the basis of the 19th-century Bulgarian vernacular. The historical development of the Bulgarian language can be described as a transition from a highly synthetic language (Old Bulgarian) to a typical analytic language (Modern Bulgarian) with Middle Bulgarian as a midpoint in this transition.

Bulgarian was the first "Slavic" language attested in writing. As Slavic linguistic unity lasted into late antiquity, in the oldest manuscripts this language was initially referred to as языкъ словяньскъ, "the Slavic language". In the Middle Bulgarian period this name was gradually replaced by the name языкъ блъгарьскъ, the "Bulgarian language". In some cases, the name языкъ блъгарьскъ was used not only with regard to the contemporary Middle Bulgarian language of the copyist but also to the period of Old Bulgarian. A most notable example of anachronism is the Service of St. Cyril from Skopje (Скопски миней), a 13th century Middle Bulgarian manuscript from northern Macedonia according to which St. Cyril preached with "Bulgarian" books among the Moravian Slavs. The first mention of the language as the "Bulgarian language" instead of the "Slavonic language" comes in the work of the Greek clergy of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid in the 11th century, for example in the Greek hagiography of Saint Clement of Ohrid by Theophylact of Ohrid (late 11th century). See Saint Cyril (disambiguation) for other persons with this name. ... Saint Methodius was a bishop of Great Moravia (Moravia) (born Thessaloniki, Greece, 826; he died in the (unknown) capital of Great Moravia, April 6, 885). ... Old Bulgarian may refer to: The first literary period in the development of the Bulgarian language. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and all the other Slavic languages later emerged. ... See Saint Cyril (disambiguation) for other persons with this name. ... Saint Methodius was a bishop of Great Moravia (Moravia) (born Thessaloniki, Greece, 826; he died in the (unknown) capital of Great Moravia, April 6, 885). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. ... An isolating language is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and are considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... See Saint Cyril (disambiguation) for other persons with this name. ... The Archbishopric of Ohrid (Ohrid Archbishopric, Archbishopric of First Justiniana) was an autonomous Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and 1767, seated in Ohrid. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (ca. ... Theophylact of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Теофилакт Български) (d. ...


During the Middle Bulgarian period, the language underwent dramatic changes, losing the Slavonic case system, but preserving the rich verb system (while the development was exactly the opposite in Slavic languages) and developing a definite article. It was influenced by proto-Bulgar and its non-Slavic neighbors in the Balkan linguistic union (mostly grammatically) and later also by Turkish, which was the official language of Ottoman empire, in the form of the Ottoman language (an earlier form of Turkish), mostly lexically. As a national revival occurred towards the end of the period of Ottoman rule (mostly during the 19th century), a modern Bulgarian literary language gradually emerged which drew heavily on Church Slavonic/Old Bulgarian and which later reduced the number of Turkish and other Balkanic loans. Today one difference between Bulgarian dialects in the country and literary spoken Bulgarian is the significant presence of old Bulgarian words and even word forms in the latter. The phonology of many such words has been modified along modern patterns; many other words were taken from Russian, French, English.., without taking the expected phonetic changes in consideration (оборот, непонятен, ядро and others). The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... Ottoman Turkish is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Arabic and Persian and written in Arabic script. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ...


Modern Bulgarian was based essentially on the Eastern dialects of the language, but its pronunciation is in many respects a compromise between East and West Bulgarian (see especially the phonetic sections below).


Alphabet

In 886 AD, Bulgaria replaced its old runic alphabet of the proto-Bulgars with the Glagolitic alphabet which was devised by the Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 850s. The Glagolitic alphabet was gradually superseded in later centuries by the Cyrillic alphabet, developed around the Preslav Literary School in the beginning of the 10th century. Most letters in the Cyrillic alphabet were borrowed from the Greek alphabet, but those which had no Greek equivalents represent simplified Glagolitic letters. Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 Events Samara the Sweet is born. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ...


Several Cyrillic alphabets with 28 to 44 letters were used in the beginning and the middle of the 19th century during the efforts on the codification of Modern Bulgarian until an alphabet with 32 letters, proposed by Marin Drinov, gained prominence in the 1870s. The alphabet of Marin Drinov was used until the orthographic reform of 1945 when the letters yat (Ѣ, ѣ, called "double e"), and yus (Ѫ, ѫ) were removed from the alphabet, reducing the number of letters to 30. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Marin Drinov Professor Marin Stoyanov Drinov (Марин Стоянов Дринов, known in Russia as Марин Степанович Дринов) (1838-13 March 1906) was a Bulgarian historian and philologist from the National Revival period that lived and worked in Russia through most of his life. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ... Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ... Little Yus and Big Yus , or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ... Little Yus (, ) and Big Yus (, ), or Jus, are the letters representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels, in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. ...


Nowadays the Bulgarian language is written in the Cyrillic script and occasionally in the Latin. Road signs and street signs are almost always written in the two scripts. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Unused traffic signs in Austria Most countries post signage, known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of roads to impart information to road users. ... See also: street sign theft External links http://homepages. ...


With accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on January 1, 2007, Cyrillic became the third official alphabet of the EU. Dark green: current members; light green: acceding countries; orange: recognized candidate countries Bulgaria (along with Romania) is part of the second stage of the EUs fifth enlargement1 and is currently scheduled to join it on January 1, 2007. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


The following table gives the letters of the Bulgarian alphabet, along with IPA values for the sound of each letter: Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

А а
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/g/
Д д
/d/
Е е
/ɛ/
Ж ж
/ʒ/
З з
/z/
И и
/i/
Й й
/j/
К к
/k/
Л л
/l/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
О о
/ɔ/
П п
/p/
Р р
/r/
С с
/s/
Т т
/t/
У у
/u/
Ф ф
/f/
Х х
/x/
Ц ц
/ʦ/
Ч ч
/tʃ/
Ш ш
/ʃ/
Щ щ
/ʃt/
Ъ ъ
/ɤ/
- ь1
/ʲ/
Ю ю
/ju/
Я я
/ja/

1 softens consonants before /ɔ/ A (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up Б, б in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound . ... Look up Г, г in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De (Д, д) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Zhe (Ж, ж) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (listen), similar to the s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets, and the 9th in the Ukrainian... Ze (З, з) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /z/. Its easily confusable with the number 3, for example the stages of the N1 rocket. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ... Й, й (Short I) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Ka (К, к) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Em (М, м) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /m/. Code positions This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Look up Н, н in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Pe (П, п) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /p/. It arose directly from the Greek letter Pi (Π, Ï€). The shape of capital printed Pe can be described as a square with the bottom line missing, not to be confused with El (Cyrillic), which has a curved left. ... Er (Р, р) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Te (Т, т) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Ef (Ф, ф) is the twenty-first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Kha, or Ha, (Х, х) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /x/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Che (Ч, ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant cluster /tS/ or /tS/ (like the ch in change). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Stub ... Sha (Ш, ш) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound or . ... Shcha or Shta (Щ, щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /ʃʲ/, /ʃʧ/, /ʃʲʧʲ/ in Russian, and the consonant /ʃt/ in Bulgarian. ... The letter (Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ... Soft Sign (Ь, ÑŒ) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian: мягкий знак (mÄ­ahkiy znak) [], Ukrainian: м’який знак (miakyy znak) [], Belarusian: мяккі знак (miakki znak) []). It is named so because it usually indicates softening, or palatalization, of the preceding consonant or of the group of them. ... Yu (Ю, ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel /ju/. In common with many Cyrillic letters, it was derived from a digraph, being a ligature of Izhe (then І) or Izhei (then Н, both now И) and Uk (Ѹ, no longer in the alphabet). ... Ya (Я, я) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the iotated vowel /ja/ (SAMPA). ...


Most letters in the Bulgarian alphabet stand for just one specific sound. Three letters stand for the single expression of combinations of sounds, namely щ (sht), ю (yu), and я (ya). Two sounds do not correspond to separate letters, but are expressed as the combination of two letters, namely дж (/dʒ/) and дз (dz). The letter ь marks the softening (palatalization) of any consonant before /ɔ/. Shcha or Shta (Щ, щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /ʃʲ/, /ʃʧ/, /ʃʲʧʲ/ in Russian, and the consonant /ʃt/ in Bulgarian. ... YU or Yu may stand for: Henan, abbreviation for the Chinese province Yugoslavia, especially, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (old ISO country code) one of the following universities: Yale University Yeshiva University York University Yu (Xia dynasty ruler), the founder of the Xia dynasty Yu (Stargate), a System Lord from... The term ya refers to The Cyrillic alphabet letter Я (which, on its own, means I in Russian). ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


About transliteration of Bulgarian into the Latin alphabet (romanization), see romanization of Bulgarian. Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Romanization of Bulgarian is the transliteration of text in the Bulgarian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ...


Phonology

Vowels

Front Central Back
High и /i/ у /u/
Mid е /ɛ/ ъ /ɤ/ о /ɔ/
Low а /a/

Bulgarian's six vowels may be grouped in three pairs according to their backness: front, central and back. All vowels are relatively lax, as in most other Slavic languages, and unlike the tense vowels, for example, in the Germanic languages. Unstressed vowels tend to be shorter and weaker compared to their stressed counterparts, and the corresponding pairs of open and closed vowels approach each other with a tendency to merge, above all as open (low and middle) vowels are raised and shift towards the narrow (high) ones. However, the coalescence is not always complete. The vowels are often distinguished in emphatic or deliberately distinct pronunciation, and reduction is strongest in colloquial speech. Besides that, some linguists distinguish two degrees of reduction, as they have found that a clearer distinction tends to be maintained in the syllable immediately preceding the stressed one. The complete merger of the pair /a/ - /ɤ/ is regarded as most common, while the status of /ɔ/ vs /u/ is less clear. A coalescence of /ɛ/ and /i/ is definitely not allowed in formal speech and is regarded as an unprestigious provincial (East Bulgarian) feature; instead, unstressed /ɛ/ is both raised and centralized, approaching ъ /ɤ/, a de facto nonexisting sound in the other Slavic languages.[1] Image File history File links Bulgarian_vowel_chart. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Centralization in phonetics may refer to central vowels central or medial consonants This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Semivowels

The Bulgarian language possesses one semivowel: /j/, being equivalent to y in English like in yes. It is expressed graphically with the letter й, as in най /naj/ ("most"), тролей /trɔlɛj/ ("trolleybus"), except when it precedes /a/ or /u/, in which case the combination of two phonemes is expressed with a single letter, respectively я or ю. (e.g. ютия /jutija/ "(flat) iron"). Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Й, й (Short I) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ...


The semivowel /j/ does not occur after consonants. Thus, after a consonant, я and ю signify its palatalisation rather than a semivowel: бял /bʲal/ "white", плюя plʲuja/ "I spit".


Consonants

Bulgarian has a total of 33 consonant phonemes (see table below). Three additional phonemes can also be found ([xʲ], [ʣ] and [ʣʲ]), but only in foreign proper names such as Хюстън /xʲustɤn/ ("Houston"), Дзержински /dzɛrʒinski/ ("Dzerzhinsky"), and Ядзя /jaʣʲa/, the Polish name "Jadzia". They are, however, normally not considered part of the phonetic inventory of the Bulgarian language. According to the criterion of sonority, the Bulgarian consonants may be divided into 16 pairs (voiced<>voiceless). The only consonant without a counterpart is the voiceless velar fricative [x]. The contrast 'voiced vs. voiceless' is neutralized in word-final position, where all consonants are pronounced as voiceless (as in most Slavic languages, German, etc.); this neutralization is, however, not reflected in the spelling. In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... A proper name [is] a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about writes John Stuart Mill in A System of Logic (1. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ...


Hard and palatalized consonants

The Bulgarian consonants б /b/, в /v/, г /g/, д /d/, з /z/, к /k/, л /l/, м /m/, н /n/, п /p/, р /r/, с /s/, т /t/, ф /f/, ц /ʦ/ can denote both a normal, "hard" pronunciation, as well as a "soft", palatalized one. The hard and the palatalized consonants are considered separate phonemes in Bulgarian. The consonants ж /ʒ/, ш /ʃ/, ч /ʧ/ and дж /ʤ/ do not have palatalized variants, which is probably connected with the fact that they have arisen historically through palatalization in Common Slavonic. These consonants may still be somewhat palatalized in some speakers' pronunciation, but as a rule this is not the case. In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ...


The softness of the palatalized consonants is always indicated in writing in Bulgarian. A consonant is palatalized if:

  • it is followed by the soft sign ь (which occurs only before о);
  • it is followed by the letters я / ʲa/ or ю / ʲu/;

(note, however, that when я and ю aren't preceded by a consonant, they signal that the vowels /a/ and /u/ are preceded by the semivowel /j/)


Even though palatalized consonants are phonemes in Bulgarian, they may in some cases be positionally conditioned, hence redundant. In Eastern Bulgarian dialects, consonants are always allophonically palatalized before the vowels /i/ and /ɛ/. This is not the case in correct Standard Bulgarian, but that form of the language does have similar allophonic alternations. Thus, к /k/, г /g/ and х /x/ tend to be palatalized before /i/ and /ɛ/, and the realization of the phoneme л /l/ varies along the same principles: one of its allophones, involving a raising of the back of the tongue and a lowering of its middle part (thus similar or, according to some scholars, identical to a velarized lateral), occurs in all positions, except before the vowels /i/ and /ɛ/, where a more "clear" version with a slight raising of the middle part of the tongue occurs. The latter pre-front realization is traditionally (and incorrectly) called "soft l", even though it is not palatalized (and thus isn’t identical to the /lʲ/ signalled by the letters ь, я and ю). In some Western Bulgarian dialects, this allophonic variation does not exist. The velarized alveolar lateral approximant, which may actually be uvularized or pharyngealized, also known as dark l, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Furthermore, in the speech of young people, especially in the capital, the more common and arguably velarized allophone of /l/ is often realized as a labiovelar approximant [w].[2] The phenomenon was first registered in the 1970s and isn't connected to original dialects. Similar developments, termed L-vocalization, have occurred in many languages, including Polish, Serbo-Croatian and Cockney English. A labiovelar sound is one produced with the lips and velum simultaneously. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In linguistics, l-vocalization is a process by which an sound (a lateral consonant) is replaced by a vowel or semivowel sound. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ...


Palatalization

During the palatalization of most hard consonants (the bilabial, labiodental and alveolar ones), the middle part of the tongue is lifted towards the palatum, resulting in the formation of a second articulatory centre whereby the specific palatal "clang" of the soft consonants is achieved. The articulation of alveolars /l/, /n/ and /r/, however, usually does not follow that rule; the palatal clang is achieved by moving the place of articulation further back towards the palatum so that /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /rʲ/ are actually alveopalatal (postalvelolar) consonants. Soft /g/ and /k/ (/gʲ/ and /kʲ/, respectively) are articulated not on the velum but on the palatum and are considered palatal consonants. Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ...


Table of Bulgarian consonants

  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental &
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal hard /m/   /n/      
soft /mʲ/       /ɲ/  
Plosive hard /p/   /b/   /t/   /d/     /k/   /g/
soft /pʲ/   /bʲ/   /tʲ/   /dʲ/     /kʲ/   /gʲ/
Affricate hard     /ts/    /tʃ/  /dʒ/    
soft     /tsʲ/       
Fricative hard   /f/   /v/ /s/   /z/ /ʃ/   /ʒ/   /x/     
soft   /fʲ/   /vʲ/ /sʲ/   /zʲ/    
Trill hard     /r/      
soft     /rʲ/      
Approximant soft         /j/  
Lateral hard     /l/      
soft         /ʎ/  

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Word stress

Bulgarian word stress is dynamic. Stressed syllables are louder and longer than unstressed ones. Stress is also free and mobile rather than fixed as in French and Latin, i.e. it may fall on any syllable of a polysyllabic word and its position may vary in inflection and derivation, for example, мъж /mɤʃ/ ("man"), мъжът /mɤˈʒɤt/ ("the man"). Bulgarian stress is also distinctive: for example, в'ълна /ˈvɤlna/ ("wool") and вълн'а /vɤl'na/ ("wave") are only differentiated by stress. Stress usually isn't signified in written text (one notable exception being the single dative female pronoun "ѝ" ("to her"), which should always be stressed in writing). It may, however, be indicated in cases with minimal pairs like the above, where disambiguation is needed, or in order to signify the dialectal deviation from the standard language pronunciation. In such cases, stress is signified by placing an grave accent on the vowel of the stressed syllable. In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ...


Grammar

Main article: Bulgarian grammar
(incomplete).

The parts of speech in Bulgarian are divided in 10 different types, which are categorized in two broad classes: mutable and immutable. The difference is that mutable parts of speech vary grammatically, whereas the immutable ones do not change, regardless of their use. The five classes of mutables are: nouns, adjectives', numerals, pronouns and verbs. Syntactically, the first four of these form the group of the noun or the nominal group. The immutables are: adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles and interjections. Verbs and adverbs form the group of the verb or the verbal group. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


Nominal morphology

Nouns and adjectives have the categories grammatical gender, number, case (only vocative) and definiteness in Bulgarian. Adjectives and adjectival pronouns agree with nouns in number and gender. Pronouns have gender, number and retain (as in nearly all Indo-European languages) a more significant part of the case system. A grammatical category is a general term. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


Nominal inflection

Gender

There are three grammatical genders in Bulgarian: masculine, feminine and neuter. The gender of the noun can largely be determined according to its ending. The vast majority of Bulgarian nouns ending in a consonant ("zero ending") are masculine (for example, град {grad} "city", син {sin} "son", мъж {mazh} "man"). Feminine nouns include almost all nouns that have the endings –а/–я (-a/-ya) (жена {zhena} "woman", дъщеря {dashteria} "daughter", улица {ulitsa} "street"), a large group of nouns with zero ending expressing quality, degree or an abstraction, including all nouns ending on –ост/–ест (мъдрост {madrost} "wisdom", низост {nizost} "vileness", прелест {prelest} "loveliness", болест {bolest} "sickness", любов {lyubov} "love"), and another, much smaller group of irregular nouns with zero ending which define tangible objects or concepts (кръв {krav} "blood", кост {kost} "bone", вечер {vecher} "evening", нoщ (nosht), "night"). Nouns ending in –е, –о are almost exclusively neuter (дете {dete} “child”, езеро {ezero} "lake"). The same regards a limited number of loan words ending in –и, –у, and –ю (цунами "tsunami", табу {tabu} "taboo", меню {menyu} "menu"). The plural forms of the nouns do not express their gender clearly, although the ending –и (-i) is more likely to be used with a masculine or feminine noun (факти {fakti} "facts", болести {bolesti} "sicknesses"), while one in –а/–я belongs more often to a neuter noun (езера {ezera} "lakes"). Also, plural ending –ове (-ove) occurs only in masculine nouns. The Bulgarain language has many different ways of expressing the plurality of a noun. For example the word клон, klon (branch) has two ways to be plural. The first one is клони (kloni), where it defines many branches of a tree or a bush. But it may take -ове and may become клонове (klonove), where the word means many branches of a bank, or a factory or in its industry meaning. There are many irregular formations of plurals. Besides it is an exception according to its grammar gender, the word чичо, chicho (uncle), which is masculine, generates its plural form irregularly - it becomes чичовци (chichovtsi) and not чичи or чичове (chichi or chichove).


Number

Two numbers are distinguished in Bulgarian — singular and plural. A variety of plural suffixes is used, and the choice between them is partly determined by their ending in singular, partly influenced by gender and partly impredictible due to the commonness of exceptions, irregular declension and alternative plural forms. Words ending in –а/–я (which are usually feminine) generally have the plural ending –и, upon dropping of the singular ending. Of nouns ending in a consonant, the feminine ones also use –и, whereas the masculine ones usually have –и for polysyllables and –ове for monosyllables (however, exceptions are especially common in this group). Nouns ending in –о/–е (most of which are neuter) use the suffixes –а, –я (both of which require the dropping of the singular endings) and –та. In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With cardinal numbers and related words such as няколко ("several"), masculine nouns use a separate count form in –а/–я, which stems from the proto-Slavonic dual: двама/трима ученика (two/three students) versus тези ученици (these students); cf. feminine две/три/тези жени (two/three/these women) and neuter две/три/тези деца (two/three/these children). However, a recently developed language norm requires that count forms should only be used with masculine nouns that do not denote persons. Thus, двама/трима ученици is perceived as more correct than двама/трима ученика, while the distinction is retained in cases such as два/три молива (two/three pencils) versus тези моливи (these pencils). Aleph-0, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set, known as its cardinality. ... Dual is the grammatical number used for two referents. ...


Case

The complex Slavic case system is almost non-existent in Bulgarian and instead uses prepositional and other syntactic constructions. Cases exist only in the personal pronouns (as they are in most or all Indo-European languages), with nominative, accusative, dative and vocative forms. Vestiges are present in the masculine personal interrogative pronoun кой ("who") and in a number of phraseological units and sayings. Vocative forms are still in use for masculine (with the endings -e, -o and -ю) and feminine nouns (-[ь/й]o and -e) in the singular, although there is a tendency to avoid them in many personal names, as the use of feminine name forms in -[ь/й]o and of the potential vocative forms of foreign names has come to be considered rude or rustic. It's usually used in spoken language and in literary works, associated with past times in the Bulgarian history and customs. "Иване" means "Hey, Ivan", and defines to whom the speaker is talking exactly! The form "Марийо" is "Hey, Maria" is not usually used. Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... Dative has several meanings. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ...


Definiteness (article)

In modern Bulgarian, definiteness is expressed by a definite article which is postfixed to the noun, much like in the Scandinavian languages or Romanian (indefinite: човек, "person"; definite: човекът, "the person") or to the first nominal constituent of definite noun phrases (indefinite: добър човек, "a good person"; definite: добрият човек, "the good person"). There are four singular definite articles. Again, the choice between them is largely determined by the noun's ending in the singular.[3] Nouns that end in a consonant and are masculine use –ът/–ят, when they are grammatical subjects, and –а/–я, when they are grammatical objects. Nouns that end in a consonant and are feminine, as well as nouns that end in –а/–я (most of which are feminine, too) use –та. Nouns that end in –е/–о use –то. Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ...


The plural definite article is –те for all nouns except for those, whose plural form ends in –а/–я; these get –тa instead. When postfixed to adjectives the definite articles are –ят/–я for masculine gender, –та for feminine gender, –то for neuter gender, and –те for plural.


Adjective and numeral inflection

Both groups agree in gender and number with the noun they are appended to. They may also take up the definite article as explained above.


Pronouns

Pronouns may vary in gender, number, definiteness and are the only parts of speech that have retained case inflexions. Three cases are exhibited by some groups of pronouns, nominative, accusative and dative, although dative and accusative are often substituted by nominative constructions: Аз ми се струва ("It seems to I") instead of На мен ми се струва ("It seems to me"), Той го няма тук (lit. "It doesn't have he here"="He's not here") instead of Него го няма (lit "It doesn't have him here"). This substitution is considered ungrammatical, although often used in spoken Bulgarian nowadays. The distinguishable types of pronouns include the following: personal, relative, reflexive, interrogative, negative, indefinitive, summative and possessive.


Verbal morphology and grammar

Finite verbal forms

Finite verbal forms are simple or compound and agree with subjects in person (first, second and third) and number (singular, plural) in Bulgarian. In addition to that, past compound forms using participles vary in gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and voice (active and passive) as well as aspect (perfective/aorist and imperfective).


Aspect

Bulgarian verbs express lexical aspect: perfective verbs signify the completion of the action of the verb and form past aorist tenses; imperfective ones are neutral with regard to it and form past imperfect tenses. Most Bulgarian verbs can be grouped in perfective-imperfective pairs (imperfective<>perfective: идвам<>дойда "come", пристигам<>пристигна “arrive”). Perfective verbs can be usually formed from imperfective ones by suffixation or prefixation, but the resultant verb often deviates in meaning from the original. In the pair examples above, aspect is stem-specific and therefore there is no difference in meaning. An eventuality is a situation that takes place in the world. ...


In Bulgarian, there is also grammatical aspect. Three grammatical aspects are distinguishable: neutral, perfect and pluperfect. The neutral aspect comprises the three simple tenses and the future tense. The pluperfect aspect is manifest in tenses that use double or triple auxiliary "be" participles like the past pluperfect subjunctive. Perfect tenses use a single auxiliary "be". In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...


Mood

In addition to the four moods (наклонения, naklonenia) shared by most other European languages - indicative (изявително, izyavitelno), imperative (повелително, povelitelno), subjunctive (подчинително, podchinitelno) and conditional (условно, uslovno) - in Bulgarian there is one more to describe past unwitnessed events - the renarrative (преизказно, preízkazno) mood. In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... The renarrative mood is a grammatical verb category that exists in some languages such as Bulgarian and Turkish. ...


Tense

There are three grammatically distinctive positions in time — present, past and future — which combine with aspect and mood to produce a number of formations. Normally, in grammar books these formations are viewed as separate tenses — i. e. "past imperfect tense" would mean that the verb is in past tense, in the imperfective aspect, and in the indicative mood (since no other mood is shown). There are more than 30 different tenses across Bulgarian's two aspects and five moods.


In the indicative mood, there are three simple tenses:

  • Present tense is a temporally unmarked simple form made up of the verbal stem of and a complex suffix composed of the vowel /e/, /i/ or /a/ and the person/number ending (пристигам, pristigam, "I arrive/I am arriving"); only imperfective verbs can stand in the present indicative tense independently;
  • Past imperfect tense is a simple verb form used to express an action which is contemporaneous or subordinate to other past actions; it is made up of an imperfective or a perfective verbal stem and the person/number ending (пристигаx, pristigah; пристигнеx, pristigneh, "I was arriving");
  • Past aorist tense is a simple form used to express a temporarily independent, specific past action; it is made up of a perfective or an imperfective verbal stem and the person/number ending (пристигнах, pristignah, "I arrived", четох, chetoh, "I read");

In the indicative there are also the following compound tenses:

  • future tense is a compound form made of the particle ще (shte) and present tense (ще уча, shte ucha, "I will study"); negation is expressed by the construction няма да (nyama da) and present tense (няма да уча, nyama da ucha, or the old-fashined form "не ще да уча", "ne shte da ucha" - "I will not study");
  • Past future tense is a compound form used to express an action which was to be completed in the past but was future as regards another past action; it is made up of the past imperfect tense of the verb ща (shta) "will, want", the particle да (da) "to" and the present tense of the verb (щях да уча, shtyah da ucha, "I was going to study");
  • Present perfect tense is a compound form used to express an action which was completed in the past but is relevant for or related to the present; it is made up of the present tense of the verb съм (sum) "be" and the past participle (съм учил, sum uchil, "I have studied");
  • Past perfect tense is a compound form used to express an action which was completed in the past and is relative to another past action; it is made up of the past tense of the verb съм (sum) "be" and the past participle (бях учил, byah uchil, "I had studied");
  • Future perfect tense is a compound form used to express an action which is to take place in the future before another future action; it is made up of the future tense of the verb съм (sum) "be" and the past participle (ще съм учил, shte sum uchil, "I will have studied");
  • Past future perfect tense is a compound form used to express a past action which is future with respect to a past action which itself is prior to another past action; it is made up of the past imperfect of ща (shta) "will, want", the particle да (da) "to", the present tense of the verb съм (sum) "be" (am) and the past participle of the verb (щях да съм учил, shtyah da sum uchil, "I would have studied").

The four perfect tenses above can all vary in aspect depending on the aspect of the main-verb participle; they are in fact pairs of imperfective and perfective tenses. Verbs in tenses using past participles also vary in voice and gender.


There is only one simple tense in the imperative mood - the present - and there are simple forms only for the second person using the suffixes -и/-й (-i, -y/i) for singular and -ете/-йте (-ete, -yte) for plural; e.g., уча (ucha) "to study": уч (uch) и (i), sg., учете (uchete), pl.; играя (igraya) "to play": играй (igray), играйте (igrayte). There are compound imperative forms for all persons and numbers in the present compound imperative (да играе, da igrae) and the present perfect compound imperative (да е играл, da e igral). In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...


The conditional mood consists of five compound tenses, most of which are not grammatically distinguishable. The present, future and past conditional use a special past form of the stem би- (bi - "be") and the past participle (бих учил, bih uchil, "I would study"). The past future conditional and the past future perfect conditional coincide in form with the respective indicative tenses. The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ...


The subjunctive mood is rarely documented as a separate verb form in Bulgarian, (being, morphologically, a sub-instance of the quasi-infinitive construction with the particle да (da) "to" and a normal finite verb form), but nevertheless it is used regularly. The most common form, often mistaken for the present tense, is the present subjunctive ((пo-добре) да отидa, (po-dobre da otida), "I had better go"). The difference between the present indicative and the present subjunctive tense is that the subjunctive can be formed by both perfective and imperfective verbs. It has completely replaced the infinitive and the supine from complex expressions (see below). It is also employed to express opinion about possible future events. The past perfect subjunctive ((пo-добре) да бях отишъл, (po-dobre da byah otishul), "I had better gone") refers to possible events in the past, which did not take place, and the present pluperfect subjunctive (да съм бил отишъл, da sum bil otishul), which may be used about both past and future events arousing feelings of incontinence, suspicion, etc. and is impossible to translate in English. This last variety of the subjunctive in Bulgarian is sometimes also called the dubitative mood. In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Dubitative mood is a grammatical mood found in some languages, that indicates that the statement is dubious, doubtful, or uncertain. ...


The renarrative mood has five tenses. Two of them are simple - past aorist renarrative and past imperfect renarrative - and are formed by the past participles' of perfective and imperfective verbs, respectively. There are also three compound tenses - past future renarrative, past future perfect renarrative and past perfect renarrative. All these tenses' forms are gender-specific in the singular and exist only in the third person. The existence of renarrative forms has been attributed to Turkish influences by most Bulgarian linguists. Morphologically, they are related to the perfect tenses. The renarrative mood is a grammatical verb category that exists in some languages such as Bulgarian and Turkish. ... Bulgarian (Български език, IPA: ) is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ...


Non-finite verbal forms

The proto-Slavonic infinitive and supine have been replaced by phrases with да ("to") and present subjunctive tense (искам да уча, "I want to study"). In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Supine as an adjective generally refers to any upward-facing position. ...


Bulgarian has the following participles: In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ...

  • Present active participle (сегашно деятелно причастие) is formed from imperfective stems with the addition of the suffixes –ащ/–ещ/–ящ (четящ, "reading") and is used only attributively;
  • Present passive participle (сегашно страдателно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffixes -им/аем/уем (четим, "that can be read, readable");
  • Past active aorist participle (минало свършено деятелно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffix –л– to perfective stems (чел, "read");
  • Past active imperfect participle (минало несвършено деятелно причастие) is formed by the addition of the suffixes –ел/–ал/–ял to imperfective stems (четял, "(been) reading"); it is used only in renarrative (renarrated) mood and is a Bulgarian innovation;
  • Past passive participle' (минало страдателно причастие) is formed from aorist stems with the addition of the suffixes –(е)н–/–т– (четен, "(been) read"); it is used predicatively and attributively;
  • Adverbial participle (деепричастие) is formed from imperfective present stems with the suffix –(е)йки (четейки, "while reading"), relates an action contemporaneous with and subordinate to the main verb and is originally a Western Bulgarian form.

The participles are inflected by gender, number, and definiteness, and are coordinated with the subject when forming compound tenses (see tenses above). When used in attributive role the inflection attributes are coordinated with the noun that is being attributed. Look up Adverbial participle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Adverbs

The most productive way to form adverbs is to derive them from the neuter singular form of the corresponding adjective (бързо (fast), силно (hard), странно (strange)), although adjectives ending in -ки use the masculine singular form, also in -ки, instead: юнашки (heroically), мъжки (bravely, like a man), майсторски (skilfully). The same pattern is used to form adverbs from the (adjective-like) ordinal numerals, e.g. първо (firstly), второ (secondly), трето (thirdly), and in some cases from (adjective-like) cardinal numerals, e.g. двойно (twice as/double), тройно (three times as), петорно (five times as).


The remaining adverbs are formed in ways that are no longer productive in the language. A small number are original (not derived from other words), for example: тук (here), там (there), вътре (inside), вън (outside), много (very/much) etc. The rest are mostly fossilized declined forms, such as:

  • archaic unchangeable locative forms of some adjectives, e.g. добре (well), зле (badly), твърде (too, rather), and nouns горе (up), утре (tomorrow), лете (in the summer);
  • archaic unchangeable instrumental forms of some adjectives, e.g. тихом (quietly), скришом (furtively), слепешком (blindly), and nouns, e.g. денем (during the day), нощем (during the night), редом (one next to the other), духом (spiritually), цифром (in figures), словом (with words). The same pattern has been used with verbs: тичешком (while running), лежешком (while lying), стоешком (while standing).
  • archaic unchangeable accusative forms of some nouns: днес (today), сутрин (in the morning), зимъс (in winter);
  • archaic unchangeable genitive forms of some nouns: довечера (tonight), снощи (last night), вчера (yesterday);
  • homonymous and etymologically identical to the feminine singular form of the corresponding adjective used with the definite article: здравата (hard), слепешката (gropingly); the same pattern has been applied to some verbs, e.g. тичешката (while running), лежешката (while lying), стоешката (while standing).
  • derived from cardinal numerals by means of a non-productive suffix: веднъж (once), дваж (twice), триж (thrice);

All the adverbs are immutable. Verb forms, however, vary in aspect, mood, tense, person, number and sometimes gender and voice.


Lexis

Main article: Bulgarian lexis

Most of the word-stock of modern Bulgarian consists of derivations of some 2,000 words inherited from proto-Slavonic and Bolgar language through the mediation of Old and Middle Bulgarian. Thus, the native lexical terms in Bulgarian (both from proto-Slavonic and from the Bulgar language) account for 70% to 75% of the lexicon. // Native lexical items Around three-quarters of the word-stock in the standard, academy dictionaries of Bulgarian, consists of native lexical items. ... Bolgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ...


The remaining 25% to 30% are loanwords from a number of languages, as well as derivations of such words. The languages which have contributed most to Bulgarian are Latin and Greek (mostly international terminology), and to a lesser extent French and Russian. The numerous loanwords from Turkish (and, via Turkish, from Arabic and Persian) which were adopted into Bulgarian during the long period of Ottoman rule have mostly been substituted with native terms. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...


Syntax

Colloquial Bulgarian employs clitic doubling, mostly for emphatic purposes. For example: Clitic doubling, or pronominal reduplication, in linguistics, is a phenomenon by which clitic pronouns appear in verb phrases together with the full noun phrases that they refer to (as opposed to the cases where such pronouns and full noun phrases are in complementary distribution). ...

Аз го дадох подаръка на майка си
(lit. "I gave it the present to my mother")
Аз го дадох подаръка на майка си
(lit. "I gave her it the present to my mother")

The phenomenon is practically obligatory in the case of inversion signalling information structure:

Подаръка ѝ го дадох на майка си
(lit. "The present (to her) it I-gave to my mother")
На майка си ѝ (го) дадох подаръка
(lit. "To my mother to her (it) I-gave the present").

It is also obligatory in clauses including several special expressions that use the short accusative and dative pronouns, like играе ми се (I feel like playing), студено ми е (I am cold), боли ме ръката (my arm hurts):

На мен ми се спи, а на Иван му се играе.
На нас ни е студено, а на вас ви е топло.
Иван го боли гърлото, а мене ме боли главата.

Except the above examples, clitic doubling is considered inappropriate in a formal context. Bulgarian grammars usually do not treat this phenomenon extensively.


Common Bulgarian expressions

  • Здравей (zdravéi) — Hello
  • Здрасти (zdrásti) — Hi
  • Добро утро (dobró útro) — Good morning
  • Добър ден (dóbər dén) — Good day
  • Добър вечер (dóbər vécher) — Good evening
  • Лека нощ (léka nósht) — Good night
  • Довиждане (dovízhdane) — Good-bye
  • Кой си ти? (kói si ti) (informal, masculine) — Who are you?
  • Коя си ти? (kоiá si ti) (informal, feminine) — Who are you?

The neuter for this question - Кое си ти? (koé si ti) is very rarely used only in some special cases - when one is asked to identify him/herself with an inanimate object - as in a zodiac or game, or when one addresses a child (дете), which is neuter gender in Bulgarian; however, the latter is an old use, which implies diminutive, that can be heard mostly from some senior citizens and is replaced nowadays by the masculine or feminine gender questions when addressing boys and girls respectively.

  • Кой сте Вие? (kói ste víe) (formal, masculine) — Who are you? (The formal expression uses a plural verb but a singular pronoun, which allows speakers to distinguish the two grammatical forms. Moreover, the formal singular pronoun denoting "you" - Вие is always capitalized in writing to distinguish it from the plural "you" - вие.)
  • Как се казваш? (kak se kazvash) - What is your name?
  • Коя сте Вие? (kоiá ste víe) (formal, feminine) — Who are you?
  • Кои сте вие? (kоí ste víe) (plural form) - Who are you?
  • Как си? (kák si) (informal) — How are you?
  • Как сте? (kák sté) (formal, and also plural form) - How are you?
  • Да (dá) - Yes
  • Не (né) - No
  • Може би (mózhé bí) - Maybe
  • Какво правиш? (kakvó právish) (informal) — What are you doing?
  • Какво правите? (kakvó právite) (formal, and also plural form) - What are you doing?
  • Добре съм (dobré səm) — I’m fine
  • Всичко (най-)хубаво (vsíchko (nai-)húbavo) — All the best
  • Поздрави (pózdravi) — Regards
  • Благодаря (blagodaryə́) (formal and informal) — Thank you
  • Моля (mólia) — Please
  • Моля (mólia) — You're welcome
  • Извинете! (izvinéte) (formal) — Excuse me!
  • Извинявай! (izviniávai) (informal) — Sorry!
  • Обичам те! (obícham te) - I love you!
  • Колко е часът? (kólko e chasə́t) — What’s the time?
  • Говорите ли ...? (govórite li...) — Do you speak ...?
...английски (anglíski) — English
...български (bə́lgarski) — Bulgarian
...немски (némski) — German
...руски (ruski) - Russian
...холандски (holándski) — Dutch
...гръцки (grə́tski) — Greek
...италиански (italiánski) — Italian
...испански (ispánski) — Spanish
...френски (frénski) — French
...японски (iapónski) — Japanese
...китайски (kitáiski) — Chinese
...корейски (koréiski) — Korean
  • Ще се видим скоро (shté sé vídim skóro) - We'll see each other soon
  • Ще се видим утре (shté sé vídim útre) - We'll see each other tomorrow

Also, some words have been borrowed from other languages, but their use is rarely (if ever) formal:

  • Мерси (mersi) - Thank you ; from French
  • Чао (chao) - Bye ; from Italian
  • Cупep (super) - Super ; (from English; note - "Super" remains the same regardless of quantity or gender)
  • Aло (alo) - Hallo on the phone; from French

Trivia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American two-time Academy Award-winning film actor, Emmy-winning director, voice-over artist and movie producer. ... This section contains a list of trivia items. ... Mira Aroyo (Bulgarian: ), born in Bulgaria, is a member of the electropop band Ladytron, and currently lives in Liverpool, England. ... For other uses, see Ladytron (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Macedonian language (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Romanization of Bulgarian is the transliteration of text in the Bulgarian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ... Slavic (Greek: Σλάβικα Slávika, reported self-identifying names: endopika, makedonski (Macedonian), pomakika, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Geographical distribution of Torlakian dialect (exception of Bulgaria) Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ... All Slavic languages arose from Proto-Slavic, which developed during the early first millennium and split off into differing dialects around the fifth or sixth century. ... Compared to other systems, the Bulgarian name system can be said to be rather simple. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Жобов, Владимир (2004) Звуковете в българския език. Стр. 44-45.
  2. ^ Жобов, Владимир (2004) Звуковете в българския език. Стр. 65-66.
  3. ^ Пашов, Петър (1999) Българска граматика. Стр.73-74.

References

  • Comrie, Bernard and Corbett, Greville G. (1993) The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge ISBN 0-415-04755-2
  • International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Бояджиев и др. (1998) Граматика на съвременния български книжовен език. Том 1. Фонетика
  • Жобов, Владимир (2004) Звуковете в българския език
  • Кръстев, Боримир (1992) Граматика за всички
  • Пашов, Петър (1999) Българска граматика

External links

Wikipedia
Bulgarian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Bulgarian

Study Bulgarian Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

  • The Bulgarian Language Online Course — Free Samples — audio — includes Romantic Phrases
  • Free online resources for learners
  • Basic Bulgarian exercises and a free online resource; a forum to talk to other learners of Bulgarian

Linguistic reports

  • Ethnologue report for Bulgarian
  • Bulgarian at Omiglot

Dictionaries

  • Bulgarian vocabulary
  • Bulgarian-Russian Dictionary
  • Bulgarian-English-Bulgarian Online dictionary from SA Dictionary
  • Online Dual English-Bulgarian dictionary, [1]
  • Online automatic translation between English, French, Spanish and Bulgarian
  • Bulgarian Dictionary: from Webster’s Dictionary
  • Bulgarian bilingual dictionaries

Dictionaries Software:


a. English-Bulgarian-English

  • SA Dictionary - 'the classics'
  • AEnglish Dictionary XP - confortable for use, downloads [2], [3] (Bulgarian; menus are in English)

Other:

  • KoralSoft
  • Free learn the language booklet FREE PDF Booklet with Bulgarian words and phrases by Bulgaria Info-Online Magazine

Links concerning topics of this article

  • In Bulgarian Language, palatalisation
  • Free Bulgarian Translation
  • Bulgarian Phonetic keyboard layout for Windows Vista

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


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