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Encyclopedia > Building material
Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor
Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor

Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. See this outside definition. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific speciality trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work. This reference deals with habitats and structures including homes. Download high resolution version (1200x764, 875 KB)Installing rebar in a concrete floor during a pour Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:07, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Download high resolution version (1200x764, 875 KB)Installing rebar in a concrete floor during a pour Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:07, Dec 24, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... This article is about the construction material. ... A tied rebar beam cage. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A carpenter is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry -- a wide range of woodworking that includes constructing buildings, furniture, and other large objects out of wood. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... The term habitat comes from ecology, and includes many interrelated features, especially the immediate physical environment, the urban environment or the social environment. ... This article is about building architecture. ...

Contents

Natural materials

Mud, rocks, and small plants are used as the most basic building materials, aside from tents made of flexible materials such as cloth or leather. People all over the world have used these three materials together to create homes to suit their local weather conditions. In general stone and brush are used as basic structural components in these buildings, while mud is used to fill in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and insulation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some examples are the wattle and daub mostly used as permanent housing in tropical countries or as summer structures by ancient northern peoples. Categories: Stub | Construction ...


Mud and clay

The amount of each material used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay usually mean using the cob/adobe style, while low clay soil is usually associated with sod building. The other main ingredients include more or less sand/gravel and straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand, now forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used. Rammed earth walls form part of the entrance building for the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ... Look up Plank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plato spoke of forms (sometimes capitalized: The Forms) in formulating his solution to the problem of universals. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Pneumatics, from the Greek πνευματικός (pneumatikos, coming from the wind) is the use of pressurized air in science and technology. ...


Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone. Earthen walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources then in say a wood built house, but the heat/coolness stays longer. Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ...


Peoples building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe, resulted in homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale. Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years. Cob building dated 1539 in Devon, England. ... Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ... Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ...


Rock

Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock through out the world all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too, its main draw-back as a material is its weight and awkwardness. Its energy density is also considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm with out using large amounts of heating resources. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 809 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 809 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Mont-Saint-Michel: sheep graze on the reclaimed pr -sal or salt meadow (2004) Mont Saint Michel is a small rocky islet, roughly one kilometer from the north coast of France at the mouth of the Couesnon River, near Avranches in Normandy, close to the border of Brittany. ... Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass, depending on the context. ...


Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another. Eventually different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now. It has been suggested that Rock fence be merged into this article or section. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ...


The granite-strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers. Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today. Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period (see Dartmoor longhouse) and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... High Willhays, the highest point on Dartmoor and southern England at 621 m (2037 ft) above sea level, with Yes Tor beyond. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Dartmoor longhouse is a type of traditional home, found on the high ground of Dartmoor, in the south west of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... For automobile roofs, see Sunroof. ...


Mostly stone buildings can be seen in most major cities, some civilisations built entirely with stone such as the Pyramids in Egypt, the Aztec pyramids and the remains of the Inca civilisation. Rock redirects here. ... This is about the polyhedron. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


Thatch

Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested. Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses year round. In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favour as industrialisation and improved transport improved the availability of other materials. Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival. In the Netherlands, for instance, many of new builds too have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top. Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Brush

Toda tribe hut
Toda tribe hut

Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and are generally found in tropical areas, such as rainforests, where very large leaves can be used in the building. Native Americans often built brush structures for resting and living in, too. These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver's lodge. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 648 KB) The hut of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 648 KB) The hut of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. ... For other uses, see Brush (disambiguation). ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... Apache wickiup A wickiup (or wikiup) is domed hut-like dwelling used by the semi-nomadic Native American tribes of the arid regions of the west and southwest North America, such as Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Idaho, California, and northern Mexico. ...


Ice

Ice was used by the Inuit for igloos, but has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern areas that might not otherwise see many winter tourists. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit, but in English commonly igloos), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ... Absolut Icebar in Jukkasjärvi, Sweden (December, 2005). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Wood

Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fiberous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species. This means specific species are better for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ... In biology growth is increase in size. ...


Historically, wood for building large structures was used in its unprocessed form as logs. The trees were just cut to the needed length, sometimes stripped of bark, and then notched or lashed in to place. A lashing is the use of a rope, that has been affixed by means of a hitch, for the purpose of holding two poles, staves or other rigid objects together. ...


In earlier times, and in some parts of the world, many country homes or communities had a personal wood-lot from which the family or community would grow and harvest trees to build with. These lots would be tended to like a garden.


With the invention of mechanizing saws came the mass production of dimensional lumber. This made buildings quicker to put up and more uniform. Thus the modern western style home was made. Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Brick and Block

Brick and timber construction
Brick and timber construction

A brick is a block made of kiln-fired material, usually clay or shale, but also may be of lower quality mud, etc. Clay bricks are formed in a moulding (the soft mud method), or in commercial manufacture more frequently by extruding clay through a die and then wire-cutting them to the proper size (the stiff mud process). For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Look up die in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Bricks were very popular as a building material in the 1700, 1800 and 1900s. This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever crowding cities, and fairly cheap to produce.


Another type of block replaced clay bricks in the late 20th century. It was the Cinder block. Made mostly with concrete. A stack of rectangular cinder blocks A cinder block (also mistakenly called a concrete block), breeze block, or Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU), is a rectangular block or brick used in construction. ...


Concrete

Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate (composite) and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete is Portland cement concrete, which consists of mineral aggregate (generally gravel and sand), portland cement and water. After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. When used in the generic sense, this is the material referred to by the term concrete. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (2315 × 1644 pixel, file size: 882 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil engineering History of the British... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (2315 × 1644 pixel, file size: 882 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil engineering History of the British... The Falkirk Wheel The Falkirk Wheel, named after the nearby town of Falkirk in central Scotland, is a rotating boat lift connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal. ... This article is about the construction material. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... In chemistry, hydration is the condition of being combined with water. ...


For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a rather low tensile strength, it is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars (known as rebars). This strengthened concrete is then referred to as reinforced concrete. In order to minimise any air bubbles, that would weaken the structure, a vibrator is used to eliminate any air that has been entrained when the liquid concrete mix is poured around the ironwork. Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern age. Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... A tied rebar beam cage. ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ...


Metal

Metal is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering. There are many types of metals used for building. Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, and is the usual choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and if refined well and/or treated lasts a long time. Corrosion is metal's prime enemy when it comes to longevity. A photograph of MITs Stata Center. ... A photograph of MITs Stata Center. ... Stata Center Building 32 at Night View from a window The Ray and Maria Stata Center is a 430,000-ft² (40,000 m²) academic complex designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Frank Gehry for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


The lower density and better corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys and tin sometimes overcome their greater cost. Brass was more common in the past, but is usually restricted to specific uses or specialty items today. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... In economics, business, and accounting, a cost is the value of inputs that have been used up to produce something, and hence are not available for use anymore. ... Brazen redirects here. ...


Metal figures quite prominently in prefabricated structures such as the Quonset hut, and can be seen used in most cosmopolitan cities. It requires a great deal of human labor to produce metal, especially in the large amounts needed for the building industries. Prefabrication is the practice of manufacturing the parts of an assembly in one location, ready for them to be assembled in another place. ... A typical Quonset hut A Quonset hut is a lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated steel having a semicircular cross section. ...


Other metals used include titanium, chrome, gold, silver. Titanium can be used for structural purposes, but it is much more expensive than steel. Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration, because these materials are expensive and lack structural qualities such as tensile strength or hardness. General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Bright chrome is often used as a decorative feature on consumer products such as cars. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Glass

British Museum Great Court
British Museum Great Court

Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, and is very brittle. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1557, 536 KB) The Great Court of the British Museum, with the new tessellated roof designed by w:Foster and Partners arching around the original, circular, Reading Room of the British Library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1557, 536 KB) The Great Court of the British Museum, with the new tessellated roof designed by w:Foster and Partners arching around the original, circular, Reading Room of the British Library. ...


Modern glass "curtain walls" can be used to cover the entire facade of a building. Glass can also be used to span over a wide roof structure in a "space frame". Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ... Simplified space frame roof with the half-octahedron highlighted in blue A space frame is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. ...


Ceramics

Ceramics are such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures or coverings in buildings. Ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings. Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings. This article is about ceramic materials. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... In the law of real property, fixtures are anything that would otherwise be a chattel that have, by reason of incorporation or affixation, become permanently attached to the real property. ...


Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns, but it has evolved into more technical areas.


Plastic

Plastic pipes penetrating a concrete floor in a Canadian highrise apartment building
Plastic pipes penetrating a concrete floor in a Canadian highrise apartment building

The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. Their name is derived from the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity. Plastics vary immensely in heat tolerance, hardness, and resiliency. Combined with this adaptability, the general uniformity of composition and lightness of plastics ensures their use in almost all industrial applications today. PIPE can refer to PIPE (explosive) PIPE Networks Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) Physical Interface for PCI Express (PIPE) For other meanings, see also pipe. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ...


Fabric

The tent used to be the home of choice among nomadic groups. Two well known types include the conical teepee and the circular yurt. It has been revived as a major construction technique with the development of tensile architecture. Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric membranes, and supported by a system of steel cables or internal air pressure. Categories: Stub | Buildings and structures | Survival skills ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... Tensile architecture is a relatively new field of architecture devoted to lightweight membrane structures. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Air pressure can refer to: Atmospheric pressure, the pressure of air environmentally Pressure of air in a system Category: ...


Foam

Foamed plastic sheet to be used as backing for firestop mortar at CIBC bank in Toronto.
Foamed plastic sheet to be used as backing for firestop mortar at CIBC bank in Toronto.

More recently synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale. It is light weight, easily shaped and an excellent insulator. It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. Firestop mortar, starts as a powder, is mixed with water, forms cement stone, dries hard, is often leavened with lightweight aggregates, such as perlite or vermiculite and pigmented to distinguish it from generic materials in an effort to prevent unlawful substitution and to enable verification of bounding. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Structural insulated panels (or structural insulating panels), SIPs, are a composite building material. ...


Wood cement composites

Wood-Cement Compatibility


Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products are made of hydrated cement paste that binds wood or alike particles or fibres to make pre-cast building components. Wood and natural fibres are composed of various soluble organic compounds like carbohydrates, glycosides and phenolics. These compounds are known to retard cement setting. Therefore, before using a wood in making cement boned composites, its compatibility with cement is assessed.


Wood-cement compatibility is the ratio of a parameter related to the value of property of a wood-cement composite to that of a neat cement paste. The compatibility is often expressed as a percentage value. To determine wood-cement compatibility, methods based on different properties are used, such as, hydration characteristics, strength, interfacial bond and morphology. Various methods are used by researchers such as the measurement of hydration characteristics of a cement-aggregate mix [1-3]; the comparison of the mechanical properties of cement-aggregate mixes [4-5] and the visual assessment of microstructural properties of the wood-cement mixes [6]. It has been found that the hydration test by measuring the change in hydration temperature with time is the most convenient method. Recently, Karade et al. [7] have reviewed these methods of compatibility assessment and suggested a method based on the ‘maturity concept’ i.e. taking in consideration both time and temperature of cement hydration reaction.


References
1. Sandermann, W. and Kohler, R. (1964) Studies on mineral-bonded wood materials. IV. A short test of the aptitudes of woods for cement-bonded materials. Holzforschung 18, 53:59.
2. Weatherwax, R.C. and Tarkow, H. (1964) Effect of wood on setting of Portland cement. For. Prod. J. 14(12), 567-570.
3. Hachmi, M., Moslemi, A.A. and Campbell, A.G. (1990) A new technique to classify the compatibility of wood with cement. Wood Sci. Technol. 24(4), 345-354.
4. Hong, Z. and Lee, A.W.C. (1986) Compressive strength of cylindrical samples as an indicator of wood- cement compatibility. For. Prod. J. 36(11/12), 87-90.
5. Demirbas, A. and Aslan, A. (1998) Effects of ground hazelnut shell, wood and tea waste on the mechanical properties of cement. Cement Concrete Res. 28(8), 1101-1104.
6. Ahn, W.Y. and Moslemi, A.A. (1980) SEM examination of wood-Portland cement bonds. Wood Sci .13(2), 77-82.
7. Karade SR, Irle M, Maher K (2003) Assessment of wood-cement compatibility: A new approach. Holzforschung, 57: 672-680.


Virtual materials

Main article: Materiality (architecture)

Certain materials like photographs, images, text may be considered virtual. While, they usually exist on a substrate of natural material themselves, they acquire a different quality of salience to natural materials through the process of representation. Materiality in architecture is the concept of, or applied use of various materials or substances in the medium of building. ... A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ... Image of the Wikimedia Commons logo. ... Look up text in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up substrate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Because too much data can cause “cognitive clutter”, individuals need a system to enable them to rank available data in terms of its immediate importance. ... Most generally, a representation is a performing of selected functions or roles of another physical or abstract object/person/organization in predefined circumstances and it is based on the consensus of the group/community involved. ...


See also

Materiality in architecture is the concept of, or applied use of various materials or substances in the medium of building. ... < Category:Materials Building materials used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures. ... Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The UL Mark Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The UL Mark Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ...

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