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Encyclopedia > Bulgarian Orthodox Church
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The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: Българска православна църква, Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6.5 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas and Australia. The recognition of the autocephalous Bulgarian Patriarchate by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 927 AD makes the Bulgarian Orthodox Church the oldest autocephalous Slavic Orthodox Church in the world, which was added to the Pentarchy of the original Patriarchates - those of Rome (which subsequently split off to grow into today's Roman Catholic Church), Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem - and the autocephalous Georgian Catholicosate. In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which claims to be the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Slavic Orthodox Churches are to be found in Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and Macedonia, and they employ the Church Slavonic language in their liturgy. ... The Pentarchy, the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, were the five major centers of the Christian church in the early Middle Ages: Rome (Sts. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and maintained through... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Church is one of the five churches that comprised the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the Great Schism, and today is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, properly called the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, is regarded by Orthodox Christians as the mother church of all of Christendom, because it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ...

Contents

Canonical status and organisation

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church considers itself an inseparable member of the one, holy, synodal and apostolic church and is organised as a self-governing body under the name of Patriarchate. It is divided into thirteen dioceses within the boundaries of the Republic of Bulgaria and has jurisdiction over additional two dioceses for the Bulgarians in Western and Central Europe, the Americas, Canada and Australia. The dioceses of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church are divided into 58 church counties, which, in its turn, are subdivided into some 2,600 parishes. A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


The supreme clerical, judicial and administrative power for the whole domain of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is exercised by the Holy Synod which includes the Patriarch and the diocesan prelates which are called by the name of metropolitans. Church life in the parishes is guided by the parish priests numbering some 1,500. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church also disposes of some 120 monasteries in Bulgaria with about 200 monks and nearly as many nuns. In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ... The Patriarch of All Bulgaria is the Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ...


Dioceses

Dioceses in Bulgaria: (with Bulgarian names in brackets)

  • Diocese of Vidin (Видинска епархия)
  • Diocese of Vratsa (Врачанска епархия)
  • Diocese of Lovech (Ловчанска епархия)
  • Diocese of Dorostol and Cherven (Доростоло-червенска епархия) (with seat in Rousse)
  • Diocese of Varna and Preslav (Варненско-преславска епархия) (with seat in Varna)
  • Diocese of Sliven (Сливенска епархия)
  • Diocese of Stara Zagora (Старозагорска епархия)
  • Diocese of Plovdiv (Пловдивска епархия)
  • Diocese of Sofia (Софийска епархия)
  • Diocese of Nevrokop (Неврокопска епархия)
  • Diocese of Pleven (Плевенска епархия)
  • Diocese of Rousse (Русенска епархия)

Dioceses abroad: Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Vratsa or Vraca or Vratza (Bulgarian: Враца) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan mountains. ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Ruins in the inner city of Cherven The stronghold of Cherven (Bulgarian: Червен, red) was one of the Second Bulgarian Empires primary military, administrative, economic and cultural centres between the 12th and the 14th century. ... Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: Русе; Romanian: Rusciuc) is the fifth largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 178,000. ... Varna (Bulgarian: Варна) is the third largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 351,552 (as at January 10, 2006). ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Varna (Bulgarian: Варна) is the third largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 351,552 (as at January 10, 2006). ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Stara Zagora (Cyrillic: Стара Загора) is a large city and an important economic centre of southern Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 376,918. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... Goce Delchev location in Bulgaria Gotse Delchev (Гоце Делчев), population 23,573, is a town in Southwestern Bulgaria (Pirin Macedonia). ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: Русе; Romanian: Rusciuc) is the fifth largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 178,000. ...

  • Diocese of Central and Western Europe (with seat in Berlin);
  • Diocese of America, Canada and Australia (with seat in New York).

Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen federal states of Germany. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ...

History of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Early Christianity

The St. George Rotunda (4th century AD), Sofia
The St. George Rotunda (4th century AD), Sofia

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church has its origin in the flourishing Christian communities and churches, set up in the Balkans as early as the first centuries of the Christian era. Christianity was brought to the Bulgarian lands and the rest of the Balkans by Apostle Paul in the 1st century AD when the first organised Christian communities were also formed. By the beginning of the 4th century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in the region and towns like Serdica (Sofia), Philipopolis (Plovdiv) and Adrianople (Edirne) were significant centres of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Image File history File links The Saint George Rotunda (4th cent. ... Image File history File links The Saint George Rotunda (4th cent. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern China. ... A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Пловдив) is the second largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 376,918. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ...


The barbaric raids and incursions in the 4th and the 5th and the settlement of Slavs and Bulgars in the 6th and the 7th century wrought considerable damage to the ecclesiastical organisation of the Christian Church in the Bulgarian lands, yet they were far from destroying it. Christianity started to pave its way from the surviving Christian communities to the surrounding Slavic mass and by the middle of the 9th century, the majority of the Bulgarian Slavs, especially those living in Thrace and Macedonia, were already Christianised. The process of conversion also enjoyed some success among the Bulgar nobility. However, it was not until the official adoption of Christianity by Tsar Boris I in 865 that conditions for the establishment of an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical entity were created. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Bulgarians (Bulgarian: българи) are a southern Slavic people generally associated with Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Events Ethelred succeeds as king of Wessex (or 866). ...


Establishment of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

From the very start Boris I was aware that the cultural advancement and the re-affirmation of the sovereignty and prestige of a Christian Bulgaria could be achieved through an enlightened and zealous clergy governed by an autocephalous church. To this end, he manoeuvred between the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Roman Pope for a period of five years until the Fourth Council of Constantinople granted in 870 AD the Bulgarians an autonomous Bulgarian archbishopric. The archbishopric had its seat in the Bulgarian capital of Pliska and its diocese covered the whole territory of the Bulgarian state. The pull-of-war between Rome and Constantinople was also resolved by putting the Bulgarian archbishopric under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople from whom it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological books. The Fourth Council of Constantinople is considered an ecumenical council by Roman Catholics and met from October 5, 869 to February 28, 870. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ...


Although the archbishopric enjoyed full internal autonomy, the goals of Boris I were scarcely fulfilled. A Greek liturgy offered by a Byzantine clergy furthered neither the cultural development of the Bulgarians, nor the consolidation of the Bulgarian state; it would have eventually resulted in the loss of both the identity of the people and the statehood of Bulgaria. Thus, the arrival of the most distinguished disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Bulgaria in 886 came as a highly beneficial opportunity. Boris I entrusted the disciples with the task to instruct the future Bulgarian clergy in the Glagolitic alphabet and the Slavonic liturgy prepared by Cyril and based on the vernacular of the Bulgarian Slavs from the region of Thessaloniki. In 893, the Greek clergy was expelled from the country and the Greek language was replaced with the Slav-Bulgarian vernacular. Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... What Up. ... Saints Cyril and Methodius painted by Jan Matejko. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... Statue of Saint Cyril at Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ...


Autocephaly of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Ceramic icon of St. Theodor, Preslav, ca. 900 AD, National Archaelogical Museum, Sofia
Ceramic icon of St. Theodor, Preslav, ca. 900 AD, National Archaelogical Museum, Sofia

Following two decisive victories over the Byzantines at Acheloy (near the present-day city of Burgas) and Katassyrti (near Constantinople), the autonomous Bulgarian Archbishopric was proclaimed autocephalous and elevated to the rank of Patriarchate at an ecclesiastical and national council held in 919. After Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire signed in 927 a peace treaty concluding the incessant, almost 20-year long war between them, the Patriarchate of Constantinople recognised the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and acknowledged its patriarchal dignity. Thus, the Bulgarian Patriarchate became the first autocephalous Slavic Orthodox Church. (Its autocephalous status preceded the autocephaly of the Serbian Orthodox Church (1219) by 300 years and of the Russian Orthodox Church (1596) by some 600 years.) The seat of the Patriarchate was the new Bulgarian capital of Preslav although the Patriarch is likely to have resided in the town of Drastar (Silistra), an old Christian centre famous for its martyrs and Christian traditions. St. ... St. ... Burgas (also transliterated as Bourgas; Bulgarian: Бургас) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events King Edward I of England conquers Bedford. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... The Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ...


The Ohrid Archbishopric

St. Theophylact, Archbishop of Bulgaria (1078-1107) and author of the hagiography of Saint Clement of Ohrid
St. Theophylact, Archbishop of Bulgaria (1078-1107) and author of the hagiography of Saint Clement of Ohrid

On April 5, 972, Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces conquered and burned down Preslav capturing Bulgarian Tsar Boris II. Patriarch Damyan managed to escape, initially to Sredetz (Sofia) in western Bulgaria. In the coming years, the residence of the Bulgarian patriarchs remained closely connected to the developments in the war between the next Bulgarian monarchist dynasty, the Comitopuli, and the Byzantine Empire. Thus, Patriarch German resided consecutively in Moglen , Voden (Edessa), and Prespa (both in present-day north-western Greece). Around 990, the next patriarch, Philip, moved to Ohrid, which also became the permanent seat of the Patriarchate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (591x909, 98 KB)Saint Theophylact of Ohrid File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (591x909, 98 KB)Saint Theophylact of Ohrid File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Theophylact of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Теофилакт Български) (d. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (ca. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Bulgaria ruled for three years (969_972). ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... ... What Up. ... Edessa is an ancient town of 25,000 inhabitants in Central Macedonia, Greece, the capital of the Pella prefecture and is also the provincial capital of the province of the same name. ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 046 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ...


After the fall of Bulgaria under Byzantium domination in 1018, Emperor Basil II Bulgaroktonus (the “Bulgar-Slayer”) acknowledged the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and by virtue of special charters (royal decrees) set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges. The church was, however, deprived of its Patriarchal title and reduced to the rank of an archbishopric. Although the first appointed archbishop (John of Debar) was a Bulgarian, his successors, as well as the whole higher clergy, were invariably Greeks. The monks and the ordinary priests remained, however, predominantly Bulgarian, thus allowing the archbishopric to preserve to a large extent its national character, to uphold the Slavonic liturgy and to continue its contribution to the development of the Bulgarian literature. The autocephaly of the Ohrid Archbishopric remained respected during the periods of Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Ottoman rule and the church continued to exist under the name “Archbishopric of the Justiniana Prima and all Bulgaria” until its unlawful abolition in 1767. // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... The Archbishopric of Ohrid (Ohrid Archbishopric, Archbishopric of First Justiniana) was an autonomous Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and 1767, seated in Ohrid. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Turnovo Patriarchate

As a results of the successful uprising of the brothers Theodore I Peter and Ivan Asen I in 1185/1186, the foundations of the Second Bulgarian State were laid with Turnovo as its capital. Following Boris I’s principle that the sovereignty of the state is inextricably linked to the autocephaly of the Church, the two brothers immediately took steps for the restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. As a start, an independent archbishopric was established in Turnovo in 1186. The struggle for the recognition of the archbishopric according to the existing canonical order and its elevation to the rank of a Patriarchate took, however, almost 50 years. Following the example of Boris I, Bulgarian Tsar Kaloyan manoeuvered for years between the Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope Innocent III until the latter finally proclaimed the Turnovo Archbishop Vassily “Primate and Archbishop of all Bulgaria and Walachia” in 1203. The union with the Roman Catholic Church continued for well over three decades. Ivan Asen I was Tsar of Bulgaria in the twelfth century. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events John the Chanter becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ... Events John the Chanter becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил)(d. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Innocent III, born Lotario de Conti di Segni (Gavignano, near Anagni, ca. ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and maintained through...

Tsar Ivan Alexander (1331-1371), an illustration from the Four Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander (the London Gospel), ca. 1356, the British Library
Tsar Ivan Alexander (1331-1371), an illustration from the Four Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander (the London Gospel), ca. 1356, the British Library

Under the reign of Tsar Ivan Asen II (1218-1241), conditions finally were created for the termination of the union with Rome and for the recognition of the autocephalous status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. In 1235 a church council was convened in the town of Lampsakos. Under the presidency of Patriarch German II of Constantinople and with the consent of all Eastern Patriarchs, the council confirmed the Patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and consecrated the Bulgarian archbishop German Patriarch. Tsar Ivan Alexander, an illustration from the Four Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander (the London Gospel), ca. ... Tsar Ivan Alexander, an illustration from the Four Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander (the London Gospel), ca. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Ivan Asen II (Ioan Asen II) (1218–1241), tsar of Bulgaria, was the son of Kaloyan, founder of the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Lampsacus (also Lampsakos) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. ...


Despite the shrinking of the diocese of the Turnovo Patriarchate at the end of the 13th century, its authority in the Eastern Orthodox world remained high. It was the Patriarch of Turnovo who confirmed the patriarchal dignity of the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1346, despite protests by the Constantinople. It was also under the wing of the Patriarchate that the Turnovo Literary School developed in the 14th century with scholars of the rank of Patriarch Evtimiy, Grigorii Tsamblak, Konstantin of Kostenets. A considerable upsurge was noted in the field of literature, architecture, and painting, the religious and theological literature flourished. Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) (Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Serbia is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Turnovo Literary School was a Bulgarian literary school in the 14th century. ... Patriarch Evtimiy (Bulgarian: Патриарх Евтимий) was a 14th century Bulgarian scholar. ...


After the fall of Turnovo under the Ottomans in 1393 and the sending of Patriarch Evtimiy into exile, the autocephalous church organization was destroyed once again. The Bulgarian diocese was subordinated to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The other Bulgarian religious centre – the Ohrid Archbishopric – managed to survive a few centuries more (until 1767), as a stronghold of faith and piety. Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Patriarch Evtimiy (Bulgarian: Патриарх Евтимий) was a 14th century Bulgarian scholar. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric was formed in 2002 following a failure in negociations between the Serb Orthodox Church and the canonically-unconstitutional and unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Ottoman rule

The period of the Ottoman rule was the hardest in the history of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, to the same extent to which it was also the hardest in the history of the Bulgarian people. During and immediately after the Ottoman conquest, the vast majority of the Bulgarian churches and monasteries, including the Patriarchal Cathedral church of the Holy Ascension in Turnovo, were razed to the ground, with most of the surviving ones being turned into mosques. Most of the clergy perished, while the intelligentsia around the Turnovo Literary School fled to neighbouring Serbia, Wallachia, Moldova or to Russia. Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Turnovo Literary School was a Bulgarian literary school in the 14th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. ...

St. George, the Newmartyr of Sofia, icon from the 19th century
St. George, the Newmartyr of Sofia, icon from the 19th century

The Church gave a number of martyrs as many districts and almost all larger towns in the Bulgarian provinces of the Ottoman Empire were subjected to forceful conversion to Islam as early as the first years after the conquest. Stunning were the feats of St. George of Kratovo (+1515), St. Nicholas of Sofia (+1515), Bishop Vissarion of Smolen (+1670), Damaskin of Gabrovo (+1771), St. Zlata of Muglen (+1795), St. John the Bulgarian (+1814), St. Ignatius of Stara Zagora (+1814), St. Onouphry of Gabrovo (+1818) and of many others who perished defending their faith. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x717, 101 KB)St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x717, 101 KB)St. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Kratovo is a small town 40 kilometers south east of Moscow located between Zhukovskiy and Ramenskoe home to the Olympic Champion Yuriy Borzakovskiy    This article is a stub. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ... Stara Zagora (Cyrillic: Стара Загора) is a large city and an important economic centre of southern Bulgaria. ... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ...


The virtual decapitation of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was further emphasised by its full subordination to the Patriarch of Constantinople. The millet system in the Ottoman Empire granted a number of important civil and judicial functions to the Patriarch of Constantinople and the diocesan metropolitans. As the higher Bulgarian church clerics were replaced by Greek ones at the very beginning of the Ottoman domination, the Bulgarian population was subjected before long to double oppression – political by the Ottomans and cultural by the Greek clergy. With the rise of Greek nationalism in the second half of the 18th century, the cultural oppression turned into an open assimilatory policy which was aimed at imposing the Greek language and a Greek consciousness on the emerging Bulgarian bourgeoisie and which used as its basic tool the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The opening of a number of schools with all-round Greek language curriculum and the virtual banning of the Bulgarian liturgy at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century threatened the very survival of the Bulgarians as a separate nation with its own, distinct national culture. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Greek (, IPA — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... Greek (, IPA — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


If something was, however, instrumental in the preservation of the Bulgarian language and the Bulgarian national consciousness throughout the centuries of Ottoman domination, it was the monasteries, especially the Zograph and Hilendar Monasteries on Mount Athos, as well as the Rila, Troyan, Etropole, Dryanovo, Cherepish and Dragalevtsi Monasteries in Bulgaria. The monasteries managed to preserve their national character and continued the traditions of the Slavonic liturgy and the Bulgarian literature. They also kept monastery schools and carried out other educational activities, which, if not more, managed to keep the flame of the Bulgarian culture burning until better times came. The Zograf Monastery The St George the Zograf or Zograf Monastery (Bulgarian: Зографски манастир, Zografski manastir; Greek: Μονή Ζωγράφου) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. ... Hilandar Monastery Hilandar (Serbian Cyrillic Хиландар, Greek Chilandar) is an Orthodox monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, traditionally maintained by the Serbian Orthodox Church. ... Capital Karyes Languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic (both liturgical), as well as Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (civil) Area 390 km² Population approximately 2,250 Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Greek Athonite, Hagiorite Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης Mount Athos (Greek: Όρος Άθως) is a mountain and a peninsula in Macedonia, northern Greece, called Άγιον Όρος (Ayion Oros or Agion... Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ... A 1876 drawing of the monastery The Troyan Monastery is the third largest monastery in Bulgaria. ... Dryanovo Monastery The Dryanovo Monastery (Дряновски манастир) is a functioning Bulgarian Orthodox monastery situated in the Andaka River Valley in the central part of Bulgaria five kilometers away from the town of Dryanovo. ...


The Bulgarian Exarchate

In 1762, St. Paisius of Hilendar (1722-1773), a monk from the south-western Bulgarian town of Bansko, wrote a short historical work which, apart from being the first work written in the Modern Bulgarian vernacular, was also the first ardent call for a national awakening. In History of Slav-Bulgarians, Paissiy urged his compatriots to throw off the subjugation to the Greek language and culture. The example of Paissiy was followed by a number of other awakeners, including St. Sophroniy of Vratsa (Sofroni Vrachanski) (1739-1813), hieromonk Spiridon of Gabrovo, hieromonk Yoakim Kurchovski (d. 1820), hieromonk Kiril Peichinovich (d. 1845). 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Paisius of Hilendar or Paisiy Hilendarski (Bulgarian: свети Паисий Хилендарски) (1722 – 1773) was a Bulgarian clergyman and a key Bulgarian National Revival figure. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Bansko (Bulgarian: ) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, located at the foot of Pirin at an altitude of 936 m above sea level. ... Sofronii Vrachanski, or to give him his secular name, Stoyko Vladislavov, was a great figure of the Bulgarian Renaissance who drew his inspiration from Paisii Hilandarski. ... // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The result of the work of Paissiy and his followers began before long to give fruit. Discontent with the supremacy of the Greek clergy started to flare up in several Bulgarian dioceses as early as the 1820s. It was not, however, until the 1850 that the Bulgarians initiated a purposeful struggle against the Greek clerics in a number of bishoprics demanding their replacement with Bulgarian ones. By that time, most Bulgarian religious leaders had realised that any further struggle for the rights of the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire could not succeed unless they managed to obtain at least some degree of autonomy from the Patriarchate of Constantinople. As the Ottomans identified nationality with religion and the Bulgarians were Eastern Orthodox, they were automatically added to the “Roum-Milet”, i.e., the Greeks. Thus, if the Bulgarians wanted to have Bulgarian schools and liturgy in Bulgarian, they needed an independent ecclesiastical organisation. Events and Trends Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire (1821). ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...

Image:Bulgarian Exarchate.jpg
Borders of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870-1912): bishoprics (in red) and vicariates (red diagonal stripes)

The struggle between the Bulgarians, led by Neofit Bozveli and Ilarion Makariopolski, and the Greeks intensified throughout the 1860s. As the Greek clerics were ousted from most Bulgarian bishoprics at the end of the decade, the whole of northern Bulgaria, as well as the northern parts of Thrace and Macedonia had, by all intents and purposes, seceded from the Patriarchate. In recognition of that, the Ottoman government restored the once unlawfully destroyed Bulgarian Patriarchate under the name of "Bulgarian Exarchate" by a decree (firman) of the Sultan promulgated on February 28th, 1870. The original Exarchate extended over present-day northern Bulgaria (Moesia), Thrace without the Vilayet of Adrianople, as well as over north-eastern Macedonia. After the Christian population of the bishoprics of Skopje and Ohrid voted in 1874 overwhelmingly in favour of joining the Exarchate (Skopje by 91%, Ohrid by 97%), the Bulgarian Exarchate became in control of the whole of Vardar and Pirin Macedonia. The Exarchate was also represented in the whole of southern Macedonia and the Vilayet of Adrianople by vicars. Thus, the borders of the Exarchate included all Bulgarian districts in the Ottoman Empire. Ilarion Makariopolski Ilarion Makariopolski (Bulgarian: ), born Stoyan Stoyanov Mihaylovski (Стоян Стоянов Михайловски) (1812-1875) was a 19th-century Bulgarian cleric and one of the leaders of the struggle for an autonomous Bulgarian church. ... // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Bulgarian Exarchate was an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical organisation established on February 28, 1870 by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire. ... Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... For information on the racehorse, see Sultan (horse) Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 046 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Bulgarian Exarchate was an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical organisation established on February 28, 1870 by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire. ... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blagoevgrad Province. ...   Capital Thessaloniki Peripheries West Macedonia Central Macedonia East Macedonia Population 2,625,681 (2005) Area 34,231 km² Population density 77/km² Macedonia (IPA , Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonia) is the largest and second most populous region of Greece. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...


The decision on the secession of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was far from well accepted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople which promptly declared the Bulgarian Exarchate schismatic and declared its adherents heretics. Although there was nothing non-canonical about the status and the guiding principles of the Exarchate, the Patriarchate argued that “surrender of Orthodoxy to ethnic nationalism” was essentially a manifestation of heresy. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Bulgarian Exarchate was an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical organisation established on February 28, 1870 by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching, glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...


The first Bulgarian Exarch was Antim I who was elected by the Holy Synod of the Exarchate in February, 1872. He was discharged by the Ottoman government immediately after the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 on April 24, 1877, and was sent into exile in Ankara. Under the guidance of his successor, Joseph I, the Exarchate managed to develop and considerably extend its church and school network in the Bulgarian Principality, Eastern Rumelia, Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet. In 1895, the Tarnovo Constitution formally established the Bulgarian Orthodox Church as the national religion of the nation. On the eve of the Balkan Wars, in Macedonia and the Adrianople Vilayet alone, the Bulgarian Exarchate disposed of seven dioceses with prelates and eight more with acting chairmen in charge and 38 vicariates, 1,218 parishes and 1,212 parish priests, 64 monasteries and 202 chapels, as well as of 1 373 schools with 2,266 teachers and 78,854 pupils. Antim I, born as Atanas Mihaylov, : Атанас Михайлов (1816, Lozengrad (Kirklareli), the Ottoman Empire, – December 1, 1888, Sofia) was a Bulgarian Exarch from 1872 to 1877. ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ankara (Greek: Áγκυρα) is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Joseph I, born as Lazar Yovchev, : Лазар Йовчев (1840, Kalofer, central Bulgaria, - 1915, Sofia), was a Bulgarian Exarch from 1877 to 1915. ... Flag of Eastern Rumelia Eastern Rumelia or Eastern Roumelia (Bulgarian: ; Ottoman Turkish: Rumeli-i Sarki; Modern Turkish: Sarki Rumeli, Greek Ανατολική Ρωμυλία) was an autonomous province in the Ottoman Empire from 1878 to 1885 (nominally to 1908). ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Front cover of the Tarnovo Constitution First page (in Russian and Bulgarian) The Tarnovo Constitution (Търновска конституция) was the first constitution of Bulgaria. ... The outcome as of April 1913 Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913) Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923... The Bulgarian Exarchate was an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical organisation established on February 28, 1870 by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire. ...


After World War I, by virtue of the peace treaties, the Bulgarian Exarchate was deprived of its dioceses in Macedonia and Aegean Thrace. Exarch Joseph I transferred his offices from Istanbul to Sofia as early as 1913. After the death of Joseph I in 1915, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was not in a position to elect its regular head for a total of three decades. Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Joseph I, born as Lazar Yovchev, : Лазар Йовчев (1840, Kalofer, central Bulgaria, - 1915, Sofia), was a Bulgarian Exarch from 1877 to 1915. ...


Second restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate

Sofia's patriarchal cathedral, St. Alexander Nevsky
Sofia's patriarchal cathedral, St. Alexander Nevsky

Conditions for the restoration of the Bulgarian Patriarchate and the election of head of the Bulgarian Church were created after World War II. In 1945 the schism was lifted and the Patriarch of Constantinople recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Church. In 1950, the Holy Synod adopted a new Statute which paved the way for the restoration of the Patriarchate and in 1953, it elected the Metropolitan of Plovdiv, Cyril, Bulgarian Patriarch. After the death of Patriarch Cyril in 1971, the Church elected in his place the Metropolitan of Lovech, Maxim, who is the current Bulgarian Patriarch. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB) Alexander Nevski, cathedral, Sofia, Bulgaria © 2006 Neva Micheva File links The following pages link to this file: Bulgaria Sofia Bulgarian Orthodox Church Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB) Alexander Nevski, cathedral, Sofia, Bulgaria © 2006 Neva Micheva File links The following pages link to this file: Bulgaria Sofia Bulgarian Orthodox Church Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The St. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Patriarch Maxim, born Marin Minkov on October 29, 1914), is the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. ...

Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Eastern Orthodoxy
Autocephalous Churches
Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople | Alexandria | Antioch | Jerusalem
Russia | Serbia | Romania | Bulgaria | Georgia
Cyprus | Greece | Poland | Albania | Czechia and Slovakia | OCA*
Autonomous Churches
Sinai | Finland | Estonia* | Japan* | China* | Ukraine* | Western Europe* | Bessarabia* | Moldova* | Ohrid* | (ROCOR)
The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.

External links

  • The official website of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
  • Unofficial web portal of Bulgarian Orthodox Christianity: in Bulgarian language
  • History of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church according to the Catholic Encyclopaedia
  • A short history of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church by CNEWA, the papal agency for humanitarian and pastoral support
  • The Bulgarian Orthodox Church according to Overview of World Religions
  • Article about the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and Religion in Bulgaria

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bulgarian Orthodox Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2911 words)
In 1235 a church council was convened in the town of Lampsakos.
Under the presidency of Patriarch German II of Constantinople and with the consent of all Eastern Patriarchs, the council confirmed the Patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and consecrated the Bulgarian archbishop German Patriarch.
In 1945 the schism was lifted and the Patriarch of Constantinople recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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