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Encyclopedia > Bulgaria
Република България
Republika Bulgariya [1]
Republic of Bulgaria
Flag of Bulgaria
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Съединението прави силата  (Bulgarian)
"Suedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration)
"Union makes strength"1
Anthem
Мила Родино  (Bulgarian)
Mila Rodino  (transliteration)
Dear Motherland

Location of  Bulgaria  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] The term Bulgaria can reffer to: Bulgaria, a souvereign state in the Balkans Great Bulgaria, a historical country just northeastern from the Black Sea Volga Bulgaria, a historical country on the river Volga Bulgaria, Byzantine theme, which included parts of Macedonia, Serbia and a smaller part from todays Bulgaria... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The flag of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , zname na Balgariya) is a tricolour consisting of three equal-sized horizontal bands of (from top to bottom) white, green, and red. ... The coat of arms of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: , Gerb na Balgariya) consists of a crowned golden lion rampant over a dark red shield; above the shield is the Bulgarian historical crown. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mila Rodino (Dear Motherland) is the national anthem of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Sofia
42°41′N, 23°19′E
Official languages Bulgarian
Demonym Bulgarian
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Georgi Parvanov
 -  Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev
Formation
 -  Founded 681 
 -  Last previously independent state2
1396 
 -  Independence from Ottoman Empire
1878 
 -  Recognized 1908 
Accession to
the
 European Union
January 1, 2007
Area
 -  Total 110,910 km² (104th)
42,823 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.3
Population
 -  2007 estimate 7,639,000 (93rd)
 -  2005 census 7,718,750 
 -  Density 70 /km² (124th)
185 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $87.156 billion (63th)
 -  Per capita $10,843 (65th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $26.719 billion (75th)
 -  Per capita $4,800 (80th)
Gini? (2003) 29.2 (low
HDI (2004) 0.816 (high) (54th)
Currency Lev3 (BGN)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .bg4
Calling code +359
1 Bulgaria’s National Flag. Bulgarian Government (03 October 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
2 Vidin Tsardom.
3 plural Leva.
4 Bulgarians, in common with citizens of other European Union member-states, also use the .eu domain.
5 Cell phone system GSM and NMT 450i
6 Domestic power supply 220 V/50Hz, Schuko (CEE 7/4) sockets

The country of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България, Bălgariya,[1] pronounced IPA: [bɤlˈgarijə]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, Republika Bălgariya, pronounced IPA: [rɛˈpubliˌkə bɤlˈgarijə]) lies in Southeastern Europe. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Natality, Mortality and Natural increase per 1,000 population in Bulgaria; year 2006, data of the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... Prime Ministers, 1879-1946 Todor Stoyanov Burmov 17 July 1879 - 6 December 1879 Archbishop Kliment Turnovski 6 December 1879 - 5 April 1880 Dragan Kiriakov Tsankov 5 April - 10 December 1880 Petko Karavelov 10 December 1880 - 9 May 1881 Johann Casimir Ernrot 9 May - 13 July 1881 Prince Alexander 13 July... Sergey Dmitrievich Stanishev (Bulgarian: Сергей Станишев) (born May 5, 1966), Bulgarian politician, is Chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). ... This article is about the military unit. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .bg is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bulgaria. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Country Code: 359 International Call Prefix: 00 xx Bulgaria applies an open dialing plan, similar to those of Germany and Austria. ... Politics of Bulgaria takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Minister-Chairman is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... Double Schuko socket with one plug inserted CEE 7/7 hybrid Schuko/French plug Schuko (IPA: ) is the common colloquial name for a system of domestic AC power plugs and sockets that is defined as CEE 7/4 or known unofficially as Type F . A Schuko plug features two round... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Modern Bulgaria borders five countries: Romania to the north (mostly along the Danube), Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, and Greece and Turkey to the south; as well as the Black Sea, which makes up its entire eastern border. Bulgaria's civilized history dates back more than 6000 years and the country lies in the classical regions of Thrace, Moesia and Macedonia, once inhabited by the ancient Thracians and later by Greeks and Romans. Bulgaria is a successor of a powerful European medieval empire, the First Bulgarian Empire, which at times covered most of the Balkans and spread its culture and literature among the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe. Centuries later, during the decline of the Second Bulgarian Empire, the country fell under five centuries of Ottoman rule. Bulgaria was reestablished as a constitutional monarchy in 1878, also known as the birth of the Third Bulgarian Empire. Part of the Eastern Bloc after World War II, today Bulgaria has become a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic, a member of the European Union and of NATO. This article is about the Danube River. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... First Bulgarian Empire Second Bulgarian Empire This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Bulgaria

Geographically and in terms of climate, Bulgaria features notable diversity, with the landscape ranging from the Alpine snow-capped peaks in Rila, Pirin and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny weather of the Black Sea coast, from the typically continental Danubian Plain (ancient Moesia) in the north to the strong Mediterranean influence in the valleys of Macedonia and the lowlands in the southernmost parts of Thrace. Bulgaria is a country situated in south-eastern Europe, bordering Romania, Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Turkey and the Black Sea. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... Rila as seen from the space Rila as seen from Kostenets Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle) Rila (Bulgarian: ) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. ... Vihren from the south Kamenitsa Peak and the lake Tevno ezero Pirin range as seen from Kalimantsi village The Gazey peak looked from Polejan and the Upper Gazey Lake The Pirin Mountains (Bulgarian: Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren (2,914 m high) the highest peak, situated... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... The Danubian Plain (Bulgarian: , transliterated Dunavska ravnina) constitutes the northern part of Bulgaria, situated north of the Balkan Mountains and south of the Danube. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...

The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria
The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria

Bulgaria comprises portions of the classical regions of Thrace, Moesia, and Macedonia. The mountainous southwest of the country has two alpine ranges — Rila and Pirin — and further east stand the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains. Rila mountain includes the highest peak of the Balkan Peninsula, peak Musala at 2,925 meters (9,596 ft); the long range of the Balkan mountains runs west-east through the middle of the country, north of the famous Rose Valley. Hilly country and plains are found in the southeast, along the Black Sea coast in the east, and along Bulgaria's main river, the Danube in the north. Other major rivers include the Struma and the Maritsa river in the south. There are around 260 glacial lakes situated in Rila and Pirin, several large lakes on the Black Sea coast and more than 2,200 dam lakes. Mineral springs are in great abundance located mainly in the south-western and central parts of the country along the faults between the mountains. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria. ... The Seven Rila Lakes (Седем(те) Рилски езера) are a group of lakes of glacial origin, situated in the northwestern Rila Mountains in Bulgaria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Rila as seen from the space Rila as seen from Kostenets Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle) Rila (Bulgarian: ) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. ... Vihren from the south Kamenitsa Peak and the lake Tevno ezero Pirin range as seen from Kalimantsi village The Gazey peak looked from Polejan and the Upper Gazey Lake The Pirin Mountains (Bulgarian: Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren (2,914 m high) the highest peak, situated... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Rila as seen from the space Rila as seen from Kostenets Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle) Rila (Bulgarian: ) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. ... Musala (Bulgarian: Мусала) is the highest peak in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,971 m (9,747 ft). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Rose Valley is a region in Bulgaria located just south of the Balkan mountains and famous for its rose growing industry from which 70% of the worlds rose oil is produced. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ...


Bulgaria has a temperate climate, with cool and damp winters, very hot and dry summers, and Mediterranean influence along the Black Sea coast. The barrier effect of the Balkan Mountains influences climate throughout the country: northern Bulgaria gets slightly cooler and receives more rain than the southern regions. Average precipitation in Bulgaria is about 630 millimetres per year. The driest areas are Dobrudzha and the northern coastal strip, while the higher parts of the mountains Rila and Stara Planina receive the highest levels of precipitation. In summer, temperatures in the south of Bulgaria often exceed 40 degrees Celsius, but remain cooler by the coast. The highest recorded temperature is 46.7c near Plovdiv. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ...


The country possesses relatively rich mineral resources, including vast reserves of lignite and anthracite coal; non-ferrous ores such as copper, lead, zinc and gold. It has large deposits of manganese ore in the north-east. Smaller deposits exist of iron, silver, chromite, nickel and others. Bulgaria is rich in non-metalliferous minerals such as rock-salt, gypsum, kaolin, marble. Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by mining. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ...


The Balkan peninsula derives its name from the Balkan or Stara Planina mountain range, which runs through the centre of Bulgaria and extends into eastern Serbia. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Stara Planina (Old Mountain) or Balkan mountain range is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...

Raysko Praskalo, the highest waterfall in the Balkans[2]

Bulgaria's larger cities include: Image File history File links Gorno_Vasilashko_ezero. ... Image File history File links Gorno_Vasilashko_ezero. ... Vihren, the highest summit of Pirin, is located within the park Baykusheva mura, a 24-metre-tall Bosnian Pine, the oldest tree in Bulgaria A lake in the National Park Pirin National Park is a World Heritage national park that encompasses the larger part of the Pirin Mountains in the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 826 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 826 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Raysko Praskalo (Bulgarian: Райско пръскало) , 124,5 m in height, is the highest waterfall in Bulgaria and the Balkans. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Bulgaria operates a scientific base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands off Antarctica. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... St. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of...

See also: List of cities in Bulgaria, Rivers of Bulgaria, and Reservoirs and dams in Bulgaria

This is a list of cities in Bulgaria with over 20,000 inhabitants. ... This is a list of rivers in Bulgaria (it includes all the rivers which flow even one metre in Bulgaria ). Archar Arda Batova reka Bistritsa Byala reka (Bulgarian: White river) Danube Deleynska reka Dospat Dzhulyunitsa Erma Fakiyska reka Iskar Cherni Iskar Palakariya Kamchiya Golyama Kamchiya (Bulgarian: Big Kamchiya) Luda Kamchiya... This is a list of Reservoirs and dams in Bulgaria: Batak Beli Lom (in Bulgarian: White Lom) Belmeken Chatalka Dospat Dushantsi Golyam Beglik Iskar Ivaylovgrad (Bulgarian: Ivaylos town) Kamchiya Kardzhali Koprinka Malko Sharkovo (Bulgarian: Little Sharkovo) Mandra (Bulgarian: dairy) Montana Ovcharitsa Palitsi Pasarel Pchelina (Bulgarian: Apiary) Pyasachnik (Bulgarian: Sandstone...

History

Main article: History of Bulgaria

The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ...

Prehistory

Further information: Neolithic Europe and Bronze Age Europe

Prehistoric cultures of Bulgaria include the neolithic Hamangia culture and Vinča culture (6th to 3rd millennia BC), the eneolithic Varna culture (5th millennium BC, see also Varna Necropolis), and the Bronze Age Ezero culture. The Karanovo chronology serves as a gauge for the prehistory of the wider Balkans region. Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ... Hamangia was a prehistoric culture in Dobrogea, including the Danube area, noted for their work with ceramics. ... Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. ... The Varna culture belongs to the late Eneolithic of Northern Bulgaria. ... The Varna Necropolis (Bulgarian: ) is a burial site in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately half a kilometre from Lake Varna and 4 km from the city centre), Bulgaria. ... Ezero culture, 3300—2700 BC, a bronze age archaeological culture occupying most of present-day Bulgaria. ... The Karanovo culture is a neolithic culture (Karanovo I-III ca. ...


Antiquity

Main article: Thrace
The Panagyuriste treasure is among the most splendid achievements of the Thracian culture

Thracians were the earliest known people to inhabit the present-day territory of Bulgaria; their historic presence left a traceable mark among all the Balkan region despite its tumultuous history of many conquests.[3][4] The Thracians lived divided into numerous separate tribes until King Teres united most of them around 500 BC in the Odrysian kingdom, which peaked under the kings Sitalkes and Cotys I (383-359 BC). In 188 BC, the Romans invaded Thrace and the wars with them continued to 45, when Thrace became a Roman province. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Panagyuriste gold treasure The Panagyurishte gold treasure (Bulgarian: Панагюрско златно съкровище) is a spectacular perfectly made Thracian treasure, one of the most famous treasures in the world. ...


"The Great Bulgaria in Roman times had been called Moesia and had a mixed population of Thracians, Greeks and Dacians, most of whom spoke either Greek or a sub-Latin language known as Romance." This region "had been overrun by the Slavs in the mid 7th century.[1]


Old Great Bulgaria

In 632 the Bulgars, led by Khan Kubrat, formed an independent state called Great Bulgaria, bounded by the Danube delta to the west, the Black Sea to the south, the to the southeast, and the Volga River to the east. Byzantium recognized the new state by treaty in 635. Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... “Volga” redirects here. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


Pressure from the Khazars led to the loss of the eastern part of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the seventh century. Some of the Bulgars from that territory later migrated to the northeast to form a new state called Volga Bulgaria (around the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers), which lasted until the thirteenth century. The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ...


First Bulgarian Empire

The Battle of Anchialos, in which the Bulgarians defeated the Byzantines: one of the bloodiest battles of the Middle Ages.
The Battle of Anchialos, in which the Bulgarians defeated the Byzantines: one of the bloodiest battles of the Middle Ages.[5]
The wedding of the daughter of Tsar Samuil.
The wedding of the daughter of Tsar Samuil.

Kubrat’s successor, Khan Asparuh, migrated with some of the Bulgarian tribes to the lower courses of the rivers Danube, Dniester and Dniepr (known as Ongal), and conquered Moesia and Scythia Minor (Dobrudzha) from the Byzantine Empire, expanding Great Bulgaria further into the Balkan Peninsula. Historians[citation needed] consider the peace-treaty with Byzantium in 681 and the establishment of the new Bulgar capital of Pliska south of the Danube as marking the beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire. At the same time one of Asparuh's brothers, Kuber, settled with another Bulgar group in present-day Macedonia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Leo Phocas Simeon I of Bulgaria Strength c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Samoil. ... Image File history File links Samoil. ... It has been suggested that Samuils Inscription be merged into this article or section. ... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh (d. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 718 the Bulgarians raised the Arab siege of Constantinople, killing some 40,000 to 60,000 Arab soldiers[6]. Contemporaries referred to the Bulgarian Khan Tervel as "The Saviour of Europe". For centuries afterward Bulgarians and their allies saw themselves as the angel warriors of Europe. Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III, Khan Tervel Strength About 400,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, About 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Khan Tervel or Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of the Bulgars from 700 or 701-718. ...

The Family of Ivan Alexander.
The Family of Ivan Alexander.

The influence and territorial expansion of Bulgaria increased further during the rule of Khan Krum[7], who in 811 won a decisive victory against the Byzantine army led by Nicephorus I in the Battle of Pliska[8]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (460x659, 27 KB) Summary Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander (1355-1356). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (460x659, 27 KB) Summary Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander (1355-1356). ... Ivan Alexander (Bulgarian: , transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr;[1] IPA: ), also known as John Alexander,[2] ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371,[3] during the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicephorus I† Krum Strength aroud 80,000 Unknown Casualties almost the whole army, including the emperor Unknown The Battle of Pliska (Battle of Vărbica pass) took place on July 26, 811, between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, resulting in one of the worst defeats...


In 864 Bulgaria accepted the Orthodox faith[9]. The country became a major European power in the ninth and the tenth centuries, while fighting with the Byzantine Empire for the control of the Balkans. This happened under the rule of Boris I. During his reign, Cyrillic alphabet was developed in Preslav and Ohrid[10], adapted from the Glagolitic alphabet created by the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius[11]. The Cyrillic alphabet became a pillar for further cultural development. Centuries later, this alphabet along with the Old Bulgarian language became the intellectual written language (lingua franca) for Eastern Europe, known as Church Slavonic. The greatest territorial extension was reached under Simeon I, the first Bulgarian Tsar,son of Boris I,[12] covering most of the Balkans. However, his greatest achievement was that at that time Bulgaria developed rich, unique Christian Slavonic culture, which became an example for the other Slavonic peoples in Eastern Europe and ensured the continual existence of the Bulgarian nation regardless of the centrifugal forces that threatened to tear it into pieces throughout its long, rich and war-ridden history. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


Following a decline in the mid-tenth century (worn out by wars with Croatia, frequent Serbian rebellions sponsored by Byzantine gold) and disastrous Magyar invasions[13], Bulgaria collapsed in the face of an assault of the Rus' in 969-971.[14] The Byzantines then began campaigns to conquer Bulgaria. In 971, they seized the capital Preslav and captured Emperor Boris II[15]. Resistance continued under Tsar Samuil in the western Bulgarian lands for nearly half a century. The country managed to recover and defeated the Byzantines in several major battle taking the control of the most of the Balkans and in 991 destroyed the Serbian state.[16] However, the state was completely destroyed by the Byzantines led by Basil II in 1018 after their victory at Kleidion.[17] Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Bulgaria ruled for three years (969_972). ... It has been suggested that Samuils Inscription be merged into this article or section. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Basil II Nicephorus Xiphias Theophylactus Botaniates † Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria Strength Unknown 20 000 Casualties Unknown At least 14 000 The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium and Klyuch, (the) key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ...


Byzantine Bulgaria

Bulgarians nominate Peter II Delyan as King of Bulgaria. John Skylitzes, Chronicle
Bulgarians nominate Peter II Delyan as King of Bulgaria. John Skylitzes, Chronicle

In the first decade after the establishment of Byzantine rule, no evidence remains of any major attempt for resistance or uprising of the Bulgarian population or nobility. Given the existence of such irreconcilable opponents to Byzantium as Krakra, Nikulitsa, Dragash and others, such apparent passivity seems difficult to explain. Some historians [18] explain this fact by concessions that Basil II granted the Bulgarian nobility in order to gain their obedience. In the first place, Basil II guaranteed the indivisibility of Bulgaria in its former geographic borders and did not abolish officially the local rule of the Bulgarian nobility that now became part of Byzantine aristocracy as archons or strategs. Second, the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid was recognised by virtue of special charters (royal decrees) of Basil II that set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Peter Delyan (reigned 1040–1041) (Bulgarian Петър Делян) was the leader of the Bulgarian uprising against the Byzantine Empire started in thema of Bulgaria during summer of 1040 - (now region Pomoravlje in modern Serbia). ... John/Ioannes Skylitzes/Scylitzes (Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης, 1081) was a Byzantine historian of the late 11th century. ... Krakra of Pernik (Bulgarian: , Krakra Pernishki) , also known as Krakra Voevoda or simply Krakra, was an 11th-century feudal lord in the First Bulgarian Empire whose domain encompassed 36 castles in what is today southwestern Bulgaria, with his capital at Pernik. ... Capture of the bolyarin Nikulitsa by Byzantines and putting him in prison Nikulitsa (Bulgarian: ) was a Bulgarian noble, governor of Servia during the reign of Emperor Samuil. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ... Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Archbishopric of Ohrid (Ohrid Archbishopric, Archbishopric of First Justiniana) was an autonomous Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and 1767, seated in Ohrid. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...

Bulgaria c.920
Bulgaria c.920

The people of Bulgaria challenged Byzantine rule several times in the 11th and then again later in the early 12th century. The biggest Uprising was lead by Peter II Delyan, who was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria in Belgrade in 1040. In the mid to late 11th century, the Normans, fresh from their recent conquests in southern Italy and Sicily landed in the Balkans and began advancing against the Byzantine Empire. It took the Byzantines until 1185 before the Normans were driven out but until then they posed a constant threat to Byzantine Bulgaria. In 1091 another invasion came in the form of the Pechenegs. However, these too were crushed at Levounion and again in c. 1120 by the Byzantine Empire. After that, the Hungarians made an attempt to increase their influence beyond the Danube river; John Comnenus' campaigns along the Danube eventually drove back the Hungarians as well by c.1140. It would be another 45 years before Bulgaria would attain independence. Until that time, Bulgarian nobles ruled the province in the name of the Byzantine Empire until a rebellion by the last vassal lord led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Uprising of Petar Delyan (Bulgarian: ) (1040-1041) was a major Bulgarian rebellion against the Byzantine Empire. ... Peter Delyan (reigned 1040–1041) (Bulgarian Петър Делян) was the leader of the Bulgarian uprising against the Byzantine Empire started in thema of Bulgaria during summer of 1040 - (now region Pomoravlje in modern Serbia). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Pechenegs or Patzinaks (in Hungarian: Besenyők, Russian: Печенеги, Ukrainian: Печеніги ) were a semi-nomadic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking a Turkic language. ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cumans, Vlachs, Bulgars and Frankish and Flemish mercenaries. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ...


Second Bulgarian Empire

From 1185 the Second Bulgarian Empire once again established Bulgaria as an important power in Europe for two more centuries. With its capital based in Veliko Turnovo and under the Asen dynasty, this empire fought for dominance in the region against the Byzantine Empire, the Crusader states and Hungary, reaching its zenith under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). Аs a result of the Tatar invasions, of internal conflicts and of the constant attacks from the Byzantines and the Hungarians, the power of the country declined until the end of the 13th century. From 1300 under Emperor Theodore Svetoslav Bulgaria regained its strength, but by the end of the fourteenth century the country had disintegrated into several feudal principalities and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Empire. A Polish-Hungarian crusade under the rule of Władysław III of Poland to free the Balkans was crushed in 1444 in the battle of Varna. Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Veliko Turnovo(Cyrillic: Велико Търново, Great Turnovo) is a city of approximately 65,000 people in North-central Bulgaria, 240km north-east of Sofia. ... The Asen dynasty ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1187 and 1280. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Ivan Asen II (Ioan Asen II) (1218–1241), tsar of Bulgaria, was the son of Kaloyan, founder of the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Theodore Svetoslav (Bulgarian: Тодор Светослав, Todor Svetoslav and also Теодор Светослав, Teodor Svetoslav), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 1300 to 1322. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Varna. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000-30,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ...


Ottoman rule

The five centuries of Ottoman rule featured great violence and oppression.[19] The Ottomans decimated the Bulgarian population, which lost most of its cultural relics. Large towns and the areas where Ottoman power was strong were severely depopulated until the nineteenth century.[20]


Kingdom of Bulgaria

Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano
Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano

Following the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 (when Russian forces together with a Romanian expeditionary force and volunteer Bulgarian troops defeated the Ottoman forces), the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878, set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality. The Western Great Powers immediately rejected the treaty: they feared that a large Slavic country in the Balkans would serve Russian interests. This led to the Treaty of Berlin (1878) which provided for an autonomous Bulgarian principality comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia. The first Bulgarian prince was Alexander von Battenberg. Most of Thrace was included in the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia, whereas the rest of Thrace and all of Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Ottomans. After the Serbo-Bulgarian War and unification with Eastern Rumelia in 1885, the principality was proclaimed a fully independent kingdom on October 5 (September 22 O.S.), 1908, during the reign of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x613, 229 KB) A map of liberated Bulgaria (1878) - borders after the Treaty of San Stefano (3 March 1878) and the Congress of Berlin (June 1878). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x613, 229 KB) A map of liberated Bulgaria (1878) - borders after the Treaty of San Stefano (3 March 1878) and the Congress of Berlin (June 1878). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Alexander Joseph of Battenberg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Serbo-Bulgarian War (Bulgarian: Сръбско-българска война, Srabsko-balgarska voyna; Serbian: Српско-бугарски рат, Srpsko-bugarski rat) was a war between Serbia and Bulgaria that erupted on November 14, 1885 and lasted until November 28 the same year. ... A map of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia before the Unification. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ferdinand, a prince from the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, became the Bulgarian Prince after Alexander von Battenberg abdicated in 1886 following a coup d'état staged by pro-Russian army-officers. (Although the counter-coup d'état coordinated by Stefan Stambolov was successful, Battenberg decided not to remain Bulgarian prince without the approval of Alexander III of Russia.) The struggle for liberation of the Bulgarians in the Adrianople, Vilayet and Macedonia continued throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries culminating with the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising organised by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization in 1903. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... Alexander Joseph of Battenberg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886). ... A statue of Stefan N. Stambolov in his birthplace Veliko Turnovo Stefan Nikolov Stambolov (Bulgarian: Стефан Николов Стамболов) (January 31, 1854 - July 6, 1895) was a Bulgarian revolutionary and statesman. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... The banner of the insurgents from Ohrid. ... For a novel by a similar name, see Imaro (novel). ...

Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1393).
Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1393).

Image File history File links Tsarevets-gruev-2. ... Image File history File links Tsarevets-gruev-2. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ...

Balkan Wars and World War I

In 1912 and 1913 Bulgaria became involved in the Balkan Wars, entering into conflict alongside Greece, Serbia and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire. The campaign proved a success for the Bulgarian army, but unfortunately a conflict for the division of Macedonia aroused between the allies. The Second Balkan War pitted Bulgaria against Greece and Serbia, who were joined by Romania and Turkey. After being defeated in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost considerable territory conquered in the first war, as well as Southern Dobruja and parts of the region of Macedonia Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ...


During World War I, Bulgaria found itself fighting on the losing side as a result of its alliance with the Central Powers. The defeat led to new territorial losses (the Western Outlands to Serbia, Western Thrace to Greece and the reconquered Southern Dobruja to Romania). The Balkan Wars and World War I led to the influx of over 250,000 Bulgarian refugees from Macedonia, Eastern and Western Thrace and Southern Dobruja. These numbers increased in the 1930s following Serbian state-sponsored aggression against its native Bulgarian population. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... The area referred to as the Western Outlands The Western (Bulgarian) Outlands (Bulgarian: , Zapadni (balgarski) pokraynini) is a term used by Bulgarians to describe several territorially separate regions in southeastern Serbia and in the southeast of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ...


Interwar years

In September 1918 Tsar Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his son Boris III in order to head off the revolutionary tendencies. Under the Treaty of Neuilly (November 1919), Bulgaria ceded its Aegean coastline to Greece, recognized the existence of Yugoslavia, ceded nearly all of its Macedonian territory to that new state, and had to give Dobruja back to the Romanians. The country was forced to reduce its army to 20,000 men, and pay reparations exceeding $400 million. In Bulgaria, the results of the treaty are popularly known as the Second National Catastrophe. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Elections in March 1920 gave the Agrarians a large majority, and Aleksandar Stamboliyski formed Bulgaria's first peasant government. He faced huge social problems, but succeeded in carrying out many social reforms, although opposition from the middle and upper classes, the landlords and the officers of the army was powerful. In March 1923 Stamboliyski signed an agreement with Yugoslavia recognising the new border and agreeing to suppress VMRO, which favoured a war to regain Macedonia for Bulgaria. This triggered a nationalist reaction, and on 9 June there was a coup after which Stamboliykski was assassinated. A right wing government under Aleksandar Tsankov took power, backed by the army and the VMRO, who waged a White terror against the Agrarians and the Communists. In 1926 the Tsar persuaded Tsankov to resign, a more moderate government under Andrey Lyapchev took office and an amnesty was proclaimed, although the Communists remained banned. Popular alliance including the re-organised Agrarians won elections in 1931 under the name Popular Bloc. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (BANU) (Bulgarian: Българският земеделски народен съюз; БЗНС) is a political party devoted to representing the causes of the Bulgarian peasantry. ... Aleksandar Stamboliyski (Александър Стамболийски, March 1, 1879-June 14, 1923) was the prime minister of Bulgaria from 1918 until 1923. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bulgarian coup détat of 1923, also known as the 9 June coup détat (Bulgarian: , Devetoyunski prevrat), was a coup détat in Bulgaria implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkovs Military Union on the eve of 9 June 1923. ... Aleksandur Tsolov Tsankov (Bulgarian: ) (1879-17 July 1959) was a leading Bulgarian right wing politician between the two World Wars. ... It has been suggested that The White Terror (France) be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrey Lyapchev (Bulgarian: ) (30 November 1866-6 November 1933) was a leading political figure in Bulgaria between the World Wars. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 1934 another coup took place, removing the Popular Bloc from power and establishing an authoritarian military regime headed by Kimon Georgiev. A year later the Tsar managed to remove the military regime from power, restoring a form of parliamentary rule without the re-establishment of the political parties and under his strict control. The Tsar's regime proclaimed neutrality but gradually Bulgaria gravitated into alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. The Bulgarian coup détat of 1934, also known as the 19 May coup détat (Bulgarian: , Devetnadesetomayski prevrat), was a coup détat in Bulgaria carried out by the Zveno military organization and the Military Union with the aid of the Bulgarian Army. ... Kimon Georgiev (Stoyanov) (1882-1969) was a Bulgarian prime minister. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


World War II

After regaining control over Southern Dobruja in 1940, Bulgaria became allied with the Axis Powers, although no Bulgarian soldiers participated in the war against the USSR. During World War II Nazi Germany allowed Bulgaria to occupy parts of Greece and of Yugoslavia, including territories long coveted by the Bulgarians. Bulgaria was one of three countries (with Finland and Denmark) that saved its entire Jewish population (around 50,000) from the Nazi camps by refusing to comply with a 31 August 1943 resolution. But Jews in territories newly acquired from Greece and Yugoslavia were sent to death camps by the Bulgarian authorities on German request. In September 1944 the Soviet army entered Bulgaria, which enabled the Bulgarian Communists to later seize power and establish a Communist state. In 1944, Bulgaria's forces were turned against its former German ally (a 450,000 strong army in 1944, reduced to 130,000 in 1945). More than 20,000 Bulgarian soldiers and officers were killed in the war. Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


People's Republic of Bulgaria

After World War II, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. It became a People's Republic in 1946 and one of the USSR's staunchest allies. In the late 1970s it began normalizing relations with Greece, and in the 1990s with Turkey. The People's Republic ended in 1989 as many Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, as well as the Soviet Union itself, began to collapse. Opposition forces removed the Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov from power on 10 November 1989. Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: ; IPA: ) (September 7, 1911–August 5, 1998) was the Communist leader of Bulgaria from March 4, 1954 until November 10, 1989. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Republic of Bulgaria

In February 1990 the Communist Party voluntarily gave up its monopoly on power, and in June 1990 the first free elections since 1931 took place, won by the moderate wing of the Communist Party, renamed the Bulgarian Socialist Party. In July 1991 the country adopted a new Constitution which provided for a relatively weak elected President and for a Prime Minister accountable to the legislature. The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Bulgarian: Bălgarska Socialističeska Partija or Българска социалистическа партия) (BSP or БСП) is a political party in Bulgaria and successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party. ...


The anti-Communist Union of Democratic Forces took office, and between 1992 and 1994 carried through the privatization of land and industry, but faced massive unemployment and economic difficulties. The reaction against economic reform allowed BSP to take office again in 1995, but by 1996 the BSP government was also in difficulties, and in the presidential elections of that year the UDF's Petar Stoyanov was elected. In 1997 the BSP government collapsed and the UDF came to power. Unemployment, however, remained high and the electorate became increasingly dissatisfied with both parties. The Union of Democratic Forces (Bulgarian: Съюз на демократичните сили, Saiuz na demokratichnite sili) is a political party in Bulgaria, founded in December 1989 as a union of eleven political ogranizations in opposition to the Communist government. ... Petar Stefanov Stoyanov (Bulgarian: ) (born May 25, 1952) was President of Bulgaria from 1997 until 2002. ...


On June 17, 2001 Simeon II, the son of Tsar Boris III and head of state as the Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, won a narrow victory in the democratic elections held. The king's party — National Movement Simeon II ("NMSII") — won 120 out of 240 seats in Parliament and overturned the two pre-existing political parties. Simeon's popularity declined during his four-year rule as Prime Minister, and BSP won the elections in 2005 but could not form a single-party government and had to seek coalition. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Simeon of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born June 16, 1937) was head of state as the Tsar of Bulgaria, Tsar Simeon II, from 1943 to 1946. ... Simeon is one of the last living heads of state from the pre-World War II-era and he is also the only monarch in history who became head of the state through democratic nation-wide elections, after 55 years of exile imposed on his family by the communists. ...


Since 1989 Bulgaria has held multi-party elections and privatized its economy, but economic difficulties and a tide of corruption have led over 800,000 Bulgarians, most of them qualified professionals, to emigrate. Economic conditions are nevertheless improving. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


Politics

The Largo where the Presidency and the Council of Ministers are located
The Largo where the Presidency and the Council of Ministers are located
The Parliament Building
The Parliament Building
The Palace of Justice
Main article: Politics of Bulgaria

Bulgaria joined NATO on March 29, 2004 and signed the Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005. It became a full member of the European Union on 1 January 2007. The country had joined the United Nations in 1955, and became a founding member of OSCE in 1995. As a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty, Bulgaria takes part in the governing of the territories situated south of 60° south latitude. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 832 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 832 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... View of the Largo from the east The Largo (Bulgarian: ) is an architectural ensemble of three Socialist Classicism edifices in central Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, designed and built in the 1950s with the intention to become the citys new representative centre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1965 KB) Bulgarian Parliament, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1965 KB) Bulgarian Parliament, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Politics of Bulgaria takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Minister-Chairman is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... European Union 2007  Member states The Treaty of Accession 2005 is an agreement between the member states of European Union and Bulgaria and Romania. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...


Georgi Parvanov, the President of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002, won re-election on 29 October 2006 and began his second term in office in January 2007. Bulgarian presidents are directly elected for a five-year term with the right to one re-election. The president serves as the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. He is also the head of the Consultative Council for National Security and, while unable to initiate legislation other than Constitutional amendments, the President can return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the President's veto by vote of a majority of all MPs. Georgi Sedefchov Parvanov (Bulgarian: ) (born 28 June 1957) has been president of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002. ... This page will list the various republican heads of state of Bulgaria, as well as leaders of Bulgarias communist party during the time when it played the leading role in the Bulgarian state. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


Since 18 August 2005 Sergey Stanishev as PM has chaired the Council of Ministers, the principal body of the executive branch, which presently consists of 20 ministers. The Prime Minister — usually nominated by the largest parliamentary group — is given a mandate by the President to form a cabinet. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergey Dmitrievich Stanishev (Bulgarian: Сергей Станишев) (born May 5, 1966), Bulgarian politician, is Chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). ... The Council of Ministers building in central Sofia The Council of Ministers (Bulgarian: , Ministerski savet) is the main authority of the executive power in the Republic of Bulgaria. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The current governmental coalition comprises the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), National Movement Simeon II (NMSII) and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (representing mainly the Turkish minority). Simeon is one of the last living heads of state from the pre-World War II-era and he is also the only monarch in history who became head of the state through democratic nation-wide elections, after 55 years of exile imposed on his family by the communists. ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a centrist political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ...


The Bulgarian unicameral parliament, the National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (Народно събрание), consists of 240 deputies, each elected for four-year terms by popular vote. The votes are for party or coalition lists of candidates for each of the 28 administrative divisions. A party or coalition must garner a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter parliament. Parliament is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections, selection and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers, declaration of war, deployment of troops outside of Bulgaria, and ratification of international treaties and agreements. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The National Assembly of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Народно събрание, transliterated: Narodno Sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Prime Ministers, 1879-1946 Todor Stoyanov Burmov 17 July 1879 - 6 December 1879 Archbishop Kliment Turnovski 6 December 1879 - 5 April 1880 Dragan Kiriakov Tsankov 5 April - 10 December 1880 Petko Karavelov 10 December 1880 - 9 May 1881 Johann Casimir Ernrot 9 May - 13 July 1881 Prince Alexander 13 July...


The last elections took place on June 2005. The next elections should take place in summer 2009.


The Bulgarian judicial system consists of regional, district and appeal courts, as well as a Supreme Court of Cassation. In addition, Bulgaria has a Supreme Administrative Court and a system of military courts. The Presidents of the Supreme Court of Cassation, Supreme Administrative Court and the Prosecutor General are elected by a qualified majority of two-thirds from all the members of the Supreme Judicial Council and are appointed by the President of the Republic. The Supreme Judicial Council is in charge of the self-administration and organization of the Judiciary.


The Constitutional Court supervises the review of the constitutionality of laws and statutes brought before it, as well as the compliance of these laws with international treaties that the Government has signed. Parliament elects the twelve members of the Constitutional Court by a two-thirds majority, the members serve a nine-year term.


The territory of the Republic of Bulgaria subdivides into provinces and municipalities. In all, Bulgaria has 28 provinces, each headed by a provincial governor appointed by the government. In addition, there are 263 municipalities.


Military

Main article: Military of Bulgaria
A Bulgarian MiG-29.

The Military of Bulgaria consists of three services: the Bulgarian land forces, Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian Air Force. The armed forces have as their patron saint Sveti Georgi (St. George), and his feast day, 6 May, is also celebrated nationally as Valour and Army Day. Despite active participation in all major European wars since the end of the nineteenth century, Bulgarian forces have never lost a flag.[21] Bulgaria first became a major military power in Europe under Khan Krum and Tzar Simeon I, in a series of wars with the Byzantine Empire for control of the Balkan Peninsula, in the late ninth century. By the use of approximately 12,000 heavy cavalry in tactics representing those of feudal knights, Simeon I's forces were able to reach as far as the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, in AD 896 . A formal peace treaty lasted until 912 when both sides were engaged in a war which ended with several major defeats of the Byzantines including one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages at Anchialus in AD 917 . Bulgaria again became a significant military power under the rule of the Asen dynasty, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. During the rule of Tzar Kaloyan (1197-1207), Bulgaria became the first European country to defeat the Crusader knights. Since gaining total independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, Bulgaria has been a small European country, frequently included in plans and wars of the Great Powers. In 1913, Bulgarian forces introduced aviation bombardment, in the siege of Odrin. Following a series of reductions beginning in 1989, the active troops of Bulgaria's army number as many as 68,450, today. Reserve forces include 303,000 soldiers and officers. "PLAN 2004," an effort to modernize Bulgaria's armed forces, aims to better meet the military needs of NATO and the European Union. The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: ) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links MIG-29-BG.jpg‎ A friend of mine made this picture ! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links MIG-29-BG.jpg‎ A friend of mine made this picture ! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) is a fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ... The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: ) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Bulgarian Air Force Roundel Bulgarian Air Force (Bulgarian: Военновъздушни сили, ВВС) is a branch of the Bulgarian Army, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Asen dynasty ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1187 and 1280. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Bulgarian military personnel have participated in international missions in Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Starting in 2008, Bulgaria will completely abolish compulsory military service. Bulgaria's naval and air forces became fully professional in 2006, with the land forces scheduled to follow suit in 2008. Bulgaria's special forces have conducted missions with the SAS, Delta Force, KSK, and the Spetsnaz of Russia. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... The Kommando Spezialkräfte (Special Forces Command, KSK) is part of Germanys Special Forces. ... Russian special forces training For the Swedish EBM band, see Spetsnaz (band). ...


In April 2006 Bulgaria and the United States of America signed a defense-cooperation agreement providing for the development of the Bulgarian air bases at Bezmer (near Yambol) and Graf Ignatievo (near Plovdiv), the Novo Selo training range (near Sliven), and a logistics centre in Aytos as joint US-Bulgarian military facilities. Bulgaria's navy is comprised mainly of Soviet-era ships, and two submarines. With only 354 km of coastline, assault by sea is not considered a major risk for Bulgaria. In the course of recent modernization efforts, one new frigate was purchased from Belgium, and the navy is finalizing a deal with French company DCN for the acquisition of four Gowind corvettes. Bulgaria's air forces also use a large amount of Soviet equipment. Plans to acquire transport and attack helicopters are underway, in addition to a major overhaul on old Soviet weapon systems. Military spending accounts for nearly 2.6% of Bulgaria's GDP.[22] Joint US-Bulgarian military bases The Bezmer Air Base is situated in the eastern part of the Upper Thracian Lowland, in Yambol Oblast (Region), 10 km west of the city of Yambol and 30 km southeast of the city of Sliven, between the villages of Bezmer and Bolyarsko, and near... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... Graf Ignatievo (Bulgarian: Граф Игнатиево) is a village in the Maritsa municipality, southern Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Joint US-Bulgarian military bases The Novo Selo Training Range was established in 1962. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Joint US-Bulgarian military bases The Aytos Logistics Center comprises military storage facilities located near the town of Aytos, designated for development in support of the Novo Selo Range. ... Joint US-Bulgarian military bases Joint US-Bulgarian military bases established according to the 2006 Defense Cooperation Agreement between the United States and Bulgaria: Bezmer Air Base, Yambol Graf Ignatievo Air Base, Plovdiv Novo Selo Range, Sliven Aytos Logistics Center, Aytos US-Bulgarian Defense Cooperation Agreement Bulgarian air bases The... Direction des Constructions Navales (DCN) is based in France and is one of Europes leading shipbuilders. ... A Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. ...


Provinces and municipalities

Between 1987 and 1999, Bulgaria consisted of nine provinces (oblasti, singular oblast); since 1999, it has consisted of twenty-eight. All take their names from their respective capital cities: The centre of the town Houses in Varosha, the old quarter of Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad (Bulgarian: Благоевград, formerly Горна Джумая, Gorna Dzhumaya) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, situated in Blagoevgrad Province, with a population of about 76,000. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ... Haskovo (Bulgarian: Хасково) is the name of a town (and administrative center of the region of the same name) in Southern Bulgaria. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Kyustendil Coat of arms Kyustendil (Bulgarian: , historically , Velbazhd, Turkish: ) is a town in the very west of Bulgaria, and the capital of Kyustendil Province, with a population of 47,196 (2005 calculation). ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Montana (Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Montana Province. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Pazardzhik (Bulgarian: , also spelled as Pazardjik or Pazarjik) is a town situated along the banks of the Maritsa river in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Ibrahim Pasha (Ä°brahim PaÅŸa) Mosque Razgrad (Разград) is a city in northeastern Bulgaria and the capital of Razgrad Province, built upon the ruins of the Ancient Roman town of Abritus on the banks of the Beli Lom. ... A ruse is an action or plan which is intended to deceive someone. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Smolyan (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: or Ahiçelebi) is a town in the very south of Bulgaria, the administrative center of Smolyan Province. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... A street in Targovishte TârgoviÅŸte is also a city in Romania. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Bulgarian: ) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... Burgas Province or oblast (Bulgarian: Област Бургас) is located in southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. ... Dobrich province shown within Bulgaria Dobrich Province is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Gabrovo province shown within Bulgaria Gabrovo is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria. ... Haskovo Province is a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast. ... Kurdzhali province shown within Bulgaria Kardzhali (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek prefectures of Xanthi and Rodhopi to the south and east. ... Kyustendil region shown within Bulgaria Kyustendil is a province of western Bulgaria, neighbouring Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro. ... Lovech region shown within Bulgaria Lovech is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Montana (Монтана) is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia and Romania. ... Pazardzhik is a province located in southern Bulgaria and covers 4,458 km². Ranging from 190 to 370 m above sea level, Pazardzhik is home to 319,358 people (1998). ... Pernik Province is a province in western Bulgaria, neighbouring Serbia. ... Pleven region shown within Bulgaria Pleven is a province in northern Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... Razgrad Province (Област Разград) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Ruse region shown within Bulgaria Ruse Province (Bulgarian: , Turkish: Rusçuk) is a province in northern Bulgaria (Ludogorie), neighbouring Romania. ... Shumen (Шумен) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Silistra province shown within Bulgaria Silistra is a province of Bulgaria, named for its main city, Silistra. ... Sliven province shown within Bulgaria Sliven is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Smolyan province shown within Bulgaria Smolyan is a province in southern Bulgaria. ... Sofia Province is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora is a province of south central Bulgaria. ... Targovishte province shown within Bulgaria Targovishte (Търговищка област) is a province in central Bulgaria. ... One of Byalas beaches River Kamchiya Cape Galata Varna Pobiti Kamani Euxinograd Aladzha Monastery Golden Sands Chudnite skali on Lake Tsonevo Varna Province (Bulgarian: is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, onе of the 28 Bulgarian provinces. ... Veliko Tarnovo is a province in the middle of the northern part of Bulgaria. ... Baba Vida fortress in Vidin Vidin Province is the northwesternmost province of Bulgaria. ... Vratsa is a province of north western Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Yambol town and province shown within Bulgaria Yambol is a town with province in south eastern Bulgaria, neighbouring Turkey to the south. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Romania (disambiguation). ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... Since 1999 Bulgaria is divided into 28 oblasts (provinces or regions) that correspond aproximatly to the 28 okrugs that existet before 1987. ... Municipalities of Bulgaria The provinces of Bulgaria are divided into municipalities (община, obshtina). ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...

The provinces subdivide into 287 municipalities. Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... Burgas Province or oblast (Bulgarian: Област Бургас) is located in southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. ... Dobrich province shown within Bulgaria Dobrich Province is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Gabrovo province shown within Bulgaria Gabrovo is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria. ... Haskovo Province is a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast. ... Kurdzhali province shown within Bulgaria Kardzhali (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek prefectures of Xanthi and Rodhopi to the south and east. ... Kyustendil region shown within Bulgaria Kyustendil is a province of western Bulgaria, neighbouring Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro. ... Lovech region shown within Bulgaria Lovech is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Montana (Монтана) is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia and Romania. ... Pazardzhik is a province located in southern Bulgaria and covers 4,458 km². Ranging from 190 to 370 m above sea level, Pazardzhik is home to 319,358 people (1998). ... Pernik Province is a province in western Bulgaria, neighbouring Serbia. ... Pleven region shown within Bulgaria Pleven is a province in northern Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... Razgrad Province (Област Разград) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Ruse region shown within Bulgaria Ruse Province (Bulgarian: , Turkish: Rusçuk) is a province in northern Bulgaria (Ludogorie), neighbouring Romania. ... Shumen (Шумен) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Silistra province shown within Bulgaria Silistra is a province of Bulgaria, named for its main city, Silistra. ... Sliven province shown within Bulgaria Sliven is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Smolyan province shown within Bulgaria Smolyan is a province in southern Bulgaria. ... The Sofia City Province (Bulgarian: София-град) is situated in western Bulgaria, in the largest valley in the country, the Sofia valley. ... Sofia Province is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora is a province of south central Bulgaria. ... Targovishte province shown within Bulgaria Targovishte (Търговищка област) is a province in central Bulgaria. ... One of Byalas beaches River Kamchiya Cape Galata Varna Pobiti Kamani Euxinograd Aladzha Monastery Golden Sands Chudnite skali on Lake Tsonevo Varna Province (Bulgarian: is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, onе of the 28 Bulgarian provinces. ... Veliko Tarnovo is a province in the middle of the northern part of Bulgaria. ... Baba Vida fortress in Vidin Vidin Province is the northwesternmost province of Bulgaria. ... Vratsa is a province of north western Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Yambol town and province shown within Bulgaria Yambol is a town with province in south eastern Bulgaria, neighbouring Turkey to the south. ... Municipalities of Bulgaria The provinces of Bulgaria are divided into municipalities (община, obshtina). ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Bulgaria

A member of the European Union since 2007, Bulgaria has a rapidly growing, technhologically developed economy. The country boasts the second highest standard of living in Southeastern Europe in terms of GDP per capita. Inflation is well under control; unemployment stands lower than the average for the European Union and is steadily declining. Due to this positive economic profile, Bulgaria is expected to join the Eurozone in 2011, after having spent 3 years in ERM II, the entry for which is currently scheduled for early 2008. In comparison, the majority of EU member states, which are currently struggling with the Eurozone criteria, are expected to join the single currency union later than 2011. The economy of Bulgaria has contracted dramatically after 1989 with the collapse of the COMECON system and the loss of the Soviet market, to which the Bulgarian economy had been closely tied. ...


Bulgaria's economy contracted dramatically after 1989 with the dissolution of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), with which the Bulgarian economy had integrated closely. The standard of living fell by about 40%, but it regained pre-1990 levels in June 2004. United Nations sanctions against Yugoslavia and Iraq took a heavy toll on the Bulgarian economy. The first signs of recovery emerged in 1994 when the GDP grew and inflation fell. During the government of Zhan Videnov's cabinet in 1996, the economy collapsed due to lack of international economic support and an unstable banking system. Since 1997, the country has been on the path to recovery, with GDP growing at a 4% – 5% rate, increasing FDI, macroeconomic stability and European Union membership. A Soviet propaganda poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organisation of communist states and a kind of Eastern European equivalent to the European Economic Community. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Zhan Vasilev Videnov (Bulgarian: Жан Виденов; born March 22, 1959) was the Prime Minister of Bulgaria from January 25, 1995 until February 13, 1997. ...


The former NMSII government, elected in 2001, pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy objectives adopted by its predecessor in 1997, specifically: retaining the Currency Board, practising sound financial policies, accelerating privatisation, and pursuing structural reforms. Economic forecasts for 2005 and 2006 predict continued growth in the economy. The annual year-on-year GDP growth for 2005 and 2006 is expected to total 5.3% and 6.0%, respectively. Industrial output for 2005 was forecast to rise by 11.9% from the previous year, and for 2006 by 15.2%. Unemployment for 2005 was projected at 11.5%, 9% for 2006 and 7.25% for 2007[23]. As of 2006 the GDP structure is: agriculture 8.0%; industry 26,1%; services 65.9%. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


Agriculture

Agricultural output has decreased overall since 1989 but production has grown in recent years. Farming is more important than stock-breeding. The prevalence of mechanisation is higher than most other Eastern European countries but there is lack of modern equipment. Alongside aeroplanes and other equipment, there are over 150,000 tractors and 10,000 combine harvesters. Production of the most important crops is: wheat 4,120,000 t; sunflower 1,080,000 t; maize 2,120,000 t; grapes 500,000 t; tobacco 79,000 t; tomatoes 530,000 t; barley 1,180,000 t; potatoes 650,000 t; peppers 213,000 t; cucumbers 110,000 t; cherries 75,000 t; watermelons 420,000 t; cabbage 340,000 t; apples 150,000 t; plums 150,000 t; strawberries 52,000 t.[citation needed] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ... A LEXION Combine. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Binomial name L. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. ... A cherry is both a tree and its fleshy fruit, a type known as a drupe with a single hard pit enclosing the seed. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Apple (disambiguation). ... Plum is also a nickname for British humorist P. G. Wodehouse. ... Strawberries Promo Strawberries is an album by The Damned released October 1982 on Bronze Records (catalogue #BRON 542). ...


Industry

A view of the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant

Industry plays a key role in the Bulgarian economy. Although Bulgaria is not very rich in reserves of oil, and gas, it is a major producer of electricity and the most important exporter in the region due to the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant with a total capacity of 2000 MW. Construction has started on a second plant, the Belene Nuclear Power Plant with a capacity of 2,000 MW. There is a $1,400,000,000 project for construction of an additional 670 MW for the 500 MW Maritza Iztok 1 Thermal Power Plant[24] (see Energy in Bulgaria). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Bulgaria situated 200 km north of Sofia and 5 km east of Kozloduy, a town on the Danube river, near the border with Romania. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Belene Nuclear Power Plant (Bulgarian: ) is a nuclear power plant currently in construction 3 km from Belene and 11 km from Svishtov in Pleven Province, northern Bulgaria, near the Danube River. ... The Maritsa Iztok Complex is currently the largest energy comlex in South Eastern Europe. ... Although Bulgaria is not very rich in natural fuels such as coal, oil and gas, it has very well developped energy and energetics sector which is of crucial importance for the Balkans and the whole South Eastern Europe. ...


Ferrous metallurgy has major importance. The production of steel and pig iron is concentrated in Kremikovtsi and Pernik. There is also a third metallurgical base in Debelt. In production of steel and steel products per capita the country is first in the Balkans. Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Kremikovtsi (Bulgarian: ) is an industrial municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... The village of Debelt is favourably disposed in south-eastern Bulgaria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The largest refineries for lead and zinc operate in Plovdiv (the biggest refinery between Italy and the Ural mountains), Kardzhali and Novi Iskar; for copper in Pirdop and Eliseina; for aluminium in Shumen. In production of many metals per capita, Bulgaria is first in South Eastern Europe and among the first in Europe and the world. For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Location of Novi Iskar rayon Novi Iskar (Нови Искър, New Iskar) is a town in western Bulgaria, located in Sofia City Province and the Capital Municipality. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Pirdop is a town located in South-West Bulgaria in Sofia Province. ... Eliseina (Bulgarian: Елисейна) is a village in the Vratsa Province, northwestern Bulgaria. ... “Aluminum” redirects here. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


About 14% of the total industrial production relates to machine-building and 24% of the people are employed in this field. Its importance decreased since 1989 but is growing again.


Electronics and electric equipment-production have developed to a high degree. The largest centres are Sofia, Plovdiv and surrounding area, Botevgrad, Stara Zagora, Varna, Pravets and many others. These plants produce household appliances, computers, CDs, telephones, medical and scientific equipment. This article is about the engineering discipline. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... all my regards and wishes to Angela Marinova from [email protected] ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Pravets (Bulgarian: Правец, also transliterated as Pravets, Pravetz or Pravec) is a town in central western Bulgaria, located approximately 60 km from the capital Sofia. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... This article is about the machine. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit ÄŒeské Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Many factories producing transportation equipment do not work at full capacity. Plants produce trains (Burgas, Dryanovo), trams (Sofia), trolleys (Dupnitsa), buses (Botevgrad), trucks (Shumen), motorcars (automotive assembly plant in Lovech). The main centre of agricultural machinery is Ruse. Shipbuilding is concentrated in Varna, Burgas and Ruse. Arms production is mainly developed in central Bulgaria (Kazanlak, Sopot, Karlovo). For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... The 19th century church in Dryanovo designed by Kolyu Ficheto The Dryanovo art gallery building, another work of Kolyu Ficheto The town of Dryanovo (Дряново) is situated at the northern foot of the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria, amphitheatrically along the two banks of Dryanovo River, a tributary to the Yantra River. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Dupnitsa (Дупница) is a town in western Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Bus (disambiguation). ... all my regards and wishes to Angela Marinova from [email protected] ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... A ruse is an action or plan which is intended to deceive someone. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... A ruse is an action or plan which is intended to deceive someone. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Sopot (pronounce: [sÉ”pÉ”t]; German: ; Kashubian: Sopòt) is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ...


Foreigners seeking additional homes have recently boosted the Bulgarian property-market. Buyers come from right across Europe, but mostly from the United Kingdom, encouraged by relatively cheap property and because the country is more accessible through cheap air travel.[25] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Science, technology and telecommunications

John Atanasoff, an American physicist of Bulgarian descent, invented the first electronic digital computer.

Bulgaria offer excellent conditions for high-tech and telecommunication industries and services with its strategic location, highly-qualified workforce, macroeconomic stability, growing domestic market and well-educated specialists due to country's traditionally strong educational system, with one of the highest rankings of youth mathematicians and informaticians in the world. For these reasons some multinational companies chose to build their regional offices and headquarters in Bulgaria — even before Bulgaria joined the EU. To date, the most notable is Hewlett-Packard, which built its Global Service Centre for Europe, the Middle East and Africa in Sofia. John Atanasoff This work is copyrighted. ... John Atanasoff This work is copyrighted. ... John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903-June 15, 1995) was a prominent American computer engineer of Bulgarian and Irish origin. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... In economics, a market is a mechanism which allows people to trade. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Telecommunications has arguably grown faster than any other industry in the country. Three GSM mobile operators — Globul, Mobiltel and Vivatel — provide almost 100% coverage. They have hundreds of service centres throughout the country, constantly growing in number and with incredible speed and, also, improving. More than 6,245,000 Bulgarians[26] own mobile cellular phones. Mobikom is the only NMT 450 mobile phone operator. Internet is available in each town and lately in most villages with a fast connectivity and VoIP; DSL connection in bigger cities is offered by BTK. There are around 185,000[27] Internet hosts. Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... GloBuls former logo GLOBUL is the second-largest Bulgarian GSM operator. ... Mobiltel, commonly known as M-tel, is the first and largest GSM mobile phone operator in Bulgaria, founded in 1994. ... The logo of Vivatel, presented on Musala in September 2005 Vivatel is the third Bulgarian GSM operator, started in 2005. ... Cellular redirects here. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ... BTK may refer to: A hardcore gang of street thugs dealing with the trafficking of drugs through Bloomington Indiana. ...


The country has some precedents for its current science industry. The inventor of the earliest known electronic computer, John Atanasoff, had Bulgarian ancestry. Bulgaria was a major supplier of scientific and research instruments for the Soviet space programmes, was the first European country to develop serial computer production, and has experience in pharmaceutical research and development. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading scientific institution in the country with most of the researchers working for its numerous branches. John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903-June 15, 1995) was a prominent American computer engineer of Bulgarian and Irish origin. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Balgarska akademia na naukite, abbreviated BAN) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869. ...


Bulgaria hosts two major astronomical observatories: the Rozhen Observatory, the biggest in South Eastern Europe, the Belogradchik Observatory with three telescopes, and several "public astronomical observatories" with planetariums, focused on educationnal and outreach activities. Categories: Stub | Astronomical observatories ... Rozhen Observatory is an astronomical observatory located at 90 km south of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Astronomical Observatory of Belogradchik, or Belogradchik Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Bugarian Academy of Sciences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... This article is about institutionalized education. ... Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Bulgaria

Bulgaria occupies a unique and strategically important geographic location. Since ancient times, the country has served as a major crossroad between Europe, Asia and Africa. Five of the ten Trans-European corridors run through its territory. The total length of the roads is 102,016 km of which 93,855 km are paved and 416 km are motorways. Several motorways are planned, under construction or partially built: Trakiya motorway, Hemus motorway, Cherno More motorway, Struma motorway, Maritza motorway and Lyulin motorway. Other motorways are planned but their final track is yet to be decided. They include a link between the capital Sofia and Vidin, a link between the Struma and Trakiya motorways south of Rila Mountain, a link between Rousse and Veliko Tarnovo, and the Sofia ringroad. Many roads have been recently reconstructed. The length of railways is 6,500 km of which more than 60% are electrified. There is a €360,000,000 project for the modernization and electrification of the Plovdiv-Kapitan Andreevo railway. Map of Bulgarias major roads and highways // total: 4,294 km (2005) Greece - yes Macedonia - no Romania - yes Serbia - yes Turkey - yes total: 44,033 km paved: 43,593 km unpaved: 440 km (2004) motorways: 423 km (2007) 470 km (2006) gas: 2,505 km oil: 339 km refined... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Trakiya morotway near the town of Vakarel The Trakiya motorway (автомагистрала „Тракия“) or Thrace motorway, designated A1, is a motorway currently in construction in Bulgaria. ... Hemus motorway crossing the Balkan Mountains, between Vitinya and Botevgrad The Hemus motorway or Haemus motorway (автомагистрала „Хемус“), designated A2, is a motorway currently under construction in Bulgaria. ... The Bulgarian road network The Cherno More motorway or the Black Sea motorway (Bulgarian: ) is a Bulgarian motorway planned to link the major coastal cities of Varna and Burgas, passing along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... The Struma motorway is part of the European corridor No 4. ... The Maritza motorway will connect the town of Parvomay and Kapitan Andreevo near the border with Turkey. ... The Lyulin motorway will provide a link between the Sofia ringroad and the road jinction Daskalovo near Pernik. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Rila as seen from Kostenets Climbers near Musala in Rila The average annual precipitation in Rila is several times the average for Bulgaria The Seven Rila Lakes The source of the Maritsa under Marishki vrah Landscape from Rila close to the Seven Lakes The Rila Monastery Rila (Bulgarian: ) is a... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... The Sofia ringroad is 66km long. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Kapitan Andreevo is a village in the Haskovo Province, southern Bulgaria. ...


Air transportation has developed relatively comprehensively. There are formally six international airports at Sofia, Burgas, Varna, Plovdiv, Rousse and Gorna Oryahovitsa. Massive investment plans exist for the first three. There are important domestic airports in Vidin, Pleven, Silistra, Targovishte, Stara Zagora, Kardzhali, Haskovo and Sliven. After the fall of communism in 1989, most of them are not used as the importance of domestic flights declined. There are many military airports and agricultural airfields. 128 of the 213 airports in Bulgaria are paved. The ports of Varna and Burgas are by far the most important and have the largest turnover. Other than Burgas, Sozopol, Nesebar and Pomorie are big fishing ports. The largest ports on the Danube River are Rousse and Lom which serves the capital. There is well organised public transport in the cities and in many smaller towns. There are buses, trolleys (in about 20 cities) and trams (in Sofia). The Sofia Metro in the capital is to have three lines with total length of about 48 km and 52 stations, but only a section is currently completed. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Gorna Oryahovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a town in northern Bulgaria, situated in Veliko Tarnovo Province, between the towns of Veliko Tarnovo and Dolna Oryahovitsa. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... A street in Targovishte TârgoviÅŸte is also a city in Romania. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Haskovo (Bulgarian: Хасково) is the name of a town (and administrative center of the region of the same name) in Southern Bulgaria. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Shishman Street - a street in Lom, Bulgaria Soviet style tower blocks characterize Loms skyline, with the Danube River and Romania visible in the background. ... The Sofia Metropolitan (Bulgarian: , Sofiysko metro) is the underground urban railway network servicing the Bulgarian capital Sofia. ...


Demographics

The Rila Monastery, one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and historical monuments
The Rila Monastery, one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and historical monuments

According to the 2001 census,[28] Bulgaria's population consists mainly of ethnic Bulgarian (83.9%), with two sizable minorities, Turks (9.4%) and Roma (4.7%). Of the remaining 2.0%, 0.9% comprises some 40 smaller minorities, the most numerous of which are the Russians, Armenians, Vlachs, Jews, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Macedonians and Karakachans. 1.1% of the population did not declare their ethnicity in the latest census in 2001. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 784 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 784 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ... Natality, Mortality and Natural increase per 1,000 population in Bulgaria; year 2006, data of the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The Bulgarians (Bulgarian: or bǎlgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language. ... Pan-handling Roma family in front of the Russian Church in Sofia Roma people constitute the second largest minority and third largest ethnic group (after Bulgarians and Turks) in Bulgaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... After 1241 , the year of the earliest recorded Tatar invasion of Bulgaria, the Second Bulgarian Empire maintained constant political contacts with the Tatars. ... Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Karakachans or Sarakatsani are an itinerant white colour (i. ...


84.8% of the population speak Bulgarian as their mother-tongue. Bulgarian, a member of the Slavic language group, remains the only official language, but other languages (such as Turkish and Romany) are spoken corresponding closely to ethnic breakdown.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ...


The country's Roma population is estimated at between 400,000 and 800,000.[2] Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Most Bulgarians (82.6%) belong, at least nominally, to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, the national Eastern Orthodox church. Other religious denominations include Islam (12.2%), various Protestant denominations (0.8%), Roman Catholicism (0.5%), with other denominations, atheists and undeclared numbering ca. 4.1%. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


In the recent years Bulgaria has had one of the slowest population growth-rates in the world. Growth has been negative since the early 1990s,[29] due to the economic collapse and high emigration. In 1988 the population was 8,859,000 people, and in 2001 7,950,000. Now Bulgaria suffers a heavy demographic crisis [citation needed].Bulgaria's fertility rate is currently 1.4 child per woman as of 2007 and is going to reach 1.7 by the end of 2050.Replacements revel fertility rate is needed to reach 2.2 to continue the natural increase in the nation.


Culture

The Roman Theatre in Plovdiv
The Roman Theatre in Plovdiv
Main article: Culture of Bulgaria
See also: List of famous Bulgarians, Bulgarian customs, Music of Bulgaria, Bulgarian artists, Bulgarian dances, and Bulgarian cuisine

A country often described as lying at the crossroads linking the East and West, Bulgaria functioned as the centre of Slavic Europe during much of the Middle Ages, exerting considerable literary and cultural influence over the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world by means of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools. Bulgaria is also the birthplace of the Cyrillic alphabet, the second most widely used alphabet in the world, which was developed in these two schools in the tenth century. Image File history File links Plovdiv_Theater. ... Image File history File links Plovdiv_Theater. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 769 KB) Roman excavation, Varna 2005 selfmade photo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Varna Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 769 KB) Roman excavation, Varna 2005 selfmade photo File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Varna Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Bulgarian culture is a mix mostly of Thracian, Slavic and Bulgar cultures, but there are Byzantine, Turkish, Greek and other influences. ... Famous people who come from Bulgaria: Actors and actresses See also List of Bulgarian actors Stoyan Bachvarov Rusi Chanev Georgi Cherkelov Georgi Georgiev - Getz Stefan Danailov Itzhak Fintzi Georgi Kalojanchev Velko Kanev Apostol Karamitev - Chocho Nevena Kokanova Todor Kolev Tatyana Lolova Georgi Mamalev Hristo Mutafchiev Stoyanka Mutafova Lyubomir Neikov Katya... Martenitsa, all of March Nestinari Peperuda Kukeri Koleda (Christmas), Koledari Velikden (Easter) Name Days This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Bulgarian music is part of the Balkan tradition, which stretches across Southeastern Europe, and has its own distinctive sound. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Bulgarian folk dances are intimately related to the music of Bulgaria. ... Bulgarian cuisine (Bulgarian: българска кухня) is representative of the cuisine of the Balkans, showing Turkish, Greek and Middle Eastern influences and to a lesser extent Italian, Mediterranean and Hungarian ones. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language Slavic Europe is a region of Europe where Slavic languages are spoken. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ...


Bulgaria is well-known for its rich folklore, distinctive traditional music, rituals and tales, but the country's contribution to humanity also continued in the nineteenth and twentieth century, when individuals such as John Atanasoff - born in USA with Bulgarian origin, regarded as the father of the digital computer, a number of noted opera singers (Nicolai Ghiaurov, Boris Christoff, Raina Kabaivanska, Ghena Dimitrova), Anna Veleva, and successful artists (Christo Javacheff, Pascin, Vladimir Dimitrov) popularized the culture of Bulgaria abroad. John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4, 1903-June 15, 1995) was a prominent American computer engineer of Bulgarian and Irish origin. ... ... Nicolai Ghiaurov (13 September 1929–2 June 2004) was a Bulgarian opera singer and probably the most famous bass of the postwar period. ... Boris Christoff Boris Christoff (Bulgarian: ) (May 18, 1914, Plovdiv, Bulgaria – June 28, 1993, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the greatest basses of the 20th century. ... Raina Kabaivanska Raina Kabaivanska is a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the most renowned sopranos in the second half of the 20th century. ... Ghena Dimitrova - Soprano Ghena Dimitrova (Bulgarian: ) (May 6, 1941 – June 11, 2005) was a Bulgarian operatic soprano. ... Anna Veleva is a Bulgarian soprano, She has appeared at major opera houses, recital and concert halls in the United States, Europe and Japan. ... Christo (born Hristo Yavashev, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев) and Jeanne-Claude are an artistic couple practicing environmental, installation art. ... Jules Pascin Julius Mordecai Pincas, (March 31, 1885 – June 5, 1930) known as Pascin, Jules Pascin, or The Prince of Montparnasse, was a Bulgarian painter. ...


A number of ancient civilizations, most notably the Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Slavs and Bulgars, have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria. The country has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

  • two Thracian tombs (one in Sveshtari and one in Kazanlak)
  • three monuments of medieval Bulgarian culture (the Boyana Church, the Rila Monastery and the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo)
  • two examples of natural beauty: the Pirin National Park and the Srebarna Nature Reserve
  • the ancient city of Nesebar, a unique combination of European cultural interaction, as well as, historically, one of the most important centres of naval trade in the Black Sea.
  • the Varna Necropolis, a 3500-3200 BC burial site, purportedly contains the oldest examples of worked gold in the world

The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2,5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, which is located 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in the northeast of Bulgaria. ... The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak is a vaulted brickwork beehive (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria. ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava The church of Boyana is a medieval Bulgarian church situated on the outskirts of Sofia. ... Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ... The Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (Bulgarian: , Ivanovski skalni tsarkvi) are a group of monolithic churches, chapels and monasteries hewn out of solid rock and completely different from other monastery complexes in Bulgaria, located near the village of Ivanovo, 20 km south of Rousse, on the high rocky banks of... Vihren, the highest summit of Pirin, is located within the park Baykusheva mura, a 24-metre-tall Bosnian Pine, the oldest tree in Bulgaria A lake in the National Park Pirin National Park is a World Heritage national park that encompasses the larger part of the Pirin Mountains in the... Srebarna Nature Reserve is situated near the village of Srebarna, 18 km west of Silistra and 2 km south of the Danube. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... The Varna Necropolis (Bulgarian: ) is a burial site in the western industrial zone of Varna (approximately half a kilometre from Lake Varna and 4 km from the city centre), Bulgaria. ...

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Bulgaria
Church of St John the Baptist (11th century) in Nessebar
Church of St John the Baptist (11th century) in Nessebar

In winter, Samokov, Borovets, Bansko and Pamporovo become well-attended ski-resorts. There are summer resorts on the Black Sea at Sozopol, Nessebur, Golden Sands, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Albena, Saints Constantine and Helena and many others. Spa resorts such as Bankya, Hisarya, Sandanski, Velingrad, Varshets and many others are popular all over the year. Bulgaria is becoming an attractive destination because of the quality of the resorts and prices below those found in Western Europe. // Traditional Tourism In winter, Borovetz, Bansko and Pamporovo are ski resorts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1334 KB) (Eglise Saint-Jean Baptiste - Nessebar septembre 2004) Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Burgas Province Church of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1334 KB) (Eglise Saint-Jean Baptiste - Nessebar septembre 2004) Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Burgas Province Church of... Nessebar (Несебър), previously known as Mesembria and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Samokov (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. ... Borovets in winter Borovets in summer Borovets (Боровец), known as Chamkoriya (Чамкория) until the middle of the 20th century, is a popular Bulgarian mountain resort situated in Sofia Province, on the northern slopes of Rila, at an altitude of 1350 m. ... Bansko (Bulgarian: ) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, located at the foot of Pirin at an altitude of 1936 m above sea level. ... The five-star Hotel Pamporovo and the new church in the resort Pamporovo (Bulgarian: Пампорово) is a popular mountain resort in Smolyan Province, southern Bulgaria, one of the best-known in Southeastern Europe. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... Nessebar (Несебър), previously known as Mesembria and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Kempinski Hotel Grand Hermitage A beach at Holiday Club Riviera Beach Golden Sands (Bulgarian: Златни пясъци, Zlatni pyasatsi; German: Goldstrand, Russian: Золотые пески, Zolotyye peski; Romanian: Nisipurile de aur; Polish: ZÅ‚ote piaski; Czech: Zlaté Písky; Finnish: Kultahietikko; French:Sables dor is a resort town on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast... Sunny Beach (Bulgarian: Слънчев Бряг, Slânchev Bryag) is a town on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located approximately 35 km north of Burgas in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Sveti Vlas (Bulgarian: , Saint Blaise) is a resort town on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... View of Albena and the sea Albena (Албена) is a popular Black Sea resort in northeastern Bulgaria, situated 12 km from Balchik and 30 km from Varna. ... Sts. ... Bankya (Bulgarian Банкя) is a town in Western Bulgaria. ... Hisarya (also spelled Hisar or Hissarya) is a small resort town in Bulgaria, in Plovdiv Region. ... Sandanski (Bulgarian: , formerly Свети Врач, Sveti Vrach) is a town and recreation centre in southwestern Bulgaria, part of Blagoevgrad Province. ... Velingrad is the most beautiful and most famous among the Bulgarian Balneological resorts. ... Varshets is a spa town in the Montana Province, Bulgaria. ...


Bulgaria has enjoyed a substantial growth in income from international tourism over the past decade. Beach resorts are popular with tourists from Germany, Russia, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The ski resorts are a favourite destination for British and Irish tourists. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Bulgaria now attracts close to 5 million visitors yearly.[citation needed] Tourism in Bulgaria makes a major contribution towards Bulgaria's annual economic growth of 6%-6.5%.


Sports

A football game in the Vasil Levski National Stadium.
A football game in the Vasil Levski National Stadium.

Football has become by far the most popular sport in the country. Many Bulgarian fans follow closely the top Bulgarian league, the Bulgarian "A" Professional Football Group, as well as the leagues of other European countries, such as those of Spain, England, Italy and Germany. The Bulgaria national football team achieved its greatest success with a fourth-place finish at the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States. Certainly, the best known Bulgarian footballer is Hristo Stoichkov. He is widely regarded as one of the world's finest football players in the world , at the peak of his career between 1992 and 1995, while playing for FC Barcelona winning the Ballon d'Or in 1994. Additionally, he was named in the FIFA 100 ranking. Georgi Asparuhov-Gundi (1943-1971), was himself extremely popular at home and abroad having had offers from clubs in Italy and Portugal. He died tragically in a car accident at the peak of his career. He was awarded Bulgarian football player №1 for the twentieth century. PFC CSKA Sofia (champion of Bulgaria 30 times) and PFC Levski Sofia (25 times champion of Bulgaria and 26 times holder of the National Cup as of 2007) are the most successful Bulgarian football clubs. Other popular clubs include PFC Lokomotiv Sofia, PFC Litex Lovech, PFC Cherno More Varna, PFC Lokomotiv Plovdiv and PFC Botev Plovdiv (the oldest club in Bulgaria,est. 1912). PFC Levski Sofia is the first Bulgarian team to have participated in the modern UEFA Champions League (after 1989) having achieved this by qualifying for the 2006/2007 competition. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2046x1239, 810 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Sofia PFC Levski Sofia Vasil Levski National Stadium ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2046x1239, 810 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Sofia PFC Levski Sofia Vasil Levski National Stadium ... This is one of the the biggest stadiums in Bulgaria at 43,384 people. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The Bulgarian A Professional Football Group (А Професионална футболна група) or A PFG (А ПФГ) is the top division of Bulgarian football. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... First international  Austria 6 - 0 Bulgaria (Vienna, Austria; 21 May 1924) Biggest win Bulgaria 7 - 0 Norway  (Sofia, Bulgaria, 1957) Bulgaria 7 - 0 Thailand  (Mexico City, Mexico; October, 1968 Bulgaria 7 - 0 Malta  (Sofia, Bulgaria; 14 October 1982) Biggest defeat  Spain 13 - 0 Bulgaria (Madrid, Spain; 21 May 1933) World... Qualifying countries The 1994 FIFA World Cup, the 15th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in the United States from June 17 to July 17, 1994. ... Hristo Stoichkov alternatively spelt Stoitchkov (Bulgarian: ) (born February 8, 1966, in Plovdiv, Bulgaria) is a football manager and former striker who was a member of the Bulgaria national team that finished fourth at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. ... Futbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (IPA: baɾ.sÉ™), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... The Ballon dOr trophy, as awarded to Hristo Stoichkov in 1994. ... Pelé The FIFA 100 is a list of the world-renowned Brazilian striker Pelés choice of the greatest living footballers. Unveiled on March 4, 2004 at a gala ceremony in London, the FIFA 100 marked part of the celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the F... Georgi Asparuhov (Bulgarian: ) (sometimes spelled Asparoukhov), nicknamed Gundi (May 4, 1943 – June 30, 1971) was one of the greatest Bulgarian football players of all time. ... “CSKA Sofia” redirects here. ... “Levski Sofia” redirects here. ... PFC Lokomotiv Sofia is a Bulgarian football club from the capital city of Sofia, founded on 28 October 1929 as ZHSK (ЖСК). The club was united with Slavia Sofia for a brief period between 1969 and 1971 and is associated with the Bulgarian railway workers. ... PFC Litex Lovech is a Bulgarian football club from the town of Lovech. ... PFC Cherno more is a Bulgarian football club in Varna. ... PFC Lokomotiv 1936 Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is a Bulgarian football club, from the city of Plovdiv. ... Botev Plovdiv (Bulgarian: Ботев Пловдив), also known as the Canaries, founded on March 12, 1912, is a Bulgarian football club from the city of Plovdiv. ... The UEFA Champions League (also known as the European Cup, UCL, CE1, C1[1] or CL) is a seasonal club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 1955 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... The UEFA Champions League 2006-07 was the 52nd edition of the European championship football club tournament and 15th edition under the current UEFA Champions League format. ...


Aside from football, Bulgaria boasts great achievements in a great variety of other sports. Maria Gigova and Maria Petrova each have a record of three world-titles in rhythmic gymnastics. Other famous gymnasts include Simona Peycheva, Neshka Robeva (a highly successful coach as well) and Yordan Yovtchev. Bulgarians also dominate in weightlifting, with around 1,000 gold medals in different competitions, and in wrestling; Stefan Botev, Nickolai Peshalov, Demir Demirev and Yoto Yotov figure among the most distinguished weightlifters and Serafim Barzakov, Armen Nazarian, Plamen Slavov, Kiril Sirakov and Sergey Moreyko rank as world-class wrestlers. Bulgarians also take great pride in the country's achievements in athletics. Stefka Kostadinova, who still holds the women's high jump world record, jumped 209 centimetres at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics in Rome to clinch the coveted title. Presently, Bulgaria is proud of its sprinters, namely Ivet Lalova and Tezdzhan Naimova. Volleyball recently marked a big resurgence. The Bulgarian national volleyball team is one of the strongest teams in Europe, currently ranked fifth in the FIVB ranklist. At the 2006 Volleyball World Championship, they won the bronze medal. Chess is also very popular. One of the top chess-masters in the world, Veselin Topalov, is Bulgarian. At the end of 2005, both men's and women's world chess champions were Bulgarian as well as the junior world champion. Albena Denkova and Maxim Staviski have won the ISU world figure skating championships twice in a row (2006 and 2007) for ice dance. Maria Gigova (Bulgarian: ) (born April 24, 1947) is a Bulgarian rhythmic gymnast. ... Maria Petrova cyrillic Мария Петрова was born in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on November 13 1975 and is regarded as one of the finest rhythmic gymnasts of all time. ... Rhythmic gymnasts from Greece in the 2000 Sydney Olympics Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which single competitors or pairs, trios or even more manipulate one or two apparatuses: Ball, Clubs, Hoop, Ribbon, and Rope. ... Simona Peycheva (Bulgarian: ) (born May 14, 1985 in Sofia, Bulgaria) is an Individual Rhythmic Gymnast considered by many to be the best Bulgarian rhythmic gymnast of late for her extreme flexibility, technical brilliance and that she is a great audience teaser. ... Neshka Robeva (Bulgarian: Nechka Robeva) (born May 26, 1946 in Rousse, Bulgaria) was a champion individual Rhythmic Gymnast, and coach. ... Jordan Jovchev (Bulgarian: ) (born February 24, 1973 in Plovdiv) is a Bulgarian gymnast. ... A weightlifter about to jerk 180 kg[1] Weightlifting is a sport in which competitors attempt to lift heavy weights mounted on steel bars called barbells, the execution of which is a combination of power, flexibility, technique, mental and physical strength. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons. ... Stefan Botev (Bulgarian: ) (born February 14, 1968) was an Olympic weightlifter for Bulgaria and later for Australia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Demir Demirev (born 31 August 1984) is a Bulgarian weightlifter. ... Yoto Yotov (Bulgarian: ) (born May 22, 1969) was an Olympic weightlifter for Bulgaria. ... Armen Nazarian (Армен Назарян) (born March 9, 1974) is a Bulgarian Greco Roman wrestler of Armenian origin and member of the Fila Hall of Fame. ... Stefka Kostadinova (born March 25, 1965) is a Bulgarian former athlete specialising in the high jump and current President of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee. ... This article is about the athletic event. ... The 2nd World Championships in Athletics under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations were held in the Olympic Stadium in Rome, Italy between August 28 and September 6. ... Ivet Lalova (born 18 May 1984 in Sofia is a Bulgarian athlete. ... Tezdzhan Naimova (Bulgarian: ; first name also rendered as Тезжан, Tezzhan, born 1 May 1987) is a Bulgarian sprinter. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... The Bulgaria mens national volleyball team, controlled by the Bulgarian Volleyball Federation, is one of the leading volleyball teams in Europe and the world. ... FIVB Logo Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for the sport of volleyball. ... Official Logo The 2006 FIVB Volleyball World championship for men will be held in Japan from 17 November 2006 to 3 December 2006. ... For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ... Veselin Topalov (IPA: ; Bulgarian: ) (born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE world champion. ... Albena Denkova (Bulgarian: ) (born December 3, 1974 in Sofia) is a Bulgarian ice dancer. ... Albena Denkova & Maxim Staviski at the medal ceremony at the 2004 World Championships Albena Denkova with Maxim Staviski at the european championships 2007 in Warsaw Maxim Staviski (born November 16, 1977, in Rostov-on-Don, Soviet Union (now Russia)) is a Bulgarian ice dancer. ...


Religion

The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, one of the biggest Orthodox cathedrals in Europe
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, one of the biggest Orthodox cathedrals in Europe
Main article: Religion in Bulgaria

Most citizens of Bulgaria have associations — at least nominally — with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Founded in 870 AD under the Patriarchate of Constantinople (from which it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological texts), the Bulgarian Orthodox Church has had autocephalous status since 927. The Bulgarian Patriarchate was established in Sofia after the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate, in 1870. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and is considered an inseparable element of Bulgarian national consciousness. The church became subordinate within the Patriarchate of Constantinople, twice during the periods of Byzantine (1018 – 1185) and Ottoman (1396 – 1878) domination but has been revived every time as a symbol of Bulgarian statehood without breaking away from the Orthodox dogma. In 2001, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church had 6,552,000 members in Bulgaria (82.6% of the population). However, many people raised during the 45 years of communist rule are not religious, even though they may formally be members of the church. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB) Alexander Nevski, cathedral, Sofia, Bulgaria © 2006 Neva Micheva File links The following pages link to this file: Bulgaria Sofia Bulgarian Orthodox Church Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 598 KB) Alexander Nevski, cathedral, Sofia, Bulgaria © 2006 Neva Micheva File links The following pages link to this file: Bulgaria Sofia Bulgarian Orthodox Church Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The St. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1418 KB) Eglise du Christ Pantocrator - Nessebar septembre 2004 Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Nesebar ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1418 KB) Eglise du Christ Pantocrator - Nessebar septembre 2004 Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Nesebar ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia is among the largest Eastern Orthodox churches in the world and the cathedral church of the Patriarch of Bulgaria Bulgaria has been a traditionally Christian state since the adoption of Christianity in 865, with the dominant confession being Eastern Orthodoxy of the Bulgarian Orthodox... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Despite the dominant position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church in Bulgarian cultural life, a number of Bulgarian citizens belong to other religious denominations, most notably Islam, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Islam came to Bulgaria at the end of the fourteenth century after the conquest of the country by the Ottomans. It gradually gained ground throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries through the introduction of Turkish colonists and the conversion of native Bulgarians. At the time of Liberation (1878) no less than 40% of the population professed Islam, but by the end of the Liberation, ethnic cleansing had led to a major decrease in Muslim populations.[30] In 2001 Bulgaria had 967,000 Muslims, accounting for 12.2% of the total population. Banya Bashi mosque, built in 1576 by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, is the only functioning mosque that remains of 500 years of Ottoman domination in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Tatars, lives mainly in northeastern Bulgaria and in... Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria: Roman Catholicism is the third largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. ... Protestantism in Bulgaria: Protestantism is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Roman Catholicism. ... Banya Bashi mosque, built in 1576 by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, is the only functioning mosque that remains of 500 years of Ottoman domination in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Tatars, lives mainly in northeastern Bulgaria and in... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


In the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, missionaries from Rome converted Bulgarian Paulicians in the districts of Plovdiv and Svishtov to Roman Catholicism. Today, their descendants form the bulk of Bulgarian Catholics whose number stands at 44,000 in 2001. Protestantism was introduced in Bulgaria by missionaries from the United States in 1857. Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. In 2001, there were some 42,000 Protestants in Bulgaria. Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Svishtov is a Bulgarian town at Danube river, nearly 235 km north-east from Sofia. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


According to the most recent Eurostat "Eurobarometer" poll, in 2005,[31] only 40% of Bulgarian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 40% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", 13% that "they do not believe there is a God, spirit, nor life force", and 6% did not answer.

See also: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Islam in Bulgaria, Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria, and Protestantism in Bulgaria

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Banya Bashi mosque, built in 1576 by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, is the only functioning mosque that remains of 500 years of Ottoman domination in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Tatars, lives mainly in northeastern Bulgaria and in... Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria: Roman Catholicism is the third largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. ... Protestantism in Bulgaria: Protestantism is the fourth largest religious congregation in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam and Roman Catholicism. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b This article uses the official Bulgarian transliteration system to romanize Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.
  2. ^ http://www.journey.bg/bulgaria/bulgaria.php?guide=1519
  3. ^ http://www.links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-840X(193102)1%3A45%3A1%3C41%3ADADBUD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H
  4. ^ http://www.legmed.ro/files/revista/2004-4/02-Cardos-%20MtDNA.pdf
  5. ^ Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  6. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 397
  7. ^ Scriptor incertus, ibid., p. 337-339
  8. ^ Theophanes, ibid. , р. 492
  9. ^ Georgius Monachus Continuatus, loa cit., Logomete
  10. ^ Vita S. démentis
  11. ^ Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press
  12. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, pp. 144-148.
  13. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 462—3,480
  14. ^ Cedrenus: II, p. 383
  15. ^ Leo Diaconus, pp. 158-9
  16. ^ Шишић, p. 331
  17. ^ Skylitzes, p. 457
  18. ^ Zlatarski, vol. II, pp. 1-41
  19. ^ http://pravoslavie.domainbg.com/20/documenti/islam_politika.html
  20. ^ Bulgaria Illustrated History, Bojidar Dimitrov, PhD., Author, BORIANA Publishing House 2002, ISBN 9545000449
  21. ^ http://www.motoroads.com/why_bul_history.html
  22. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_military.html
  23. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/06/19/business/EU-FIN-ECO-Bulgaria-Growth.php
  24. ^ http://www.alstom.cz/boilers/en/enovinky.html#3
  25. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/working_lunch/6172095.stm
  26. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_communications.html
  27. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_communications.html Statistics of Bulgarian communications
  28. ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, retrieved July 31, 2006
  29. ^ http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2287183,00.html
  30. ^ McCarthy, J. (1996). Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922. Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press, 88–91. ISBN 0878500944. 
  31. ^ Social values, science and technology (pdf). Eurobarometer. European Commission (June 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
Bulgaria Portal

The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Romanization of Bulgarian is the transliteration of text in the Bulgarian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ... Dr. Justin A. McCarthy is an American demographer, Ottoman expert, and history professor at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Eurobarometer is a survey performed by Public Opinion Analysis sector of the European Commission since 1973. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

Further reading

  • Raymond Detrez. Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria Second Edition. 2006. lxiv + 638 pp. Maps, bibliography, appendix, chronology. ISBN 978-0-8108-4901-3.
  • RJ Crampton. A Concise History of Bulgaria
  • Lampe, John R., and Marvin R. Jackson. Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations. 1982. online edition
  • Lampe, John R. The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century. 1986.

Pre 1939

  • Hall, Richard C. Bulgaria's Road to the First World War. Columbia University Press, 1996.
  • Mercia MacDermott; A History of Bulgaria, 1393-1885 (1962) online edition
  • Duncan M. Perry; Stefan Stambolov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895 (1993) online edition
  • Steven Runciman; A History of the First Bulgarian Empire (1930) online edition
  • Zlatarski, Vasil N. (1934). Prof. Dr. (Bulgarian). Medieval History of the Bulgarian State. Royal Printing House, Sofia. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. (Васил Н. Златарски, История на българската държава през средните векове, Част II, II изд., Наука и изкуство, София 1970.)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

World War II

  • Michael Bar-Zohar. Beyond Hitler's Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews
  • Stephane Groueff. Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918–1943
  • Tzvetan Todorov The Fragility of Goodness: Why Bulgaria's Jews Survived the Holocaust

Michael Bar-Zohar is an Israeli historian known for his controversial biography of David Ben-Gurion Ben-Gurion: The Armed Prophet (1968). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tzvetan Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on March 1, 1939 in Sofia) is a Franco-Bulgarian philosopher. ...

Communist era

  • Tzvetan Todorov. Voices from the Gulag: Life and Death in Communist Bulgaria
  • Alexenia Dimitrova. The Iron Fist - Inside the Bulgarian secret archives

Contemporary

  • John D. Bell, ed. Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society, and Culture after Communism (1998) online edition

Guide-books

  • Blue Guide: Bulgaria James Pettifer
  • Paul Greenway, Lonely Planet World Guide: Bulgaria
  • Timothy Rice, Music of Bulgaria
  • Jonathan Bousfield. The Rough Guide To Bulgaria

External links

Find more information on Bulgaria by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Official

  • Council of Ministers
  • Diplomatic missions Portal of Bulgaria abroad
  • European Youth Parliament - Bulgaria
  • The Presidential official site
  • Narodno Sabranie - The National Assembly
  • Ministry of Education
  • Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry
  • Ministry of Culture
  • Ministry of Defense
  • Ministry of State Policy for Disasters and Accidents
  • Ministry of Economy and Energy
  • Ministry of Environment and Water
  • Ministry of European Affairs
  • Ministry of Finance
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of Health
  • Ministry of Interior
  • Ministry of Justice
  • Ministry of Labor & Social Policy
  • Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works
  • Ministry of Public Administration
  • Ministry of Transport
  • Ministry of Energy and Energy Resources - apparently cancelled. more official information at this link
  • State Agency for Tourism
  • State Agency for Youth and Sport
  • State Agency for Information Technology and Communications
  • National Radio
  • Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria

English-language Bulgarian media

  • Bulgarian News Agency
  • Radio Bulgaria – the world service of the Bulgarian National Radio
  • Dnevnik News
  • The Bulgarian Post
  • Focus English News
  • Sofia News Agency
  • (Bulgarian) (English) Southeast European Times
  • Standart (daily)
  • The Sofia Echo (weekly)
  • The Frontier Times — Bulgaria's English Language Newspaper (monthly)
  • Bulgaria Info Online Magazine — Free online monthly magazine all about BG

Other

  • Virtual panoramas from Bulgaria - 360 degree photos
  • Bulgarians Abroad - New website for the Bulgarian community abroad
  • Bulgaria at Wikitravel - Travel Guide and tourist information on Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian Folklore (Balkanfolk)
  • Bulgarian Folklore (Eurofolk)
  • CIA World Factbook entry on Bulgaria
  • Free images from bulgaria with high resolution under CC 2.5
  • Bulgarian cities, villages and resorts - Statistical information: population, area size, geo coordinates, distances, postal and phone codes
  • Treasures of the National Library of Bulgaria displayed via The European Library
  • [http://warehousesofneglect.civiblog.org/blog Human rights research, analysis and photographs of Bulgaria's institutions for children and young adults with mental disabilities
  • [http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/bulgarias-children.shtml Documentary by Kate Blewett, depicting the horror of life at Mogilino, a social care home for children in Bulgaria (TrueVision, 2007)
Geographic locale
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