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Encyclopedia > Budjak
The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi.
The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi.

Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now included in the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. It is a multiethnic region lying along the Black Sea between the Danube and Dniester rivers. The region is bordered in the north and east by Moldova, in the south by Romania, and is connected to the rest of Ukraine by two bridges. The more northerly of the two connections passes for 7.4 km through the territory of Moldova, but is Ukrainian-controlled by an agreement between the two countries. Image File history File links Belgorod_ua. ... Image File history File links Belgorod_ua. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: , translit. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1987). ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ...

Contents

Name and geography

Budjak is a smaller, southeastern steppe region of the former province of Bessarabia which was centered between the rivers Prut (to the west) and Dniester (to the east), and bordered by Trajan's Wall at its north end, while the Danube river and Black Sea formed the southern border. Unlike Bessarabia, Budjak does not extend into the foothills of the eastern Carpathian Mountains to its northwest, in the present-day nation of Moldova. A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Trajans Wall (Valul lui Traian in Romanian) is a complex of three valla in south-central Dobruja, extending from the Danube to the Black Sea coast. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ...


The name Budjak was given during the Ottoman domination of the area (1484-1812) and derives from the Turkish word bucak, meaning "corner" or "triangle", referring roughly to the land between what was then Akkerman (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi), Bender (now Tighina), and Ismail. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ...


After 1812, the term Bessarabia came to apply to all of Moldavia east of the Prut River. Consequently, Budjak is sometimes referred to as "Southern Bessarabia". Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) is a geographical and historical region in north-eastern Romania. ...


Besides Southern Bessarabia, other descriptive terms that have been applied to the region include Bulgarian Bessarabia (Ukrainian: Болгарська Бессарабія, translit. Bolhars'ka Bessarabiia), Akkermanshchyna (Ukrainian: Аккерманщина), and Western Odessa Oblast (Ukrainian: Західнa Одещина, translit. Zakhidna Odeshchyna). Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ...


The area has been termed variously in the English language, including Budjak, Budzhak, Bujak, Buchak, and even Budziac Tartary. In the Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Russian languages, the area is referred to as Budzhak (Cyrillic: Буджак, IPA: [ˈbudʒak]). In the Romanian language, it is referred to as Bugeac, while in Turkish it is Bucak. An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Little Tartary is a historical designation for areas north of the Black Sea under the suzerainty of the Crimean Khanate and inhabited by nomadic Tatars of the Lesser Nogai Horde from the 16th to the 18th centuries. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


History

In antiquity, Budjak was inhabited by Dacians, and partly by Scythians. In 7th, respectively 6th century BC Ancient Greek colonists found two port cities at the mouths of the Danube and Dnister rivers: Licostomo and Tyras [1]. From the time the the Black Sea shore was under the control of the Ancient Greek city-states, Dacian tribes, Scythians, and the Dacian kingdom. Around 2nd century BC, also a Celt tirbe settled at Aliobrix (present day Cartal/Orlovka). Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The river Dniestr (in Polish and Russian; Nistru in Romanian; Дністер, Dnister in Ukrainian; Tyras in Latin; also known as Dniester) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the European people. ...


The Romans acquired the area in the 1st century AD, rebuilt and encamped Tyras and Aliobrix. As with the rest of the port cities around the Black Sea, the local population absorbed a mixture of Greek and Roman cultures, with Greek being mainly the language of trade, and Latin the language of politics. After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the area was included in the East Roman Empire. From 1st century AD, and until the invasion of Avars in 558, the Romans had established cities (poleis), military camps and some stations for the veterans and for the colons (apoikion) sent by the emperors. [2] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Events May 7 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses. ...


The area lay along the predominant route for migratory peoples, as it was the westernmost portion of the Euro-Asian steppe. Going westward, only the banks of the Dniester and Danube rivers were less forested (comparatively to the surrounding areas, which nowadays form Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria), therefore providing a natural route for herdsmen all the way from Mongolia to the Panonian plains (today's Hungary). The region, therefore, passed as a temporary settling ground for Huns (387), Eurasian Avars (558-567), Slavs (end of 6th century), Bulgars under the leader Asparuh (679), Magyars (9th century), Pechenegs (11th century, and again 12th century)), Cumans (12th century) and others. The Euro-Asian Steppe, also known as the Euroasian Steppe or the Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the terms often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Events May 7 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses. ... Events Livva I succeeds Athanagild as king of the Visigoths. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh (d. ... Events Adamnan becomes abbot of the monastery on Iona. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...


Although the Byzantines held nominal suzerainty of the region (at least of the sea shore) until the 14th century, they had little or no sway over the land in the interior. In the early Middle Ages a Tigheci Republic was formed by several Romanian villages occupying the nearby Tigheci hills, in order to offer more security for themselves, while the steppe area between that and the Byzantine port-cities, unsuited for agriculture due to lack of water, and for defense because it was situated astride any invasion route, remained void of permanent settlements. From the 9th to the 12th centuries, the region was at times used by the First Bulgarian Empire, by the Pechenegs, and by the Cumans, who passed through it when they irregularly collected tribute from the Romanian villages. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ...


Contrary to the statements of some historians during the Soviet era, there is no archaeological or written evidence that the region ever belonged to Kievan Rus'. Soviet redirects here. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


After the Mongol invasion of 1241, the rebuilt coastal cities of Budjak (Maurocastron and Licostomo), came under the domination of Genoese traders. In the 1330s, the area came under the rule of Wallachia's princes of the House of Basarab, for whom the region was named Bessarabia and remained so up until the reign of Mircea the Elder of Wallachia. As Roman I of Moldavia secured his eastern border along the Dniester by 1392, Mircea the Elder ceded the area to the Principality of Moldavia, while he retained the most influence in the succession of Moldavian princes at the time. Nogai Tatars, who had settled herds in the region after the 1240s, inhabited the steppe, while Romanians inhabited the surrounding hills and the port cities. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Mircea the Elder Wallachia under Mircea cel Bătrân, c. ... Roman I Roman I was a Prince of Moldavia: December 1391 - March 1392. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ...


In 1484 Stephen the Great of Moldavia was forced to surrender the two main fortresses of Chilia (Kiliya) and Cetatea Albă (Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi) to the Ottoman Empire, the last Black Sea ports to fall into Ottoman hands. In 1538 the Ottomans forced prince Petru Rares of Moldavia to give up the fortress-city Tighina as well. Stephen the Great (Romanian icon) Stephen III of Moldavia, also called Stephen MuÅŸat III (BorzeÅŸti, 1433 – Suceava, 1504-07-02) was a voivod (prince) of Moldova (1457-1504), who won renown in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottoman Empire. ... Kilia may refer to: Kilia, a town in Ukraine Chilia Veche, a town in Tulcea County, Romania Chilia branch, a distributary of the Danube. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Petru IV RareÅŸ (ca. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ...


Under the Ottomans, Cetatea Albă was renamed Akkerman, Tighina was renamed Bender, while Chilia lost importance due to the construction of the Ismail fortress. The same names were retained by the Russian Empire, instead of restoring the cities their pre-Ottoman names. Chilia can mean: Chilia, a branch of the Danube Delta Chilia-, a Greek numerical prefix for 1000 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


Under Ottoman rule, the three major cities each were the center of a sanjak, and were together officially part of Silistra (or Özi) Province (eyalet) although Bender (Tighina) was north of Trajan's Wall and outside of the steppe region. The Nogai Tatar-inhabited steppe, which then acquired the name Budjak, served as a buffer area between these sanjaks and the Principality of Moldavia. Although it was a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, Moldavia was independent in its internal affairs until the start of the Russo-Turkish Wars forced the Ottomans to ensure that the Romanian princes did not switch sides too often. Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ... Silistra Province (Turkish: Silistre Eyaleti), sometimes called Özi Province was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Russo-Turkish War may refer to one of the following conflicts between Imperial Russia and the Ottoman Empire: Russo-Turkish War, 1676-1681 Russo-Turkish War, 1686-1700 Russo-Turkish War, 1710-1711 Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739 Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792 Russo-Turkish...


During the Napoleonic Era, Budjak was overrun by Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812. The 1812 Treaty of Bucharest transferred the portion of Moldavia east of the Prut River, including Budjak, to Russian control. With the Russian annexation, the name Bessarabia began to be applied not only to the original southern region, but to the entire eastern half of historical Moldavia acquired by the Russian Empire, while Budjak was applied to southern Bessarabia, mainly to the steppe. The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Length 953  km Elevation of the source -  m Average discharge -  m³/s Area watershed 27,500  km² Origin  Ukraine Mouth  Danube Basin countries Ukraine, Romania, Moldova The Prut, or Pruth river (Ukrainian: Прут) is 953 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


With Russia's 1856 defeat in the Crimean War, a part of southern Bessarabia including a part of Budjak (Reni, Ismail, Bolgrad, Kilia) was ceded by the Russian Empire back to the Principality of Moldavia, which soon united with Wallachia to form the Kingdom of Romania (personal union: 1859; full union: 1862). Following Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, the Treaty of San Stefano and the Treaty of Berlin recognized the full independence of the new Kingdom of Romania (the principalities that formed it had already been de facto independent for half a century), but transferred the territories subject to the 1856 re-configuration again to the Russian Empire. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Reni is: Alan Wren, drummer for The Stone Roses a city in southern Ukraine, near the confluence of Prut and Danube rivers This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Historical Izmail coat of arms (introduced in 1826) Izmail (Ukrainian: , translit. ... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Болград) is a city in the southwest of Ukraine, at 45°40′N 28°32′E. It is part of the Odessa Oblast and capital of the subordinate Bolhrad District, a district with a Bulgarian majority of 61%. The city was founded in 1821... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... It has been suggested that Moldavia (historical region) be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


After World War I, Budjak, which was part of the Russian province of Bessarabia that voted to join Romania, was administered as parts of Tighina, Ismail and Cetatea Albă counties (judeţe). In 1924, the Budjak was the scene of the Tatarbunary Uprising. This article is becoming very long. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... A judeÅ£ is an administrative division in Romania and was also used for some time in Moldova. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Tatarbunary Uprising (Romanian: Răscoala de la Tatarbunar) was a Bolshevik-inspired peasants revolt that took place in September 15-18, 1924, in and around the town of Tatarbunary (Tatar-Bunar or Tatarbunar) in Budjak (Bessarabia), then part of Romania, and now part of Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. ...


In 1939, the secret appendix to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact assigned Bessarabia to the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence and, in June 1940, the Soviets issued an ultimatum demanding the transfer of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. King Carol II of Romania acquiesced and the area was annexed. Central and northern Bessarabia formed the center of the new Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic but part of the south, now known as Budjak, was apportioned to the Ukrainian SSR. The commission that decided the administrative border between the Ukrainian SSR and Moldavian SSR inside the Soviet Union was chaired by Nikita Khrushchev, the then leader of the Ukrainian SSR. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... The June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum was issued by the Soviet Union to Romania, regarding the Soviet territorial requests. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Ukrainian; Buchenland or Bukowina in German; Bukowina in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Romania and Ukraine. ... Carol II of Romania, (15 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


On 7 August 1940 the Soviets formed Akkerman Oblast, which was administratively subdivided into 13 raions. The city of Akkerman (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) was the center of the oblast. Four months later, on 7 December 1940 the oblast was renamed Izmail Oblast, and the oblast center was moved to the city of Izmail. August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Izmail Oblast (Ukrainian: ) (August 7, 1940—February 15, 1954) was an oblast in the Ukrainian SSR. It had a territory of 12. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Akkerman Oblast be merged into this article or section. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ...


Upon Nazi Germany’s June 1941 declaration of war on the Soviet Union, Romania sided with the Axis Powers and retook the Soviet-occupied territories, including Budjak, but then also continued the war into proper Soviet territory. The area was regained by the Soviets in 1944 and, despite a royal coup by Michael I of Romania that led to Romania joining the Allies in August 1944, was annexed by the Soviets in the 1940 political configuration. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... King Michael I of the Romanians (born October 25, 1921), Prince of Hohenzollern[1][2][3], reigned as King of the Romanians (in Romanian Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor or Majestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor) from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ...


During the administrative reform of Ukrainian SSR, on 15 February 1954, Izmail Oblast was liquidated, and all raions of the oblast were included into Odessa Oblast. By territory, Odessa oblast is now the largest oblast in Ukraine. February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... This is a list of the Ukrainian oblasts and territories, in order of descending area. ...


With the fall of the Soviet Union, each of the fifteen republics that formally had the right to secede became independent, with boundaries preserved as were inside Soviet Union, since the same Soviet Constitution stipulated that they could not be changed without the mutual consent of both republics, and no discussions between the two upon such an issue were ever held. At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted. ...


Budjak is now a part of independent Ukraine.


Subdivisions

Raion subdivision of Budjak territory

Image File history File links Bugcadm. ... Image File history File links Bugcadm. ...

Raions (Districts)

The historical territory of Budjak is now subdivided into the administrative districts (raions) of Ukraine's Odessa Oblast, with raion centers being: A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km...

  • Artsyz (Romanian: Arciz; Russian: Artsiz; Ukrainian: Арциз)
  • Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Russian: Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy or Akkerman; Ukrainian: Білгород-Дністровський)
  • Bolhrad (Romanian Bolgrad, Russian: Bolgrad; Ukrainian: Болград)
  • Izmayil (Romanian: Ismail; Russian: Izmail; Ukrainian: Ізмаїл)
  • Kilia (Romanian: Chilia (-Nouă); Russian Kiliya; Ukrainian: Кілія)
  • Reni (Romanian Reni; Russian: Reni; Ukrainian: Рені)
  • Tarutyne (Romanian: Tarutina; Russian:Tarutino; Ukrainian: Тарутине)
  • Tatarbunary (Romanian: Tatarbunar; Russian: Tatarbunary; Ukrainian: Татарбунари)
  • Sarata (Romanian: Sărata; Russian:Sarata; Ukrainian: Сарата)

Total population of the 9 districts (raions), less that of the two cities, according to the Ukrainian 2001 Census, is 481,000 people. Artsyz (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: ) is a small city in the Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian:Кілія; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province) - in the Budjak informal region. ... Reni is a city with about 20,000 people, located at the south-western tip of Ukraine, in the Budjak region. ... Tarutyne (Ukrainian: ; Bulgarian and Russian: Тарутино Tarutino; Romanian: ; German: ) is an urban-type settlement in southwestern Ukraine. ... Tatarbunary is a town in Ukraine approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) southwest of Odesa, located in the historically-disputed area north of the Danube Delta known as The Dragons Beard. ... Sarata (Romanian: Sărata) is a town in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Bugeac (south-western Odessa Oblast). ...


Cities

  • Izmayil (Romanian: Ismail; Russian: Izmail; Ukrainian: Ізмаїл)
  • Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Russian:Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, Akkerman; Ukrainian: Білгород-Дністровський)

The total population of the two cities, according to the same source, is 136,200 people. Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ...


Ethnic groups and demographics

Ethnic Division of Budjak with yellow represening Ukrainians, red for Russians, purple for Bulgarians, brown for Gagauz, and green and the dark dots indicating Moldovan populated villages, according to the Ukrainian census.

The main ethnic groups in Budjak today are Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Russians, and Moldovans. The region was inhabited by Romanians and Nogai Tatars through the Middle Ages, but became a home to several other ethnicities and religious groups during 19th century Bessarabian Bulgarians, Bessarabian Germans, Gagauzians, Lipovan Russians, who setled in compact areas. Image File history File links Bugeac-etnic. ... Image File history File links Bugeac-etnic. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... Couple with infant The Bessarabia Germans are an ethnic group and part of the Black Sea Germans, who lived in Bessarabia (today part of Moldova and Ukraine) between 1814 and 1940. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of Southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of Southern Bessarabia (Bugeac) that numbers around 250,000. ... Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cercheză in 2004 (photo by Mikhail Evstafiev. ...


Muslim, Turkic-speaking Nogai Tatars inhabited Ottoman-dominated Budjak until the start of the 19th century, but were forced to abandon the region once the Russian Empire got control over the territory. They resettled, variously to the Caucasus, to Dobruja (both in the Romanian and Bulgarian parts), or to modern Turkey. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ...


Budjak was also home to a number of ethnic Germans known as Bessarabian Germans, originally from Württemberg and Prussia, who settled the region in the early 19th century, after it became part of the Russian Empire. A large number of them cultivated the Budjak steppes (see the map[3]), known also as Kronsland. They were deported in the Nazi-Soviet population transfers following the Soviet takeover of Bessarabia in 1940. These "Germans from outside Germany", or Volksdeutsche, were mostly resettled in areas of Nazi Greater Germany, and had to move again at the end of World War II. Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... Couple with infant The Bessarabia Germans are an ethnic group and part of the Black Sea Germans, who lived in Bessarabia (today part of Moldova and Ukraine) between 1814 and 1940. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... The Nazi-Soviet population transfers were a series of population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of Germans from territories occupied by Soviet Union due to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, notably Bessarabia and the Baltic states of Estonia and Latvia, all of which traditionally had large German minorities. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... For information on the military unit see Großdeutschland Division. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Like Moldova, Budjak is home to a small minority of Gagauzes: an Orthodox Christian Turkic people who arrived from eastern Balkans in the early 19th century, and settled part the area vacated by the Nogais. The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Bulgarians of the region are known as Bessarabian Bulgarians, and, like the Gagauzes, are descendants of settlers from the eastern Balkans (today eastern Bulgaria) who moved to the area vacated by the Nogais, in order to escape Muslim domination. The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ...


During the same period, Lipovan Russians settled in the area close to the mouth of the Danube river. Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cercheză in 2004 (photo by Mikhail Evstafiev. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...


Until World War II, the region was also home to a significant number of Jews, a portion of whom were killed in the Holocaust along with other Bessarabian Jews. Still, Jews remained a sizeable minority in several towns, first of all in Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi until mass emigration to Israel in the 1980s and 1990s. Budjak was the only region within the former Russian Empire where a significant number of Sephardic Ladino-speaking Jews could be found as late as the second half of the 19th century. These Sephardim later assimilated with the majority of local Ashkenazic Jewry, but many retained surnames of either Turkic origin or otherwise suggestive of Sephardic descent. “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article is a brief outline of the history of the Bessarabian Jews . ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ...


According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, Budjak has a population of 617,200 people, distributed among the ethnic groups as follows: Ukrainians 248,000 (40%), Bulgarians 129,000 (21%), Russians 124,500 (20%), and Moldovans 78,300 (13%). [4] (See also the table below.) Note, that the total population of the Odessa Oblast is, by the 2001 Ukrainian Census, 2,469,000. The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ...


Although the majority of Russians and Moldovans declared the language of their ethnicity as their mother tongue, only roughly half of Ukrainians did so, while the other half indicated Russian as their native language. These above numbers reflect the declared ethnicity, not the native language.


Bulgarians are the largest ethnic group in the Artsyz (39%), Bolhrad (61%), and Tarutino (38%) districts (raions), Moldovans - in the Reni (50%) district (raion), Russians - in the city of Izmayil (44%), and Ukrainians - in the Kilia (45%), Tatarbunary (71%), Sarata (44%), and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (82%) districts (raions), and in the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi (63%). Artsyz (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. ... The coat of arms of Bolhrad Bolhrad (Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: ) is a small city in the Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine. ... Tarutino may refer to: Tarutino, Russia, a village in Central Russia The Battle of Tarutino in the 1812 French invasion of Russia that occurred near the village The town of Tarutyne, Ukraine, called Tarutino in Russian Category: ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Reni is a city with about 20,000 people, located at the south-western tip of Ukraine, in the Budjak region. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Kilia or Kiliya (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Chilia) is a town in south-western Ukraine, located in the Danube Delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... Tatarbunary is a town in Ukraine approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) southwest of Odesa, located in the historically-disputed area north of the Danube Delta known as The Dragons Beard. ... Sarata (Romanian: Sărata) is a town in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Bugeac (south-western Odessa Oblast). ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: Cetatea Albă; Turkish: Akkerman; Russian: , Belgorod-Dnestrovsky; Hungarian: Nyeszterfehérvár; Italian: Moncastro) is a city in southern Ukraine. ...


In the Izmail raion, 29% of the population is Ukrainian, 28% Moldovan, and 26% Bulgarian. Since the previous census in 1989, its Moldovan population increased by 1% relative to the number of Ukrainian and Bulgarians, although the actual number of Moldovans has decreased in absolute terms, yet at a slower rate than that of Ukrainians, Russians and Bulgarians, probably due to the fact that a portion of the non-Moldovan population of the area were relatively recent arrivals from other regions of the former Soviet Union, and chose to return upon its dissolution. Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the Sarata district (raion), the Moldovan population has increased substantially, by about 54%. This new development is probably due to the suppression of Moldovans during the Soviet era, when they were forced to declare themselves as Russians, rather than Moldovans. Sarata (Romanian: Sărata) is a town in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Bugeac (south-western Odessa Oblast). ...

Ethnic composition of Budjak according to the 2001 Ukrainian census1
Raion (district) or City Total Ukrainians Moldovans Bessarabian Bulgarians Russians Gagauzians Other ethnic groups2 Number of settlements3
Artsyzskyi Raion 51,700 14,200 3,300 20,200 11,500 900 1,600 1+0+17(26)
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion 62,300 51,000 3,900 800 5,500 200 900 0+0+27(57)
Bolhradskyi Raion 75,000 5,700 1,200 45,600 6,000 14,000 2,500 1+0+18(21)
Izmayilskyi Raion 54,700 15,800 15,100 14,100 8,900 200 600 0+1+18(22)
Kiliyskyi Raion 59,800 26,700 9,400 2,600 18,000 2,300 800 1+1+13(17)
Reniyskyi Raion 40,700 7,200 19,900 3,400 6,100 3,200 900 1+0+7(7)
Saratskyi Raion 49,900 21,900 9,400 10,000 7,900 200 500 0+1+22(37)
Tarutynskyi Raion 45 200 11,100 7,500 17,000 6,300 2,700 600 0+4+23(28)
Tatarbunarskyi Raion 41,700 29,700 3,900 4,800 2,700 - 600 1+0+18(35)
city of Izmayil 85,100 32,500 3,700 8,600 37,200 800 2,300 1+0+0(0)
city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi 51,100 32,200 1,000 1,900 14,400 200 1,400 1+2+0(0)
Total 617,2001 248,0001 78,30012 129,0001 124,5001 24,7001 12,7001 7 cities + 9 towns
+ 163 incorporated administrations (250 villages)
= 266 settlements
1 All numbers are averaged to hundreds for each raion and city. The entries of the row "total" contain the sums of the respective entries for each line, hence bears a theoretical margin error of plus/minus 550. Numbers provided by other sourses differ, but fit within this margin of error.
2 The "Others" category includes people who declared themselves as Romanians. For the entire Odessa Oblast (which includes the raions that comprise historic Budjak) 724 people declared themselves as Romanians.[1] For discussion about Moldovan / Romanian identity controversy, see Moldovenism.
3 Certain settlements are called "cities" (7 here). Some of them are called "regional cities" (2 here), and have administrations that are financed and receive directions from the oblast administration. Others are called "raion cities" (5 here), and are component parts of raions. Raions have administrations just like regional cities, only that they consist of mainly rural areas.
Some settlements (9 here) have an intermediate status, between that of a village and that of a city. They are designated in Russian as PGT, which literally means "urban-type settlement" and is often translated as town in English. Villages are incorporated either alone, or as a small group. Here we have 163 incorporations (literarly called selsoviets, "village Soviets"), containing a total of 250 villages. Each raion contains raion towns, PGTs, and village Soviets, and finances and directs their activity.
Unlike other countries, local and regional authorities do not collect taxes. They are considered state institutions of the country at the local level, not institutions of local self-administration.

The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... The Bessarabian Bulgarians (Bulgarian: бесарабски българи, besarabski bâlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia, inhabiting parts of present-day Ukraine (Odessa Oblast) and Moldova. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of Southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of Southern Bessarabia (Bugeac) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Reniyskyi Raion (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is in south-western Ukraine, in the region of Budzhak. ... Tarutynskyi Raion (Ukrainian: ; Bulgarian: ; Russian: ) is a raion (administrative division) in Odessa Oblast in southwestern Ukraine. ... Tatarbunarskyi Raion (Ukrainian: ) is a raion (district) in Odessa Oblast of Ukraine. ... Historical Izmail coat of arms (introduced in 1826) Izmail (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Moldovenism is the official political ideology in Republic of Moldova claiming a distinct identity for the Moldovans from the Romanians. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Urban-type settlement (Russian: , posyolok gorodskogo tipa; Ukrainian: , selyshche miskoho typu; abbreviated as in Russian and as in Ukrainian) is an official designation for a certain type of urban settlements used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union. ... Selsoviet or selsovet (Russian: сельсове́т, short for се́льский сове́т), literally: rural soviet, was the lowest level administrative subdivision, similar to a rural district, in rural areas in the... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ Romania si Ucraina vor monitoriza respectarea drepturilor minoritatilor", Buletin Divers, nr. 25 (265) / 6 iulie 2006

External links

  • (German) Karte deutscher siedlungen in Bessarabien Map of German settlements in Bessarabia in 19th-20th centuries

  Results from FactBites:
 
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (2164 words)
Budjak is a smaller, southeastern steppe region of the former province of Bessarabia which was centered between the rivers Prut (to the west) and Dniester (to the east), and bordered by Trajan's Wall at its north end, while the Danube river and Black Sea formed the southern border.
In antiquity, Budjak was inhabited by Dacians, and partly by Scythians.
Budjak was also home to a number of ethnic Germans known as Bessarabian Germans, originally from Württemberg and Prussia, who settled the region in the early 19th century, after it became part of the Russian Empire.
Budjak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1134 words)
In the antiquity, Budjak was inhabited by Dacians, Scythians, Celts, and, on the shores, by Greeks.
During the Napoleonic Era Budjak was overrun by Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 and Treaty of Bucharest, 1812 transferred Budjak and all of Moldavia east of the Prut River to Russia.
Budjak was also home to a number of Bessarabian Germans originally from Württemberg and Prussia who settled the region in the early 19th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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