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Encyclopedia > Bugis
Bugis
Left to right: Raja Haji of Selangor, Jusuf Kalla, Indonesian vice president, and B.J. Habibie, former Indonesian president.
Total population

5.0 million (2000 census) Original Bugis Street, presently located within Bugis Junction. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jusuf Kalla Jusuf Kalla (born Watampone, South Sulawesi; May 15, 1942) is the current Vice President of Indonesia. ... Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (born June 25, 1936), more commonly known simply as Rudy Habibie or B J Habibie, was the third President of Indonesia, holding office from 1998 to 1999. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

Regions with significant populations
South Sulawesi (Indonesia): 3.4 million
East Kalimantan (Indonesia): 0.4 million
Malaysia:728,465 a
Singapore
Language(s)
Bugis, Indonesian, Malay
Religion(s)
Islam, animism
Footnotes
a An estimated 3,500,000 claim Bugis descent.

The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest island. Although many Bugis live in the large port cities of Makassar and Parepare, the majority are farmers who grow wet rice on the lowland plains to the north and west of the town of Maros. The name Bugis is an exonym which represents an older form of the name; (To) Ugi is the endonym. Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. ... Buginese (locally Basa Ugi, elsewhere also Bahasa Bugis, Bugis, Bugi, De) is the language spoken by about four million people mainly in the southern part of Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Location of Makassar in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Indonesia Province South Sulawesi Government  - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin Area  - City 175. ... Pare-pare is a city and regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, located on the southwest coast of Sulawesi, about 155 km (95 miles) north of the provincial capital of Makassar. ... The MureÅŸ (Romanian) or Maros (Hungarian) is an approximately 725 km long river, rising in the Giurgeu Range in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania. ...


The Bugis speak a distinct regional language in addition to Indonesian, called Basa Ugi, Bugis or Buginese. In reality, there are a several dialects, some of which are sufficiently different from others to be considered separate languages. Bugis belongs to the South Sulawesi language group; other members include Makasar, Toraja, Mandar and Enrekang, each being a series of dialects.[1] Buginese (locally Basa Ugi, elsewhere also Bahasa Bugis, Bugis, Bugi, De) is the language spoken by about four million people mainly in the southern part of Sulawesi, Indonesia. ...


In historical European literature, the Bugis have a reputation for being fierce, war-like, and industrious. Honor, status, and rank are of great importance to the Bugis. They are a self-sufficient people who have a positive self-image and are very confident of their own abilities. As the most numerous group in the region (more than 5 million), they have had considerable influence on their neighbors.

Contents

History

The homeland of the Bugis is the area around Lake Tempe and Lake Sidenreng in the Walennae Depression in the southwest peninsula. It was here that the ancestors of the present-day Bugis settled, probably in the mid- to late second millennium BC. The area is rich in fish and wildlife and the annual fluctuation of Lake Tempe (a reservoir lake for the Bila and Walennae rivers) allows speculative planting of wet rice, while the hills can be farmed by swidden or shifting cultivation. The Bugis were organized into small chiefdoms, with economies based on a mixture of shifting cultivation, wet rice, gathering and hunting. Around AD 1200 the availability of prestigious imported goods including Chinese and Southeast Asian ceramics and Gujerati print-block textiles, coupled with newly discovered sources of iron ore in Luwu stimulated an agrarian revolution which expanded from the great lakes region into the lowland plains to the east, south and west of the Walennae depression. This led over the next 400 years to the development of the major kingdoms of South Sulawesi, and the social transformation of chiefly societies into hierarchical proto-states.[2] Lake Tempe (Indonesian: Danau Tempe) is a lake in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... The Kingdom of Luwu (also Luwuq or Wareq) is the oldest kingdom in South Sulawesi. ...


Present Lifestyle

Most present-day Bugis now earn their living as rice farmers, traders or fishermen. Women help with the agricultural cycle and work in the homes. Some women still weave the silk sarongs worn on festive occasions by men and women. The term Trader can refer to: In economics, a merchant, a retail business or one who attempts to generally buy wholesale and sell later at a profit In finance, someone who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds and derivatives - see stock trader In marketing, Trader Classified Media... Categories: Stub ... A sarong or sarung is a large sheet of fabric, often wrapped around the waist and worn as a skirt by men and women throughout much of south Asia and southeast Asia, parts of Africa, and on many Pacific islands. ...


Most Bugis live in stilted houses, sometimes three meters (9 feet) or more off the ground, with plank walls and floors. During growing seasons some family members may reside in little huts dispersed among the fields.


Many of the marriages are still arranged by parents and ideally take place between cousins. A newlywed couple often lives with the wife's family for the first few years of their marriage. Divorce is a fairly common occurrence, particularly when the married couple are still in their teens.


The Bugis' diet consists mainly of rice, maize, fish, chicken, vegetables, fruit and coffee. On festive occasions, goat is served as a special dish. Visual and performing arts, such as dance and recitations of epic poetry have largely been replaced by modern entertaiments such as karaoke. For other uses see Karaoke (disambiguation) A karaoke machine Karaoke from Japanese kara, empty or void, and ōkesutora, orchestra) (pronounced IPA: or ; in Japanese IPA: ;  ) is a form of entertainment in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music using a microphone and a PA system. ...


Religion

The Bugis converted from indigenous animistic practices and beliefs to Islam in the early 1600s. A few west coast rulers converted to Christianity in the mid-sixteenth century but failure by the Portuguese at Malacca to provide priests meant that this did not last. By 1611, all the Makasar and Bugis kingdoms had converted to Islam, though pockets of animists (the Bugis To Lotang at Amparita and the Makasar Konjo in Bulukumba persist to this day. Practices originating in the pre-Islamic period also survive, such as ancestor veneration and spirit possession. Though such practice are less inclined to be performed by the current generation as now most are educated in Islam. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ...


The Bugis in the Malay Archipelago

The conclusion in 1669 of a protracted civil war led to a diaspora of Bugis and their entry into the politics of peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The descendants of two families settled on the Linggi and Selangor rivers became the power behind the Johor throne, with the creation of the office of the 'Yang Dipertuan Muda,' or Bugis underking. World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


Sea Exploration

Respected as traders and sailors, and feared occasionally as adventurers and pirates, the seafarers of southern Sulawesi looked outwards, seeking their fortunes throughout the Indonesian archipelago. While trade was the seafarers' main goal, the Makasar, Bajau, and Bugis often set up permanent settlements, either through conquest or diplomacy, and marrying into local societies. However, their reputation as seafarers dates to after 1670; most Bugis were, and are, rice farmers. Traders was a Canadian television drama series, which aired on Global Television Network from 1995 to 2000. ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... Even Soldiers of Fortune have to sing! 1958 record album An adventurer or adventuress is a term that usually takes one of three meanings: One whose travels are unusual and often exotic, though not so unique as to qualify as exploration. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


The Bugis in Northern Australia

Long before European colonialists extended their influence into these waters, the Makasar, the Bajau, and the Bugis built elegant, ocean-going schooners in which they plied the trade routes. Intrepid and doughty, they travelled as far east as the Aru Islands, off New Guinea, where they traded in the skins of birds of paradise and medicinal masoya bark, and to northern Australia, where they exchanged shells, birds'-nests and mother-of-pearl for knives and salt with Aboriginal tribes. The products of the forest and sea that they brought back were avidly sought after in the markets and entrepots of Asia, where the Bugis bartered for opium, silk, cotton, firearms and gunpowder. [citation needed] The Aru Islands (also Aroe Islands or Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about 95 low-lying islands in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ...


The Bugis sailors left their mark and culture on an area of the northern Australian coast which stretches over two thousand kilometers from the Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Throughout these parts of northern Australia, there is much evidence of a significant Bugis presence. There are the remains of Bugis buildings on islands, Bugis words have become part of the Aboriginal languages and Bugis men and their craft feature in the indigenous art of the people of Arnhem Land.[citation needed] < Each year, the Bugis sailors would sail down on the northwestern monsoon in their wooden pinisi. They would stay in Australian waters for several months to trade and take trepang (or dried sea cucumber) before returning to Makassar on the dry season off shore winds. These trading voyages continued until 1907.[citation needed] The Kimberley is one of the nine regions of Western Australia, consisting of the local government areas of Broome, Derby-West Kimberley, Halls Creek and Wyndham-East Kimberley. ... The Gulf of Carpentaria from a 1859 Dutch map The Gulf of Carpentaria The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and Indonesia). ... Arnhem Land is an area of 97,000 km² in the north-eastern corner of the Northern Territory, Australia. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apodacea Apodida Molpadiida Subclass Aspidochirotacea Aspidochirotida Elasipodida Subclass Dendrochirotacea Dactylochirotida Dendrochirotida Wikispecies has information related to: Holothuroidea The sea cucumber is an echinoderm of the class Holothuroidea, with an elongated body and leathery skin, which is found on the sea floor worldwide. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


As Thomas Forrest wrote in Voyage from Calcutta, "The Bugis are a high-spirited people: they will not bear ill-usage...They are fond of adventures, emigration, and capable of undertaking the most dangerous enterprises."


References

  1. ^ Mills, R.F. 1975. Proto South Sulawesi and Proto Austronesian phonology. Ph. D thesis, University of Michigan.
  2. ^ Caldwell, I. 1995. 'Power, state and society among the pre-Islamic Bugis.' Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 151(3): 394-421; Bulbeck, D. and I. Caldwell 2000. Land of iron; The historical archaeology of Luwu and the Cenrana valley. Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.

See also

Indonesia Portal
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bugis.

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Bugis of Sabah, another tribe residing in Sabah, the Bugis, who mainly live on the east coast of Sabah, particularly around the districts of Tawau, Semporna, Kunak and Lahad Datu. ... Indonesias 245 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ...

External links

  • The history of Bugis and Makassarese

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