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Encyclopedia > Bukhara
Historic Centre of Bukhara*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Entrance to the Ark fortress.
State Party Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 602
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 1993  (17th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: بُخارا, Buxârâ; Uzbek: Buxoro, Бухоро; Russian: Бухара), from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky place"), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). It has a population of 237,900 (1999 census estimate). Bukhara (along with Samarkand) is one of the two major centres of Uzbekistan's Tajik minority. These two cities, Samarkand and Bukhara, belonged to Persians, especially to eastern part, who are now Tajiks. The city was also known as Bokhara in 19th century English and Buhe/Puhe(捕喝) in Tang Chinese. [1] Bukhara is also home to a large number of Jews, whose ancestors settled in the city during Roman times. The term 'Bukharan Jews' is frequently used to describe the indigenous Jews of Central Asia. Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Image File history File links Early color photograph from Russia, created by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii as part of his work to document the Russian Empire from 1909 to 1915. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Buxoro Province (Bukhara Province) (Uzbek: Buxoro viloyati / Бухоро вилояти) is a viloyat (province) of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision usually translated as province. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Bukharan Jews (Bukhoran Jews, Bukhari Jews) is a blanket term for Jews from Central Asia who speak Bukhori, a dialect of the Persian language. ...

Contents

History

Introduction

Bukhara has been one of the main centres of Iranian civilization during its history. Its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of the Persian history and art. The region of Bukhara was for a long period a part of the Persian Empire. The origin of its inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Iranian Soghdians inhabited the area and some centuries later the Persian language became dominant among them. Encyclopedia Iranica mentions that the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the Soghdian βuxārak.[1] Another possible source of the name Bukhara may be from "Vihara", the Sanskrit word for monastery and may be linked to the pre-Islamic presence of Buddhism (especially strong at the time of the Kushan empire) originating from the Indian sub-continent. Sogdiana, ca. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


The last emir of Bukhara was Muhammad Alim Khan (1880-1944). The Trans-Caspian railway was built through the city in the late 19th century. The historic center of Bukhara has been listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites. It contains numerous mosques and madrassas. Alim Khan (1880-1944), photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii in 1911, using three black-and white images through coloured filters before the invention of colour photography. ... The Trans-Caspian railway (later called the Central Asiatic Railway) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Legends

According to the Iranian epic poem Shahnameh the city was founded by King Siavush son of Shah Kavakhous, one of the mythical Iranian Shahs of the Pishdak Dynasty. As the legend goes Siavush was accused by the Vizers of seducing his mother. To test his innocence he underwent trial by fire. After emerging unscathed from the flames he crossed the Oxus into Turan. The king of Samarkand Afrosiab, gave Siavash his daughter Ferganiza and a vassal kingdom in the Bukhara Oasis. There he built the Ark, and surrounding city. Some years later Siavash was again accused of seducing his father-in-law's wife. Afrasiab killed Siavash, and buried his head under the Haysellers Gate. In retaliation Shah Kavakhous attacked Turan killed Afrasiab, and took his son and daughter-in-law back to Persia. Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

Arq fortress panoramic
Arq fortress panoramic

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1756x1144, 2949 KB) Arq fortress panoramic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1756x1144, 2949 KB) Arq fortress panoramic. ...

Origin

Officially the city was founded in 500 BC in the area now called the Arq. However, the Bukhara oasis had been inhabitated long before, since 3000 BC an advanced Bronze Age culture called the Sapalli Culture thrived at such sites as Varakhsha, Vardan, Paykend, and Ramitan. In 1500 BC a combination of factors; climatic drying, iron technology, and a the arrival of Indo-Iraninan nomads triggered a population shift to the oasis from outlying areas. Together both the Sapalli and Aryan people lived in villages along the shores of a dense lake and wetland area in the Zervashan Fan (the Zervanshan River had ceased draining to the Oxus). By 1000 BC both groups had merged into a distinctive culture. Around 800 BC this new culture called Soghdian flourished in city-states along the Zaravshan Valley. By this time the lake had silted up and small three fortified settlements had been built. By 500 BC these settlements had grown together and were enclosed by a wall, thus Bukhara was born.


Pre-Islamic era

Gold 20-stater of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides (170-145 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. The coin weighs 169.2 grams, and has a diameter of 58 millimeters. It was originally found in Bukhara, and later acquired by Napoleon III. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.
Gold 20-stater of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides (170-145 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. The coin weighs 169.2 grams, and has a diameter of 58 millimeters. It was originally found in Bukhara, and later acquired by Napoleon III. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.

Bukhara entered history in 500 BC as vassal state in the Persian Empire. Later it passed into the hands of the Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, the Greco-Bactrians, and the Kushan Empire. During this time Bukhara functioned as a cult center for the worship of Anahita, and her associated temple economy. Approximately once a lunar cycle, the inhabitants of the Zeravshan Fan exchanged their old idols of the goddess for new ones. The trade festival took place in front of the Mokh Temple. This festival was important in assuring the fertility of land on which all inhabitants of the delta depended. As a result of the trade festivals Bukhara became a center of commerce. As trade picked up along the silk road the already prosperous city of Bukhara then became the logical choice for a market. The silk trade itself created a growth boom in the city which ended around 350 BC. After the fall of the Kushan Empire Bukhara passed into the hands of Hua tribes from Mongolia and entered a steep decline. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (705x683, 890 KB) Gold 20-stater of Eucratides. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (705x683, 890 KB) Gold 20-stater of Eucratides. ... The stater was an ancient coin of Greek or Lydian origin which circulated from about 500 BC to 50 AD. It was also heavily used by Celtic tribes. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... King Eucratides (171-145 BC) Obv: Bust of Eucratides. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Uar, Chinese: ; pinyin: Huá (for Chinese etymology see Huá (滑)), was the self designation used by the dominant ethnicity in a confederation known to the Chinese as the Yanda (嚈噠) and to the west as the Hephthalites. ...


Prior to the Arabic Invasion Bukhara was a stronghold for followers of the Zurvanite Heresy, as well as the two other persecuted religious movements within the theocratic Sassanian Empire, Manicheanism and Chaldean Christianity[citation needed]. When the Islamic armies arrived in 650 AD, they found a multiethnic, multireligious and decentralized collection of petty feudal principalities[citation needed]. The lack of any central power meant that while the Arabs could gain an easy victory in battle or raiding they could never hold territory in central Asia. In fact Bukhara along with other cities in the Sogdian federation played the Caliphate against the Tang Empire. The Arabs did not truly conquer Bukhara until after the Battle of Talas in 751 AD. Islam became the dominant religion at this time and remains the dominant religion to the present day. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... The Chaldean Catholic Church aka the Chaldean Church of Babylon (Arabic: ‎, ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris (autonomous) particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Islamic era

Alim Khan (1880-1944), last emir of Bukhara
Alim Khan (1880-1944), last emir of Bukhara

Many prominent people lived in Bukhara during the Islamic era. For a century after the Battle of Talas, Islam slowly took root in Bukhara. In 850 AD Bukhrara became the capital of the Persian Muslim Samanid Empire. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became the intellectual center of the Islamic world and therefore, at that time, of the world itself. Many illustrious scholars penned their treaties here. The most prominent Islamic scholar known as Imam al-Bukhari, who gathered most authentic sayings (hadithes) of Prophet Muhammad was born in this city. The city was also a center of Sufi Islam, most notably the Naqshbandi Order. In 999 AD the Samanids were toppled by the Karakhanid Uyghurs. Later Bukhara bacame part of the kingdom of Khorezmshakhs, who fueled anger of Monghols by killing their ambassador, and in 1220 the city was leveled by Genghis Khan. The city slowly recovered and was part of first the Chaghatay Khanate, then the Timurid Empire. It next became the capital of the Khanate of Bukhara and later the Emirate of Bukhara which lasted until 1920, though it was a Russian protectorate for much of this time. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3307x2859, 6732 KB) punk Other versions This is a lossy-compressed version of Image:Prokudin-Gorskii-19-v2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3307x2859, 6732 KB) punk Other versions This is a lossy-compressed version of Image:Prokudin-Gorskii-19-v2. ... Alim Khan (1880-1944), photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii in 1911, using three black-and white images through coloured filters before the invention of colour photography. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Sufi orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... the karakhanids are one of the uighur kingdoom with capital called kahgar(uighur autonomous rigion) ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese:维吾尔 or 維吾爾 ; in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Khanate of Bukhara was a feudal state in Central Asia during the 16th–18th centuries. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ...


Bukhara – the center of enlightenment in the East

Mir-i Arab madrasah

Many prominent people lived in Bukhara in the past. Most famous of them are: Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari (810-870); Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037) - physician and person of encyclopedic knowledge; Balyami and Narshakhi (10th century) - the outstanding historians; al-Utobi (11th century); Ismatallah Bukhari (1365-1426) - the illustrious poet; Mualan Abd al-Khakim (16 century) - the renowned physician; Karri Rakhmatallah Bukhari (died in 1893) - the specialist in study of literature; Mirza Abd al-Aziz Bukhari (the end the 18th century - the beginning of the 19th century) - the calligrapher. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 3141 KB) Description Miri Arab madressah in Bukhara. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 3141 KB) Description Miri Arab madressah in Bukhara. ... For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... Avicenna (latinized from Arab Ibn Sina; full name Abū ‘Alī al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā al-Balkhī; Persian: ‎ ; arabicized ; born 980, dead 1037) was a Persian [2][3] physician, philosopher, and a scientist. ...


At the third decade of 16-th century Bukhara became a capital of the Bukhara khanate, under the government of Shaybanid dynasty. The whole period when this dynasty was in power is about one century since the beginning of 16-th century. The Shaybanid carried out many reforms during this time. In particular they instituted a number of measures to better system of the public education. Each neighborhood - "mahalla" unit of local self-government - of Bukhara had a hedge-school. Prosperous families provided home education to their children. Children started elementary education from six years. After two years they could be taken to madrasah. The course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps in sevens years. Hence, whole course of education in madrasah lasted 21 years. The pupils studied theological sciences, arithmetic, jurisprudence, logic, music and poetry. Such way of education had a positive influence upon development and wide circulation of the Uzbek language, and also on development of literature, science, art and skills. Khanate of Bukhara was a feudal state in Central Asia during the 16th–18th centuries. ... The Shaybanid dynasty was a 16th century Uzbek dynasty founded by Muhammad Shaybani. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


To that period of Bukhara history belong the new books on history and geography - such as "Haft iqlīm" - "Seven Climates" by Amin Akhmed Razi, a native of Iran. Bukhara of 16-th century was the centre of attraction for skilled craftsman of calligraphy and miniature-paintings, such experts were Sultan Ah Maskhadi, Makhmud ibn Iskhak ash-Shakhibi, the theoretician in calligraphy dervish Mukhammad Buklian, Maulyan Makhmud Muzakhkhib, Jelaleddin Yusuf. Among famous poets and theologians who worked in Bukara of that time were Mushfiki, Nizami Muamaya, Muhammad Amin Zakhid. Maulan Abd-al Khakim was the most famous of many physicians who practiced in Bikhara and Khanate in 16-th century. Amin Razi (Amīn Rāzī) 16th century persian geographer, author of an encyclopedia called haft iqlīm (seven climes) Categories: Stub ...


At the time of government of Abd al-Aziz-khan (1533-1550) he established the library "having no equal" the world over. The prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there since 1540. The gifted calligrapher, Mir Abid Khusaini, well-wielded mast-a liq and raikham handwritings, who was also brilliant miniature-painter and master of encrustation was the librarian (kitabdar) of Bukhara library. This information is contained in the anthology "Muzakhir al-Akhbab" of Khasan Nisari.


In 19th century, Bukhara still played a significant part in regional cultural and religious life, as Demezon testified in 1833-34. He wrote, "The madrasahs in Bukhara are famed throughout Turkestan. Students come here from Khiva, Kokand, Gissar and even from Samarkand and also from many Tatar regions ... There are about 60 madrasahs in Bukhara that are more or less successful."


Modern era

Bukhara entered the modern period as a colonial aqusition of the Russian Empire. It became a chess piece in the Great Game between Russia and Britain. It was briefly independent during the communist revolution before finally being folded into the Soviet Union. Following the formation of the Soviet Union, the Tajiks, who were then part of the Uzbekistan province, pushed for independence. The Russians, who supported the Uzbeks over Tajiks, gave the traditionally and linguistically Iranic cities of Bukhara and Samarkand to Uzbekistan. Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples Tājīk (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Major sights

Po-i Kalyan Complex

The Kalyan minaret

The title Po-i-Kalyan (also Poi Kalyan), which means "The foot of the Great", belongs to the architectural complex located at the foot of the great minaret Kalyan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1144x1756, 2923 KB) The Kalon minaret. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1144x1756, 2923 KB) The Kalon minaret. ... Minarets (Arabic manara منارة, but more usually مئذنة) are distinctive architectural features of Islamic mosques. ...

  • Kalyan minaret. The minaret made in the form of a circular-pillar brick tower, narrowing upwards, of 9 meters (29.53 feet) diameter at the bottom, 6 meters (19.69 feet) overhead and 45.6 meters (149.61 feet) high.
  • Kalyan Mosque (Maedjid-i kalyan), arguably completed in 1514, is equal with Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Samarkand in size. Although they are of the same type of building, they are absolutely different in terms of art of building.
  • Mir-i Arab Madrassah. There is little known about the Mir-i Arab Madrasah origin. The construction of Mir-i-Arab Madrasah is ascribed to Sheikh Abdullah Yamani of Yemen, the spiritual mentor of early Shaybanids. He was in charge of donations of UbaidUllah-khan (gov. 1533-1539), devoted to construction of madrasah.
Samanids mausoleum (between 892 and 943)
Samanids mausoleum (between 892 and 943)

The cupola of the main chamber is raised up to 40 m. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2933 KB) Description Samanid mausoleum (between 892 and 943) in Bukhara. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1144x1756, 2933 KB) Description Samanid mausoleum (between 892 and 943) in Bukhara. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ...

Ismail Samani mausoleum

The Ismail Samani mausoleum (9th-10th century), one of the most esteemed sights of Central Asian architecture, was built in the 9th century (between 892 and 943) as the resting-place of Ismail Samani - the founder of the Samanid dynasty, the last Persian dynasty to rule in Central Asia, which held the city in the 9th and 10th centuries. Although in the first instance the Samanids were Governors of Khorasan and Ma wara'u'n-nahr under the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate, the dynasty soon established virtual independence from Baghdad. Ismail Samani mausoleum in Bukhara. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Statue of Ismail Samani in Dushanbe, Tajikistan Ismail ibn Ahmad (d. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Chashma-Ayub

Chashma-Ayub is located near the Samani mausoleum. Its name means Job's well due to the legend according to which Job (Ayub) visited this place and made a well by the blow of his staff. The water of this well is still pure and is considered healing. The current building was constructed during the reign of Timur and features a Khwarezm-style conical dome uncommon in Bukhara. William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405...


Lyab-i Hauz

Phoenix on the portal of Nadir Divan-Beghi madrasah (part of Lyab-i Hauz complex)
Phoenix on the portal of Nadir Divan-Beghi madrasah (part of Lyab-i Hauz complex)

The Lyab-i Khauz Ensemble (1568-1622) is the title given to the area surrounding one of the few remaining Hauz or ponds surviving in the city of Bukhara. Until the Soviet period there were many such ponds, which were the city's principal source of water, but they were notorious for spreading disease and were mostly filled in during the 1920s and 30s. The Lyab-i Hauz survived because it is the centrepiece of a magnificent architectural ensemble, created during the 16th and 17th centuries, which has not been significantly changed since. The Lyab-i Hauz ensemble consists of the Kukeldash madrasah (1568-1569) (see picture), the largest in the city, and of two religious edifices built by Nadir Divan-Begi: A Khanaka (1620) (see picture) - a Khanaka is a lodging-house for itinerant Sufis - and a Madrasah (1622) (see picture) that stand at right angles to each other. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Cc-sa-by-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Cc-sa-by-2. ... At the pond. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


See also a total list of Bukhara sights.


Transportation

Bukhara Airport Bukhara Airport (IATA: BHK, ICAO: UTSB) is an airport located in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. ...


Bukhara in poetry and literature

Being a cultural magnet, Bukhara has long appeared in much local and Persian literature. Many examples can be sought. Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...


ای بخارا شاد باش و دیر زی
Oh Bukhara! Joy to you and live long!
شاه زی تو میهمان آید همی
Your King comes to you in ceremony.
---Rudaki Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ...


Dehkhoda for defines the name Bukhara itself as meaning "full of knowledge", referring to the fact that in antiquity, Bukhara was a scientific and scholarship powerhouse. Rumi verifies this when he praises the city as such: Ali Akbar Dekhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ...


آن بخارا معدن دانش بود
"Bukhara was a mine of knowledge,
پس بخاراییست هرک آنش بود
Of Bukhara is he who possesses knowledge."


Notable People born in Bukhara

This article needs cleanup. ... Zamakhshari [Abu-1 Qasim Mahmud ibn Umar uz-Zamakhshari] (1070 (?)-1143) was a Persian learned man of medieval times. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ... Abdulatif Kiromi Bukhoroi (Tajik/Persian: Кироми Бухороӣ/کرام بخارائی) one of the poets of Tajik literature in the 18th century. ... An Lushan (Simplified Chinese: 安禄山; Pinyin: ) (703 - 757) was a military leader of Sogdian origin during the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Oksana Aleksandrovna Chusovitina (Russian:Оксана Александровна Чусовитина)(born June 19, 1975, Bukhara, Uzbek SSR) is an Uzbek (and former Soviet) gymnast. ...

Sister cities

These cities were major cities of Greater Khorasan: Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ...

Other cities: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Free-blown, wheel-cut carafes. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: The City Different Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Santa Fe Founded 1607  - Mayor David Coss Area    - City  37. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Rueil-Malmaison is a French town near Paris, part of the Hauts-de-Seine département and within the Parisian conurbation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... See Córdoba for other places with the same name. ...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University, p.512
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bukhara
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Dmitriy Page. Bukhara - the center of enlightenment in the East
  • Bukhara hotel Our hotel is located in centre of the ancient city Bukhara. Beside us you make magic journey in past . We will meet you with well known Eastern hospitality and high-level service

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... William Moorcroft (c. ... George Trebeck (1800-1825) ...was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800. ...

Views of Bukhara

Coordinates: 39°46′N, 64°26′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bukhara Hotels - Reservation of Suggested Hotels in Bukhara (253 words)
Privately owned Hotel Sasha and Son is one of the first and experienced hotels in Bukhara.
Minzifa INN Boutique hotel is one of the best private hotels in Bukhara with great service and accommodation.
All rooms are decorated in traditional Bukhara design and has hand made furniture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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