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Encyclopedia > Buddhist art

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Buddhism
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Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Dharmic religions
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions). ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli), stong pa nyid (Tibetan), Kuu, 空 (Japanese) qoɣusun (Mongolian), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, as a direct realization of Sunyata is required to achieve liberation from the cycle of... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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Footprint of the Buddha. 1st century, Gandhara.
Footprint of the Buddha. 1st century, Gandhara.

Buddhist art originated on the Indian subcontinent following the historical life of Gautama Buddha, 6th to 5th century BCE, and thereafter evolved by contact with other cultures as it spread throughout Asia and the world. Download high resolution version (459x800, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (459x800, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Media:Example. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


Early Buddhist art, followed the Indian aniconic tradition which avoids direct representation of the human figure. Around the 1st century CE an iconic period emerged lasting to this day which represents the Buddha in human form. Aniconism is the absence of any representations, in a restricted sense those of living or divine beings, and more generally, any type of human substitution. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Buddhist art followed believers as the dharma spread, adapted, and evolved in each new host country. It developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form the Southern branch of Buddhist art. In India, Buddhist art flourished and even influenced the development of Hindu art, until Buddhism nearly disappeared in India around the 10th century due in part to the vigorous expansion of Islam alongside Hinduism. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

Contents

Aniconic phase (5th century - 1st century BCE)

During the 2nd to 1st century BCE, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. These took the form of votive tablets or friezes, usually in relation to the decoration of stupas. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form, but only through some of his symbols. Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ...


This reluctance towards anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, and the sophisticated development of aniconic symbols to avoid it (even in narrative scene where other human figures would appear), seems to be connected to one of the Buddha’s sayings, reported in the Dighanikaya, that disfavored representations of himself after the extinction of his body. This tendency remained as late as the 2nd century CE in the southern parts of India, in the art of the Amaravati school (see: Mara's assault on the Buddha). It has been argued that earlier anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha may have been made of wood and may have perished since then. However, no related archaeological evidence has been found. Buddhist texts come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes. ... Amaravati may refer to: Amaravati (capital), in Hinduism, (అమరావతి) is the capital of Svarga, a temporary paradise where the dead live. ... An aniconic representation of Maras assault on the Buddha, 2nd century CE, Amaravati (India). ...


Iconic phase (1st century CE – present)

Greco-Buddhist head of Buddha, stucco, Hadda Afghanistan, 1st-2nd century CE.

Anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha started to emerge from the 1st century CE in northern India. The two main centers of creation have been identified as Gandhara in today’s Punjab, in Pakistan, and the region of Mathura, in central northern India. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 1386 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Greco-Buddhist head of Buddha from Hadda Tête de Bouddha dans le style gréco-bouddhiste provenant du site de Hadda Unrestricted use give by... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1062 × 1386 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Greco-Buddhist head of Buddha from Hadda Tête de Bouddha dans le style gréco-bouddhiste provenant du site de Hadda Unrestricted use give by... Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Græco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 800 years in Central Asia in the area corresponding to modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the 4th century BCE and the 5th... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The art of Gandhara benefited from centuries of interaction with Greek culture since the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BCE and the subsequent establishment of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms, leading to the development of Greco-Buddhist art. Gandharan Buddhist sculpture displays Greek artistic influence, and it has been suggested that the concept of the “man-god” was essentially inspired by Greek mythological culture. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, etc. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


The art of Mathura tends to be based on a strong Indian tradition, exemplified by the anthropomorphic representation of divinities such as the Yaksas, although in a style rather archaic compared to the later representations of the Buddha. The Mathuran school contributed clothes covering the left shoulder of thin muslin, the wheel on the palm, the lotus seat, etc. Categories: Mythology stubs | Buddhism-related stubs ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ...


Mathura and Gandhara also strongly influenced each other. During their artistic florescence, the two regions were even united politically under the Kushans, both being capitals of the empire. It is still a matter of debate whether the anthropomorphic representations of Buddha was essentially a result of a local evolution of Buddhist art at Mathura, or a consequence of Greek cultural influence in Gandhara through the Greco-Buddhist syncretism. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. ...

Representation of the Buddha in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, 1st century CE.

This iconic art was characterized from the start by a realistic idealism, combining realistic human features, proportions, attitudes and attributes, together with a sense of perfection and serenity reaching to the divine. This expression of the Buddha as a both a man and a god became the iconographic canon for subsequent Buddhist art. Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


Buddhist art continued to develop in India for a few more centuries. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. The art of the Gupta school was extremely influential almost everywhere in the rest of Asia. By the 10th century, Buddhist art creation was dying out in India, as Hinduism and Islam ultimately prevailed. Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ...


As Buddhism expanded outside of India from the 1st century CE, its original artistic package blended with other artistic influences, leading to a progressive differentiation among the countries adopting the faith.

Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ...

Northern Buddhist art

A Chinese wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)
A Chinese wooden Bodhisattva from the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD)

The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism to Central Asia, China and ultimately Korea and Japan started in the 1st century CE with a semi-legendary account of an embassy sent to the West by the Chinese Emperor Ming (58-75 CE). However, extensive contacts started in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence of the expansion of the Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim Basin, with the missionary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist monks to Chinese lands. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese, such as Lokaksema, were either Parthian, Kushan, Sogdian or Kuchean. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wood Bodhisattva, Song Dynasty, photoed by Mountain at Shanghai Museum File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. ...


Central Asian missionary efforts along the Silk Road were accompanied by a flux of artistic influences, visible in the development of Serindian art from the 2nd through the 11th century CE in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. Serindian art often derives from the Greco-Buddhist art of the Gandhara district of what is now Pakistan, combining Indian, Greek and Roman influences. Silk Road Greco-Buddhist artistic influences can be found as far as Japan to this day, in architectural motifs, Buddhist imagery, and a select few representations of Japanese gods. The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Categories: Asian art | Stub ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... “Megami” redirects here. ...


The art of the northern route was also highly influenced by the development of Mahayana Buddhism, an inclusive faith characterized by the adoption of new texts, in addition to the traditional Pali canon, and a shift in the understanding of Buddhism. Mahayana goes beyond the traditional Theravada ideal of the release from suffering (dukkha) and personal enlightenment of the arhats, to elevate the Buddha to a God-like status, and to create a pantheon of quasi-divine Bodhisattvas devoting themselves to personal excellence, ultimate knowledge and the salvation of humanity. Northern Buddhist art thus tends to be characterized by a very rich and syncretic Buddhist pantheon, with a multitude of images of the various Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and lesser deities. Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (Sanskrit, also arahat or arahant (Pali); Chinese: 阿羅漢, āluóhàn, luóhàn, lohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Media:Example. ...


Afghanistan

Statue from a Buddhist monastery, 700 CE, Afghanistan
Statue from a Buddhist monastery, 700 CE, Afghanistan

Buddhist art in Afghanistan (old Bactria) persisted for several centuries until the spread of Islam in the 7th century. It is exemplified by the Buddhas of Bamyan. Other sculptures, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... One of the Buddhas of Bamyan as it stood in 1963. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ...


Although Islamic rule was rather tolerant of other religions “of the Book”, it showed little tolerance for Buddhism, which was perceived as a religion depending on idolatry. Human figurative art forms also being prohibited under Islam, Buddhist art suffered numerous attacks, which culminated with the systematic destructions by the Taliban regime. The Buddhas of Bamyan, the sculptures of Hadda, and many of the remaining artifacts at the Afghanistan museum have been destroyed. The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , students or seekers of knowledge) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Head of the Buddha, Hadda, 1st-2nd century CE Hadda is a Greco-Buddhist archeological site located in the ancient area of Gandhara, inside the Khyber Pass, six miles south of the city of Jalalabad in todays eastern Afghanistan. ...


The multiple conflicts since the 1980s also have led to a systematic pillage of archaeological sites apparently in the hope of reselling in the international market what artifacts could be found.


Central Asia

Central Asia long played the role of a meeting place between China, India and Persia. During the 2nd century BCE, the expansion of the Former Han to the West led to increased contact with the Hellenistic civilizations of Asia, especially the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (national) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 8000 BCE   -  Middle... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established...

Serindian art, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).

Thereafter, the expansion of Buddhism to the North led to the formation of Buddhist communities and even Buddhist kingdoms in the oases of Central Asia. Some Silk Road cities consisted almost entirely of Buddhist stupas and monasteries, and it seems that one of their main objectives was to welcome and service travelers between East and West. Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang). ... Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang). ... Categories: Asian art | Stub ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


The eastern part of central Asia (Chinese Turkestan (Tarim Basin, Xinjiang) in particular have revealed an extremely rich Serindian art (wall paintings and reliefs in numerous caves, portable paintings on canvas, sculpture, ritual objects), displaying multiple influences from Indian and Hellenistic cultures. Works of art reminiscent of the Gandharan style, as well as scriptures in the Gandhari script Kharoshti have been found. These influences were rapidly absorbed however by the vigorous Chinese culture, and a strongly Chinese particularism develops from that point. Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Categories: Asian art | Stub ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border...


See also: Dunhuang, Mogao Caves, Kingdom of Khotan, Silk Road, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples near Dunhuang, in Gansu province, China. ... The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ...


China

One of the first known Chinese Buddha sculptures, found in a late Han dynasty burial in Sichuan province. Circa 200 CE. The hair, the moustache, the robe indicate heavy influence of Gandharan styles.

Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century CE, and introduced new types of art into China, particularly in the area of statuary. Receiving this distant religion, strong Chinese traits were incorporated into Buddhist art. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (536x657, 48 KB) Reference page in Crossroads of Asia (Fair use, low resolution for reference purposes) Summary Buddha statue, found in a late Han dynasty burial in Sichuan province. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (536x657, 48 KB) Reference page in Crossroads of Asia (Fair use, low resolution for reference purposes) Summary Buddha statue, found in a late Han dynasty burial in Sichuan province. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Rodins The Thinker is a man leaning onto the top of his penis. ...


Northern Dynasties

A Chinese Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, 443 CE.

In the 5th to 6th centuries, the Northern Dynasties, developed rather symbolic and abstract modes of representation, with schematic lines. Their style is also said to be solemn and majestic. The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment in an accessible and realistic manner, progressively led to a change towards more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art. Tokyo National Museum. ... Tokyo National Museum. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... The Northern Dynasties (北朝 bei3 chao2) included Northern Wei Dynasty, Eastern Wei Dynasty, Western Wei Dynasty, Northern Qi Dynasty, Northern Zhou Dynasty. ...


Sites preserving Northern Wei Dynasty Buddhist sculpture:

The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Smaller relief images The Great Maitreya Buddha The Bingling Temple (Chinese: 炳灵寺; Pinyin: Bǐnglíng Sì) is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Tang Dynasty

Following a transition under the Sui Dynasty, Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly life-like expression. Because of the dynasty’s openness to foreign influences, and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese Buddhist monks to India, Tang dynasty Buddhist sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period. During that time, the Tang capital of Chang'an (today's Xi'an) became an important center for Buddhism. From there Buddhism spread to Korea, and Japanese embassies of Kentoshi helped it gain a foothold in Japan. SUI can be the IOC country code or the FIFA country code for Switzerland SUI can be an acronym for sonic user interface (similar to GUI for graphical user interface). ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... Changan â–¶(?) (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ... Xian (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...

However, foreign influences came to be negatively perceived in China towards the end of the Tang dynasty. In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wuzong outlawed all “foreign” religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism) in order to support the indigenous religion, Taoism. He confiscated Buddhist possessions, and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the development of the religion and its arts in China. Download high resolution version (531x743, 113 KB)Tang Bodhisattva. ... Download high resolution version (531x743, 113 KB)Tang Bodhisattva. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Emperor Tang Wuzong (武宗 814-846), born Li Yan, was a later emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Chán Buddhism however, at the origin of Japanese Zen, continued to prosper for some centuries, especially under the Song Dynasty (960-1279), when Chan monasteries were great centers of culture and learning. Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...

Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD, Song Dynasty.
Portrait of the Chinese Zen Buddhist Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD, Song Dynasty.

The popularization of Buddhism in China has made the country home to one of the richest collections of Buddhist arts in the world. The Mogao Caves near Dunhuang and the Bingling Temple caves near Yongjing in Gansu province, the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang in Henan province, the Yungang Grottoes near Datong in Shanxi province, and the Dazu Rock Carvings near Chongqing municipality are among the most important and renowned Buddhist sculptural sites. The Leshan Giant Buddha, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1937, 272 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Chan-Meisters Wu-chun Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Kyoto Current location (gallery): de: Tofukuji Other notes: de: Detail... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1937, 272 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Chan-Meisters Wu-chun Technique: de: Tusche und Farben auf Seide Dimensions: Country of origin: de: China Current location (city): de: Kyoto Current location (gallery): de: Tofukuji Other notes: de: Detail... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... Portrait of Zen master Wuzhun Shifan, painted in 1238 AD, Song Dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples near Dunhuang, in Gansu province, China. ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ... Smaller relief images The Great Maitreya Buddha The Bingling Temple (Chinese: 炳灵寺; Pinyin: Bǐnglíng Sì) is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ... Yongjing (永靖) is a county in Chinas Gansu Province about 80km from the capital city, Lanzhou. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... The Yungang Grottoes (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are ancient Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the Chinese province of Shanxi. ... Alternative meaning: Datong (Taipei City), Datong (Company) Datong (Chinese: 大同, Hanyu Pinyin: Dàtóng, WG: Ta-tung) is a city in the northern Shanxi Province in China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... External link UNESCO World Heritage Centre page Categories: World Heritage Sites in China | Chinese Buddhist Grottoes | China geography stubs ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... The Leshan Giant Buddha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the tallest stone Buddha statue in the world. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li...


See also: Buddhism in China, Longmen Grottoes, Mogao Caves, Yungang Grottoes, Henan, Tang Dynasty art, Bingling Temple Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... The Longmen Grottoes (ch. ... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples near Dunhuang, in Gansu province, China. ... The Yungang Grottoes (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are ancient Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the Chinese province of Shanxi. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Night Shining White, a handscroll attributed to Han Gan (active 742–756). ... Smaller relief images The Great Maitreya Buddha The Bingling Temple (Chinese: 炳灵寺; Pinyin: Bǐnglíng Sì) is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ...


Korea

Korean Buddhist art generally reflects an interaction between Chinese Buddhist influence and a strongly original Korean culture. Additionally, the art of the steppes, particularly Siberian and Scythian influences, are evident in early Korean Buddhist art based on the excavation of artifacts and burial goods such as Silla royal crowns, belt buckles, daggers, and comma-shaped gogok.[1][2] The style of this indigenous art was geometric, abstract and richly adorned with a characteristic “barbarian” luxury. Although Chinese influence was strong, Korean Buddhist art "bespeaks a sobriety, taste for the right tone, a sense of abstraction but also of colours that curiously enough are in line with contemporary taste" (Pierre Cambon, Arts asiatiques- Guimet'). Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Magatama. ...


Three Kingdoms of Korea

Bangasayusang, semi-seated contemplative Maitreya probably from Silla circa early 7th century.
Bangasayusang, semi-seated contemplative Maitreya probably from Silla circa early 7th century.

The first of the Three Kingdoms of Korea to officially receive Buddhism was Goguryeo in 372.[3] However, Chinese records and the use of Buddhist motifs in Goguryeo murals indicate the introduction of Buddhism earlier than the official date.[4] The Baekje Kingdom officially recognized Buddhism in 384.[5] The Silla Kingdom, isolated and with no easy sea or land access to China, officially adopted Buddhism in 535 although the foreign religion was known in the kingdom due to the work of Goguryeo monks since the early fifth century.[6][7] The introduction of Buddhism stimulated the need for artisans to create images for veneration, architects for temples, and the literate for the Buddhist sutras and transformed Korean civilization. Particularly important in the transmission of sophisticated art styles to the Korean kingdoms was the art of the "barbarian" Tuoba, a clan of non-Han Chinese Xianbei people who established the Northern Wei Dynasty in China in 386. The Northern Wei style was particularly influential in the art of the Goguryeo and Baekje. Baekje artisans later transmitted this style along with Southern Dynasty elements and distinct Korean elements to Japan. Korean artisans were highly selective of the styles they incorporated and combined different regional styles together to create a specific Korean Buddhist art style.[8][9] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (437x877, 220 KB) Summary cleaned up version of http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (437x877, 220 KB) Summary cleaned up version of http://www. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ...

While Goguryeo Buddhist art exhibited vitality and mobility akin with Northern Wei prototypes, the Baekje Kingdom was also in close contact with the Southern Dynasties of China and this close diplomatic contact is exemplified in the gentle and proportional sculpture of the Baekje, epitomized by Baekje sculpture exhibiting the fathomless smile known to art historians as the Baekje smile. [1]. The Silla Kingdom also developed a distinctive Buddhist art tradition epitomized by the Bangasayusang, a half-seated contemplative maitreya whose Korean-made twin, the Miroku Bosatsu, was sent to Japan as a proselytizing gift and now resides in the Koryu-ji Temple in Japan. [2]. Buddhism in the Three Kingdoms period stimulated massive temple-building projects, such as the Mireuksa Temple in the Baekje Kingdom and the Hwangnyongsa Temple in Silla. Baekje architects were famed for their skill and were instrumental in building the massive nine-story pagoda at Hwangnyongsa and early Buddhist temples in Yamato Japan such as Hoko-ji (Asuka-dera) and Hōryū-ji. [3]. [4]. [5]. Sixth century Korean Buddhist art exhibited the cultural influences of China and India but began to show distinctive indigenous characteristics. [6]. These indigenous characteristics can be seen in early Buddhist art in Japan and some early Japanese Buddhist sculpture is now believed to have originated in Korea, particularly from Baekje, or Korean artisans who immigrated to Yamato Japan. [7]. Particularly, the semi-seated Maitreya form was adapted into a highly developed Korean style which was transmitted to Japan as evidenced by the Koryu-ji Miroku Bosatsu and the Chugu-ji Siddhartha statues. Although many historians portray Korea as a mere transmitter of Buddhism, the Three Kingdoms, and particularly Baekje, were instrumental as active agents in the introduction and formation of a Buddhist tradition in Japan in 538 or 552. [8]. Download high resolution version (1091x1488, 548 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1091x1488, 548 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Seokguram grotto is a hermitage of the Bulguksa temple and lies east of the temple on Mt. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... The Southern dynasties 南朝 (nanchao in pinyin: nán cháo) include Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty whose capital were largely all at Jiankang (although the Southern Qi capital was briefly at Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) during the reign of Emperor He of Southern Qi, and... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... Mireuksa was the largest Buddhist temple in the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje, which fell in the 7th century. ... Hwangnyongsa is a former Buddhist temple in South Korea. ... Horyu-ji. ...


Unified Silla

The Goryeo era Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda sits on the first floor of the National Museum of Korea.
The Goryeo era Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda sits on the first floor of the National Museum of Korea.

During the Unified Silla period, East Asia was particularly stable with China and Korea both enjoying unified governments. Early Unified Silla art combined Silla styles and Baekje styles. Korean Buddhist art was also influenced by new Tang Dynasty styles as evidenced by a new popular Buddhist motif with full-faced Buddha sculptures. Tang China was the cross roads of East, Central, and South Asia and so the Buddhist art of this time period exhibit the so-called international style. State-sponsored Buddhist art flourished during this period, the epitome of which is the Seokguram Grotto. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 1526 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Korea National Museum of Korea Buddhist art Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 1526 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Korea National Museum of Korea Buddhist art Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... This article needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The National Museum of Korea is the flagship museum of Korean history and art in South Korea and is the cultural organization that represents Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Geographic East Asia. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... The Seokguram Grotto is a hermitage and part of the Bulguksa temple complex. ...


Goryeo Dynasty

The fall of the Unified Silla Dynasty and the establishment of the Goryeo Dynasty in 918 indicates a new period of Korean Buddhist art. The Goryeo kings also lavishly sponsored Buddhism and Buddhist art flourished, especially Buddhist paintings and illuminated sutras written in gold and silver ink. [9]. The crowning achievement of this period is the carving of approximately 80,000 woodblocks of the Tripitaka Koreana which was done twice. Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Tripitaka Koreana (lit. ...


Joseon Dynasty

The Joseon Dynasty actively suppressed Buddhism beginning in 1406 and Buddhist temples and art production subsequently decline in quality in quantity although beginning in 1549, Buddhist art does continue to be produced. [10]. Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip Historical era 1392-1897...


See also: Buddhism in Korea, Bangasayusang, Geumdong Mireuk Bosal Bangasang, Seokguram, Hwangnyongsa, Mireuksa, Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda, Tripitaka Koreana The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... National Treasure of Korea No. ... The Seokguram Grotto is a hermitage and part of the Bulguksa temple complex. ... Hwangnyongsa is a former Buddhist temple in South Korea. ... Mireuksa was the largest Buddhist temple in the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje, which fell in the 7th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... The Tripitaka Koreana (lit. ...


Japan

The Big Buddha in Kamakura (1252)
The Big Buddha in Kamakura (1252)

Before the introduction of Buddhism, Japan had already been the seat of various cultural (and artistic) influences, from the abstract linear decorative art of the indigenous Neolithic Jōmon from around 10500 BCE to 300 BCE, to the art during the Yayoi and Kofun periods, with developments such as Haniwa art. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1304 KB) For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1304 KB) For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin Kōtoku-in (高徳院) is a Buddhist temple of the Pure Land sect in the city of Kamakura in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Characters for Jōmon (Cord marks). The Jomon period ) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC. Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. ... This article is about a Japanese historical era. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century CE) of Japanese history. ...


Japan, the largest Buddhist country today, discovered Buddhism in the 6th century when monks traveled to the islands together with numerous scriptures and works of art. The Buddhist religion was adopted by the state in the following century. Being geographically at the end of the Silk Road, Japan was able to preserve many aspects of Buddhism at the very time it was disappearing in India, and being suppressed in Central Asia and China. The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...

Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”, by Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769)
Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”, by Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769)

From 710, numerous temples and monasteries were built in the capital city of Nara, including a five-story pagoda, the Golden Hall of the Horyuji, and the Kōfuku-ji temple. Countless paintings and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Indian, Hellenistic, Chinese and Korean artistic influences blended into an original style characterized by realism and gracefulness. The creation of Japanese Buddhist art was especially rich between the 8th and 13th centuries during the periods of Nara, Heian and Kamakura. Japan developed an extremely rich figurative art for the pantheon of Buddhist deities, sometimes combined with Hindu and Shinto influences. This art can be very varied, creative and bold. This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... This Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma reads “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”. It was created by Hakuin Ekaku (1685 to 1768) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Hakuin Ekaku (白隠 慧鶴 Hakuin Ekaku, 1686-1769) was undoubtedly one of the most influential figures in Japanese Zen Buddhism. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... For the temple in Nagasaki Prefecture, see [[Kōfuku-ji (Nagasaki)]]. Grounds of Kofukuji The golden buddha inside the temple Kōfuku-ji ) is a Buddhist temple in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


From the 12th and 13th, a further development was Zen art, following the introduction of the faith by Dogen and Eisai upon their return from China. Zen art is mainly characterized by original paintings (such as sumi-e) and poetry (especially haikus), striving to express the true essence of the world through impressionistic and unadorned “non-dualistic” representations. The search for enlightenment “in the moment” also led to the development of other important derivative arts such as the Chanoyu tea ceremony or the Ikebana art of flower arrangement. This evolution went as far as considering almost any human activity as an art with a strong spiritual and aesthetic content, first and foremost in those activities related to combat techniques (martial arts). Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; also Kigen Dōgen 希玄道元) (19 January 1200–22 September 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher born in Kyōto, and the founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan. ... Myōan Eisai, founder of the Rinzai School of Zen, 12th century. ... Autumn Landscape (Shukei-sansui). ... Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... The Japanese tea ceremony (cha-no-yu, chadō, or sadō) is a traditional ritual influenced by Zen Buddhism in which powdered green tea, or matcha (抹茶), is ceremonially prepared by a skilled practitioner and served to a small group of guests in a tranquil setting. ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana , flower arrangement) is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , flower arrangement) — the way of flowers. In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement creates a harmony of linear construction... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Buddhism remains very active in Japan to this day. Still around 80,000 Buddhist temples are preserved. Many of them are in wood and are regularly restored.


See also: Japanese Art, Zen, Portable shrine Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... Portable shrine - Buddha, cylindrical case - 2 feet high. ...


Tibet and Bhutan

Yama (mid-17th?early 18th century, Tibet)

Tantric Buddhism started as a movement in eastern India around the 5th or the 6th century. Many of the practices of Tantric Buddhism are derived from Brahmanism (the usage of mantras, yoga, or the burning of sacrificial offerings). Tantrism became the dominant form of Buddhism in Tibet from the 8th century. Due to its geographical centrality in Asia, Tibetan Buddhist art received influence from Indian, Nepali, Greco-Buddhist and Chinese art. Yama, mid-17th–early 18th century Tibet Distemper on cloth; 72 3/8 x 46 5/8 in. ... Yama, mid-17th–early 18th century Tibet Distemper on cloth; 72 3/8 x 46 5/8 in. ... Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois Yama is the name of the Buddhist god and judge of the dead, who presides over the Buddhist Narakas (Pāli: Nirayas), Hells or Purgatories. Although ultimately based on the god Yama of the Hindu Vedas, the Buddhist Yama has developed... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


One of the most characteristic creations of Tibetan Buddhist art are the mandalas, diagrams of a “divine temple” made of a circle enclosing a square, the purpose of which is to help Buddhist worshipers focus their attention through meditation and follow the path to the central image of the Buddha. Artistically, Buddhist Gupta art and Hindu art tend to be the two strongest inspirations of Tibetan art. Buddhist mandala Mandala (Sanskrit circle, completion) is a term used to refer to various objects. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...


See also: Tibetan art, Buddha Dordenma statue Tibetan art refers to the art of Tibet and other present and former Himalayan kingdoms (Bhutan, Ladakh, Nepal, and Sikkim). ... The Buddha Dordenma statue is a large bronze statue of the Buddha being constructed on the mountainside above Thimphu, the capital of Bhutan. ...


Vietnam

Chinese influence was predominant in the north of Vietnam (Tonkin) between the 1st and 9th centuries, and Confucianism and Mahayana Buddhism were prevalent. Overall, the art of Vietnam has been strongly influenced by Chinese Buddhist art. Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


In the south, the kingdom of Champa has a strongly Indianized art, just as neighboring Cambodia. Many of its statues were characterized by rich body adornments. The capital of the kingdom of Champa was annexed by Vietnam in 1471, and it totally collapsed in the 1720s. South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ...


Southern Buddhist art

During the 1st century CE, the trade on the overland Silk Road tended to be restricted by the rise of the Parthian empire in the Middle East, an unvanquished enemy of Rome, just as Romans were becoming extremely wealthy and their demand for Asian luxury was rising. This demand revived the sea connections between the Mediterranean Sea and China, with India as the intermediary of choice. From that time, through trade connections, commercial settlements, and even political interventions, India started to strongly influence Southeast Asian countries. Trade routes linked India with southern Burma, central and southern Siam, lower Cambodia and southern Vietnam, and numerous urbanized coastal settlements were established there. Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Motto ชาติ ศาสนา พระมหากษัตริย์ Nation, Religion, King Anthem Phleng Chat Royal anthem Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami Capital (and largest city) Bangkok1 Official languages Thai Government Military Junta under Royal Patronage  -  Head of State HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej  -  Prime Minister General Surayud Chulanont  -  President of the Council of National Security General Sonthi Boonyaratglin Formation...

A Cambodian Buddha, 14th century
A Cambodian Buddha, 14th century

For more than a thousand years, Indian influence was therefore the major factor that brought a certain level of cultural unity to the various countries of the region. The Pali and Sanskrit languages and the Indian script, together with Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Brahmanism and Hinduism, were transmitted from direct contact and through sacred texts and Indian literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. This expansion provided the artistic context for the development of Buddhist art in these countries, which then developed characteristics of their own. Download high resolution version (331x640, 79 KB)Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Download high resolution version (331x640, 79 KB)Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Brahmanism, also Brahminism, is the name given to Hinduism by some authors in the 19th century CE.[1] The term is considered derogatory by many Hindus. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Between the 1st and 8th centuries, several kingdoms competed for influence in the region (particularly the Cambodian Funan then the Burmese Mon kingdoms) contributing various artistic characteristics, mainly derived from the Indian Gupta style. Combined with a pervading Hindu influence, Buddhist images, votive tablets and Sanskrit inscriptions are found throughout the area. Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... The Mon are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...


From the 9th to the 13th centuries, Southeast Asia had very powerful empires and became extremely active in Buddhist architectural and artistic creation. The Sri Vijaya Empire to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence, but both were adherents of Mahayana Buddhism, and their art expressed the rich Mahayana pantheon of the Bodhisattvas. The Theravada Buddhism of the Pali canon was introduced to the region around the 13th century from Sri Lanka, and was adopted by the newly founded ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai. Since in Theravada Buddhism only monks can reach Nirvana, the construction of temple complexes plays a particularly important role in the artistic expression of Southeast Asia from that time. Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Thai ethnic groups include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China(also called Dai) the Black Thai of Laos and Vietnam the Red Thai... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions). ...


From the 14th century, the main factor was the spread of Islam to the maritime areas of Southeast Asia, overrunning Malaysia, Indonesia, and most of the islands as far as the Philippines. In the continental areas, Theravada Buddhism continued to expand into Burma, Laos and Cambodia. Muslims performing salah (prayer) Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Myanmar

A neighbor of India, Myanmar was naturally strongly influenced by the eastern part of Indian territory. The Mon of southern Burma are said to have been converted to Buddhism around 200 BCE under the proselytizing of the Indian king Ashoka, before the schism between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism. The Mon (Burmese: ) are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ...


Early Buddhist temples are found, such as Beikthano in central Myanmar, with dates between the 1st and the 5th centuries. The Buddhist art of the Mons was especially influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta and post-Gupta periods, and their mannerist style spread widely in Southeast Asia following the expansion of the Mon Empire between the 5th and 8th centuries. The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...


Later, thousands of Buddhist temples were built at Pagan, the capital, between the 11th and 13th centuries, and around 2,000 of them are still standing. Beautiful jeweled statues of the Buddha are remaining from that period. Creation managed to continue despite the seizure of the city by the Mongols in 1287. Bagan (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), formerly Pagan, formally titled Arimaddanapura (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Myanmar. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


Cambodia

Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia 12th century.
Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia 12th century.

Cambodia was the center of the Funan kingdom, which expanded into Burma and as far south as Malaysia between the 3rd and 6th centuries CE. Its influence seems to have been essentially political, most of the cultural influence coming directly from India. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x640, 87 KB)Statue of the Bodhisattva Lokesvara, [[[Cambodia]], 12th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x640, 87 KB)Statue of the Bodhisattva Lokesvara, [[[Cambodia]], 12th century. ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... Tây Sơn Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List...


Later, from the 9th to 13th centuries, the Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu Khmer Empire dominated vast parts of the Southeast Asian peninsula, and its influence was foremost in the development of Buddhist art in the region. Under the Khmer, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Angkor was at the center of this development, with a Buddhist temple complex and urban organization able to support around 1 million urban dwellers. A great deal of Cambodian Buddhist sculpture is preserved at Angkor; however, organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. Angkor was the site of a series of capital cities that is rk of the Khmer empire for much of the period from the 9th century to the 15th century CE. (The angkor people relyed on the jungle for protection and food. ...


Often, Khmer art manages to express intense spirituality through divinely beaming expressions, in spite of spare features and slender lines.


Thailand

Wat Phra Sri Ratanamahatat. Phitsanulok, Thailand
Wat Phra Sri Ratanamahatat. Phitsanulok, Thailand

From the 1st to the 7th centuries, Buddhist art in Thailand was first influenced by direct contact with Indian traders and the expansion of the Mon kingdom, leading to the creation of Hindu and Buddhist art inspired from the Gupta tradition, with numerous monumental statues of great virtuosity. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Tevaprapas Makklay, 2007 ภายในพระวิหารพระพุทธชินราช วัดพระศรีรัตนมหาธาตุวรมหาวิหาร Wat Phra Sri Ratanamahatat. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 231 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Tevaprapas Makklay, 2007 ภายในพระวิหารพระพุทธชินราช วัดพระศรีรัตนมหาธาตุวรมหาวิหาร Wat Phra Sri Ratanamahatat. ... Phitsanulok is an important and historic town in north central Thailand and is the capital of Phitsanulok province, which stretches all the way to the Laotian border. ... The Mon are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ...


From the 9th century, the various schools of Thai art then became strongly influenced by Cambodian Khmer art in the north and Sri Vijaya art in the south, both of Mahayana faith. Up to the end of that period, Buddhist art is characterized by a clear fluidness in the expression, and the subject matter is characteristic of the Mahayana pantheon with multiple creations of Bodhisattvas. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


From the 13th century, Theravada Buddhism was introduced from Sri Lanka around the same time as the ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai was established. The new faith inspired highly stylized images in Thai Buddhism, with sometimes very geometrical and almost abstract figures. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Thai ethnic groups include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China(also called Dai) the Black Thai of Laos and Vietnam the Red Thai... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ...


During the Ayutthaya period (14th-18th centuries), the Buddha came to be represented in a more stylistic manner with sumptuous garments and jeweled ornamentations. Many Thai sculptures or temples tended to be gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. The kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom that existed from the 1350 to 1767. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ...


See also: Thai art Thai art was traditionally primarily Buddhist. ...


Indonesia

A Buddha in Borobudur.
A Buddha in Borobudur.

Like the rest of Southeast Asia, Indonesia seems to have been most strongly influenced by India from the 1st century CE. The islands of Sumatra and Java in western Indonesia were the seat of the empire of Sri Vijaya (8th-13th century CE), which came to dominate most of the area around the Southeast Asian peninsula through maritime power. The Sri Vijayan Empire had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, under a line of rulers named the Sailendras. Sri Vijaya spread Mahayana Buddhist art during its expansion into the Southeast Asian peninsula. Numerous statues of Mahayana Bodhisattvas from this period are characterized by a very strong refinement and technical sophistication, and are found throughout the region. Download high resolution version (900x1200, 131 KB)The perfect Buddha at the Borobudur. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 131 KB)The perfect Buddha at the Borobudur. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

A detailed carved relief stone from Borobudur.
A detailed carved relief stone from Borobudur.
The statue of Prajñāpāramitā from Singhasari, East Java.
The statue of Prajñāpāramitā from Singhasari, East Java.

Extremely rich and refined architectural remains are can be found in Java and Sumatra. The most magnificence is the temple of Borobudur (the largest Buddhist structure in the world, built from around 780-850 AD). This temple modeled after Buddhist concept of universe, the Mandala which counts 505 images of the seated Buddha and unique bell-shaped stupa that contains the statue of Buddha. Borobudur is adorned with long series of bas-reliefs narrated the holy Buddhist scriptures. The oldest Buddhist structure in Indonesia probably is the Batu Jaya stupas at Karawang, West Java, dated from around 4th century AD. This temple is some plastered brick stupas. However Buddhist art in Indonesia reach the golden era during the Sailendra dynasty rule in Java. The bas-reliefs and statues of Boddhisatva, Tara, and Kinnara found in Kalasan, Sewu, Sari, and Plaosan temple is very graceful with serene expression, While Mendut temple near Borobudur, houses the giant statue of Buddha, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani. Borobodur: wall relief, Mike (mike_onroad@yahoo. ... Borobodur: wall relief, Mike (mike_onroad@yahoo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (779 × 1043 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Prajnaparamita female Bodhisattva of the Perfection of Wisdom, Java, Indonesia Prajñāpāramitā, weibliche Bodhisattva der Perfektion der Weisheit, Java, Indonesien from: Indische... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 448 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (779 × 1043 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Prajnaparamita female Bodhisattva of the Perfection of Wisdom, Java, Indonesia Prajñāpāramitā, weibliche Bodhisattva der Perfektion der Weisheit, Java, Indonesien from: Indische... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Buddhist mandala Mandala (Sanskrit circle, completion) is a term used to refer to various objects. ... At a point in time when Sri Vijaya had been the established leader in the Southeast Asian region for about 100 years, the Sailendra Kingdom of Java emerged. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... // Tara, Queensland, a place in Queensland Tara Shire Council, the Local Government Area based around Tara Tara, Ontario, a village in Canada Tara, Ethiopia, a village in the Oromia Region The Hill of Tara, home of the ancient High Kings of Ireland Tara, Australia, a large gully in the Blue... A woman lights kinara candles on a table decorated with the symbols of Kwanzaa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ...


In Sumatra Sri Vijaya probably built the temple of Muara Takus, and Muaro Jambi. The most beautiful classical Javanese art is the serene and delicate statue of Prajnaparamita (the collection of National Museum Jakarta) the goddes of transcendental wisdom from Singhasari. The Indonesian Buddhist Empire of Sri Vijaya declined due to conflicts with the Chola rulers of India, then followed by Majapahit empire, before being destabilized by the Islamic expansion from the 13th century. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Hanzi. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ...


See also

This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Buddhist music is music created for or inspired by Buddhism and part of Buddhist art. ... The eight-spoked Dharmacakra. ... Great Buddha of Kamakura Daibutsu (大仏 or in traditional orthography 大佛) is a Japanese word meaning literally Large Buddha that refers to large statues of the Buddha or one of his various incarnations. ... Borobudur is a ninth century Buddhist Mahayana monument in Central Java, Indonesia. ...

References

  • James Huntley Grayson (2002). Korea: A Religious History. UK: Routledge. ISBN 070071605X. 
  1. ^ Crown. Arts of Korea. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  2. ^ Grayson (2002), p21.
  3. ^ Grayson (2002), p25.
  4. ^ Grayson (2002), p24.
  5. ^ Grayson (2002), p25.
  6. ^ Peter N. Stearns and William Leonard Langer (2001). "The Encyclopedia of World History: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged".. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0395652375. 
  7. ^ Korea, 500–1000 A.D.. Timeline of Arts History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  8. ^ Grayson (2002), p27 & p33.
  9. ^ Korean Buddhist Sculpture, 5th–9th Century. Timeline of Arts History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Foltz, Richard (1999). Religions of the Silk Road. New-York: St. Martin’s Griffin. ISBN 0-312-23338-8. 
  • Jarrige, Jean-François (2001). Arts asiatiques- Guimet, Éditions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux. ISBN 2-7118-3897-8. 
  • Lee, Sherman (2003). A History of Far Eastern Art (5th Edition). New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-183366-9. 
  • Scarre, Dr. Chris (editor) (1991). Past Worlds. The Times Atlas of Archeology. London: Times Books Limited. ISBN 0-7230-0306-8. 
  • Susan L. Huntington: "Early Buddhist art and the theory of aniconism", Art Journal, Winter 1990.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
ArtLex on Buddhist Art and Buddhism (919 words)
Borobudur — one of the most magnificent Buddhist shrines in the world — was built at the end of the 9th century by the Hindu kings of the Sailendra dynasty.
This statue of Fudo, whose name means "immovable," is a staunch guardian of the Buddhist faith, warding off enemies of the Buddha with his word of wisdom and binding evil forces with his lasso.
A symbol of steadfastness in the face of temptation, Fudo is one of the most commonly depicted of the Esoteric Buddhist deities known as Myo-o, "King of Brightness." Here his youthful, chubby body and his skirt and scarf are modeled with the restrained, gentle curves typical of late Heian sculpture.
Buddhist art - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4161 words)
The art of Mathura tends to be based on a strong Indian tradition, exemplified by the anthropomorphic representation of divinities such as the Yaksas, although in a style rather archaic compared to the later representations of the Buddha.
The Buddhist art of the Mons was especially influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta and post-Gupta periods, and their mannerist style spread widely in Southeast Asia following the expansion of the Mon Empire between the 5th and 8th centuries.
Later, from the 9th to 13th centuries, the Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu Khmer Empire dominated vast parts of the Southeast Asian peninsula, and its influence was foremost in the development of Buddhist art in the region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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