FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Buddhist" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Buddhist
Jump to: navigation, search
A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath
Enlarge
A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath
Dharma wheel
Buddhism
Culture
History
List of topics
People
By region
By country
Schools
Temples
Concepts
Texts
Timeline

Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by many as a religion. Buddhism gradually spread from India throughout Asia to Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia, as well as to East Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Japan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 2576 KB) A modern replica of the ancient buddha-image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 2576 KB) A modern replica of the ancient buddha-image. ... Sarnath (formerly also Mrigadava, Rishipattana, Isipatana), located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha was founded. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Jump to: navigation, search The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. ... Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel Amara Sinha B... Jump to: navigation, search Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... An image of Gautama Buddha with a swastika, traditionally a Buddhist symbol of good luck, on his chest. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Buddhist temple Wat Chiang Man, in Chiang Mai, Thailand, which dates from the late 13th century Buddhist temples and monasteries, sorted by location. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... Jump to: navigation, search There is great variety in Buddhist texts. ... // Before Common Era Trad. ... These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Silver coin of the Shakyas (600-500 BC) The Shakya (or Sakya) were a clan of Hindu kshatriyas. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 420s BC 430s BC Years: 491 BC 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC - 486 BC - 485 BC 484 BC... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ...


With approximately 560 million followers, Buddhism is considered a major world religion. Jump to: navigation, search Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherents of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of...


The aim of Buddhist practice is to end the suffering of cyclic existence, samsara (Pāli, Sanskrit), by awakening the practitioner to the realization of true reality, the achievement of liberation (nirvana). To achieve this, one should purify and train the mind and act according to the laws of karma, of cause and effect: perform positive actions, and positive results will follow, and vice versa. Jump to: navigation, search In Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and other related religions, samsara or saṃsāra refers to the concept of reincarnation or rebirth in Indian philosophical traditions. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the Indian religions Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, nirvāna (from the Sanskrit निर्वाण, Pali: Nibbāna -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing, is the culmination of the yogis pursuit of liberation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several Indian religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ...


Buddhist morality is underpinned by the principles of harmlessness and moderation. Mental training focuses on moral discipline (sila), meditative concentration (samadhi), and wisdom (prajñā). In Sanskrit, śīla is a term in Indian-derived systems such as Hinduism and Buddhism which is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics (Tibetan tshul khrims). ... This article contains nonstandard pronunciation information which should be rewritten using the International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ...


While Buddhism does not deny the existence of supernatural beings (indeed, many are discussed in Buddhist scripture), it does not ascribe power for creation, salvation or judgment to them. Like humans, they are regarded as having the power to affect worldly events, and so some Buddhist schools associate with them via ritual. There is great variety in Buddhist texts. ...

Contents


What is a Buddha?

A stone image of the Buddha.
Enlarge
A stone image of the Buddha.

Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means "one who has awakened". It is derived from the verbal root "budh", meaning "to awaken" or "to be enlightened", and "to comprehend". It is written in devanagari script as Hindi: बुद्ध and pronounced as "bυd-dhə", where both 'd' and 'dh' are dental, and 'dh' is an aspirated stop. Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ... Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ... . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Dentals are consonants articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ...


The word "Buddha" denotes not just the historical Buddha Shakyamuni or Siddhartha Gautama who lived some 2,500 years ago, but a type of person, of which there have been many throughout the course of time. (As an analogy, the term "President" refers not just to one person, but to everyone who has ever held the office of presidency.) The historical Buddha is one member of the spiritual lineage of Buddhas, which extends beyond history into the past and into the indefinite future. Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he...


Shakyamuni Buddha did not claim any divine status for himself, nor did he assert that he was inspired by a god or gods. A Buddha is anyone who has fully awakened to the true nature of existence, liberated from the cycle of birth, death and rebirth, has eradicated all negative qualities and developed all positive qualities, possibly including omniscience. (Buddhas do not claim to be omnipotent, unlike the God of Christianity, Islam or Judaism.) All sentient beings (beings with a mind, like humans and animals) can free themselves from suffering as Gautama did, regardless of age, sex, or caste. Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known about a character/s including thoughts, feelings, etc. ... Jump to: navigation, search Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Jump to: navigation, search Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Jump to: navigation, search Islam ▶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Jump to: navigation, search Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Look up Age on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Age may refer to: The length of time that a person has lived, reckoned from date of birth in most cultures; see also: ageing, for the social, cultural, and economic factors of age and ageing. ... This article is about sex, meaning the different sexes; male, female, etc. ... Jump to: navigation, search Caste systems have existed throughout history and throughout the world, but the most well-known caste system today is the Indian Varna system. ...


The principles by which a person can achieve enlightenment are known as the Bauddhadharma, or simply — the Dharma, meaning (in this context) "law, doctrine, or truth". All three Indic religions — Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism are called as Arya Dharmas, meaning noble religions. Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dharma (sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


Origins

As with any history so old, there are many different stories of how the Buddha came to be, Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit सिद्धार्थ गौतम, pronounced as "sιd-dhα:rthə gautəmə"; in Pāli, Siddhattha Gautama) made his way to enlightenment. Since he belonged to the Shākya clan, he is also known as Shākyamunī. Download high resolution version (866x578, 111 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (866x578, 111 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sanchi is a small village of India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. ... A stupa in Tibet A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent and Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ...


One legend (the most commonly accepted by historians) has it that he was born around 566 BCE. His birthplace is said to be Lumbini in the Shākya state, one of a small group of old oligarchic republics in what is now Nepal. His father was the Shākya king Śuddhodana, and Siddhārtha lived in luxury, being spared all hardship. Lumbini (Sanskrit; lit. ...


The legends say that a seer predicted shortly after his birth that Siddhārtha would become either a great king or a great holy man; because of this, the king tried to make sure that Siddhartha never had any cause for dissatisfaction with his life, as that might drive him toward a spiritual path. Nevertheless, at the age of 29, he came across what has become known as the Four Passing Sights: an old crippled man, a sick man, a decaying corpse, and finally a wandering holy man. These four sights led him to the realization that birth, old age, sickness and death come to everyone, not only once but repeated for life after life in succession since beginningless time. He decided to abandon his worldly life, leaving behind his wife, child and rank, etc. to take up the life of a wandering holy man in search of the answer to the problem of birth, old age, sickness, and death. According to accounts of Gautama Buddhas life, the four sights were his inspiration to become a monk at the age of 29: an old crippled man (old age), a diseased man (illness), a decaying corpse (death), and finally an ascetic (A person who seeks the end to suffering). ...


Indian holy men (sādhus), in those days just as today, often engaged in a variety of ascetic practices designed to "mortify" the flesh. It was thought that by enduring pain and suffering, the ātman (Sanskrit; Pāli: atta) or "soul" became free from the cycle of rebirth with its pain and sorrow. Siddhārtha proved adept at these practices, and was able to surpass his teachers. However, he found no solution to end all Suffering and so, leaving behind his teachers, he and a small group of companions set out to take their austerities even further. After six years of ascetism, and nearly starving himself to death with no success (some sources claim that he nearly drowned), Siddhārtha began to reconsider his path. Then he remembered a moment in childhood in which he had been watching his father start the season's plowing, and he had fallen into a naturally concentrated and focused state in which time seemed to stand still, and which was blissful and refreshing. The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... This is a disambiguation page for the term atman (or atma). ... Jump to: navigation, search The soul according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the ethereal substance — spirit (Hebrew:rooah or nefesh) — particular to a unique living being. ...


Taking a little buttermilk from a passing goatherd, he found a large tree (now called the Bodhi tree) and set to meditating. He developed a new way of meditating, which began to bear fruit. His mind became concentrated and pure, and then, after six years since he began his quest in search of a solution to an end of Suffering, he attained Enlightenment, and became a Buddha. This place is in the state of Bihar in India. A direct clone descendant of the Bodhi tree, planted at Foster Botanical Garden in Honolulu, Hawaii The Bodhi tree was a large and very old specimen of the Sacred Fig, located at the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya (about 100 km from Patna in the Indian state of Bihar) under... Jump to: navigation, search Meditation refers to any of a wide variety of spiritual practices (and their close secular analogues) which emphasize mental activity or quiescence. ... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ...

The Buddha venerated by Indra and Brahma, Kanishka casket, dated to 127 CE, British Museum.
The Buddha venerated by Indra and Brahma, Kanishka casket, dated to 127 CE, British Museum.

According to one of the stories in the Āyācana Sutta (Samyutta Nikaya VI.1), a scripture found in the Pāli and other canons, immediately after his Enlightenment the Buddha was wondering whether or not he should teach the Dharma. He was concerned that, as human beings were overpowered by greed, hatred and delusion, they wouldn't be able to see the true Dharma which was subtle, deep and hard to understand. Two gods, Brahma Sahampati and Indra, interceded, and asked that the Buddha teach the Dharma to the world, saying, "There will be those who will understand the Dharma". With his great compassion, the Buddha agreed to become a teacher. At the Deer Park near Benares in northern India he set in motion the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the group of five companions with whom he sought for enlightenment before. They, together with Buddha, formed the first sangha, the company of Buddhist monks. Jump to: navigation, search ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x1171, 472 KB) Detail of the Kanishka Casket. ... Jump to: navigation, search ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x1171, 472 KB) Detail of the Kanishka Casket. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article contains information that has not been verified. ... Jump to: navigation, search Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST transliteration) (Devnagari ब्रंम्हा) is the Hindu creator god, and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... The Kanishka casket, dated to 127, with the Buddha surrounded by Brahma and Indra, and Kanishka standing at the center of the lower part, British Museum (drawing). ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... The main entrance to the British Museum The British Museum in London is the United Kingdoms - and one of the worlds - largest and most important museums of human history and culture. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the town and district in Rajasthan, see Pali, Rajasthan Pāli (Devanagari पालि) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST transliteration) (Devnagari ब्रंम्हा) is the Hindu creator god, and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article contains information that has not been verified. ... Jump to: navigation, search Compassion (in Pali: Karuna) is a sense of shared suffering, most often combined with a desire to alleviate or reduce such suffering; to show special kindness to those who suffer. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...


In other versions of his life-story, the Buddha leaves home in the "prime of his youth", his parents weeping and wailing all the while.


The state of Shākya, where he was born, was an oligarchic republic at that time, so there was no royal family of which to speak. Therefore, it is believed that the Buddha's father was not a king in the sense of an absolute ruler, but rather an influential tribal figure. However, regardless of the details of his early life, the evidence strongly indicates that the Buddha was indeed a historical person living in approximately the same time and place in which he is traditionally placed. Oligarchy is a Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Jump to: navigation, search In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ...


It has also been advanced that the influence of Jain culture and philosophy in ancient Bihar may have given rise to Buddhism although such views are uneasy to ascertain. While Buddhist scriptures describe various penances (tapas) undertaken by Gautama Siddhartha which appear identical to Jain penances (e.g., cupping the hands to consume alms, plucking of hair, the penance by five fires, etc. ), these practises were renounced by the Buddha indicating explicitly that they do not lead to Nirvana (Final Liberation). Buddhist writings reflect that Jainism was an already established faith -- rather than a newly founded or reformist one -- by the time Buddha lived. The Majjhima Nikaya relates instances of Buddha having dialogues with followers of the Nigantha (Jain) community, often resulting in the latter's voluntary adoption of Buddha as his teacher. (See also Jainism) Jump to: navigation, search JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Jump to: navigation, search In the Indian religions Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, nirvāna (from the Sanskrit निर्वाण, Pali: Nibbāna -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing, is the culmination of the yogis pursuit of liberation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ...


In many instances, both philosophies continue to share similar Prakrit terminology for important themes and teachings but differ significantly in the interpretations in its meaning. This method of teaching adopted by the Buddha points to the pragmatic aspect of Buddha's style of teaching wherein the Buddha uses words and terms that are familiar to the audience instead of introducing new and complex technical jargon. In this way, Buddhism appeals to people from all walks of life, without linguistic barriers that make learning difficult in some other archaic system that emphasises the letter more than the message itself.


Principles of Buddhism

Refuge in The Three Jewels

Symbol of the Three Jewels (triratna), surmounted by a Dharma wheel, on a "footprint" of the Buddha, 1st century, Gandhara.
Enlarge
Symbol of the Three Jewels (triratna), surmounted by a Dharma wheel, on a "footprint" of the Buddha, 1st century, Gandhara.

Buddhists seek refuge in what are often referred to as the Three Jewels, Triple Gem or Triple Jewel. These are the Buddha, the Dharma (or Dhamma), and the "noble" (Sanskrit: arya) Sangha or community of monks and nuns (sometimes all other buddhists are included). While it is impossible to escape one's karma or the effects caused by previous thoughts, words and deeds, it is possible to avoid the suffering that comes from it by becoming enlightened. In this way, dharma offers a refuge. Dharma, used in the sense of the Buddha's teachings, provides a raft (method) and is thus a temporary refuge while entering and crossing the river. However, the real refuge (of enlightenment) is on the other side of the river. Download high resolution version (459x800, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (459x800, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... The eight-spoked dharma wheel is a common symbol in Buddhist iconography, representing the collective teachings of Buddha, known as the dharma. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dharma (sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ... The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Pali) is used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Jump to: navigation, search Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several Indian religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dharma (sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dharma (sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ...


To someone who is seeking to become enlightened, taking refuge constitutes a continuing commitment to pursuing enlightenment and following in the footsteps of the people who have followed the path to enlightenment before. It contains an element of confidence that enlightenment is in fact a refuge, a supreme resort. Many Buddhists take the refuges each day, often more than once in order to remind themselves of what they are doing and to direct their resolve inwardly towards liberation.


In all forms of Buddhism, refuge in the Three Jewels are taken before the Sangha for the first time, as a part of the conversion ritual. However, the personal choice for taking ones' life-path in this direction is more important than any external ritual. Jump to: navigation, search Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...


It is good to note that in Buddhism, the word "refuge" should often not be taken in the English sense of "hiding" or "escape"; instead, many scholars have said, it ought be thought of as a homecoming, or place of healing, much as a parent's home might be a refuge for someone. This simple misunderstanding has led some Western scholars to conclude that Buddhism is "a religion for sticking one's head in the sand", when most Buddhists would assert quite the opposite. On the other hand, the main goal of Buddhism is to escape from the suffering of cyclic existence. Some translators also translate it as "taking safe direction".



See also: Three Jewels The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ...


The Four Noble Truths

The Buddha taught that life was dissatisfactory because of craving, but that this condition was curable by following the Eightfold Path. This teaching is called the Four Noble Truths: The Noble Eightfold Path, according to Buddhism and as taught by Gautama Buddha, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Four Noble Truths (Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ...

  1. Dukkha: All worldly life is unsatisfactory, disjointed, containing suffering.
  2. Samudaya: There is a cause of suffering, which is attachment or desire (tanha) rooted in ignorance.
  3. Nirodha: There is an end of suffering, which is Nirvana.
  4. Maggo: There is a path that leads out of suffering, known as the Noble Eightfold Path.

Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and aversion. ... Tanha (Sanskrit: Trsna), translates as desire, craving, thirst, want, longing, yearning. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Noble Eightfold Path, according to Buddhism and as taught by Gautama Buddha, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ...

The Cause of Suffering

The central theory of Buddhist philosophy that explains the cause of suffering is Pratītyasamutpāda (in Sanskrit). It is written in devanagari as Hindi: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद and pronounced as "prətītyə səmυtpα:də". It means that everything in the world, including the soul, is only relative and momentary. It literally means "origin of an action". The action is not independent but depends upon its cause, hence the famous Karma theory. The soul (not in the sense of an everlasting reality) goes through an eternal cycle of births and deaths because it undergoes through a series of following twelve: Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several Indian religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ...


(1) Ignorance or Avidyā, (2) Impressions or Samskāra, (3) Consciousness or Vijñāna, (4) Mind-Body Organism or Nāma Rūpa, (5) Six Senses or ŞaDāyatana, (6) Sense contact or Sparsha, (7) Sense Experience or Vedanā, (8) Craving or Tŗişhņa, (9) Mental Clinging or Upādāna, (10) Will to be born or Bhāva, (11) Rebirth or Jāti, and finally (12) Suffering or Jarā-maraņa.


Buddhism says that each of these causes give effect to the next one, till the twelvth cause recurring to the first. This cycle or births and deaths cannot be severed until one attains Nirvana.


Note that the names are given in Sanskrit and their English meanings are only approximate. Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


The Noble Eightfold Path

Main article: Noble Eightfold Path Jump to: navigation, search The Noble Eightfold Path, according to Buddhism and as taught by Gautama Buddha, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ...

Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.

In order to fully understand the noble truths and investigate whether they were in fact true, Buddha recommended that a certain lifestyle or path be followed which consists of: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  1. Right Understanding
  2. Right Thought
  3. Right Speech
  4. Right Action
  5. Right Livelihood
  6. Right Effort
  7. Right Mindfulness
  8. Right Concentration

Sometimes in the Pāli Canon the Noble Eightfold Path is spoken of as being a progressive series of stages through which the practitioner moves, the culmination of one leading to the beginning of another, but it is more usual to view the stages of the 'Path' as requiring simultaneous development. Jump to: navigation, search Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ...


The Eightfold Path essentially consists of meditation, following the precepts, and cultivating the positive converse of the precepts (e.g. benefiting living beings is the converse of the first precept of harmlessness). The Path may also be thought of as a way of developing śīla, meaning mental and moral discipline. In Sanskrit, śīla is a term in Indian-derived systems such as Hinduism and Buddhism which is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics (Tibetan tshul khrims). ...


The Five Precepts

The Buddha statue Aukana, in Sri Lanka
The Buddha statue Aukana, in Sri Lanka

Buddhists undertake certain precepts as aids on the path to coming into contact with ultimate reality. Hence, they are also known as Training rules. Laypeople generally undertake (at least one of) five precepts. The Five Precepts are not given in the form of commands such as "thou shalt not ...", but rather are promises to oneself: "I will (try) to...". Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 367 KB)Aukana - The beatiful statue of the buddha in Sri Lanka. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1365, 367 KB)Aukana - The beatiful statue of the buddha in Sri Lanka. ...


The five precepts are:

  1. To refrain from harming living creatures (killing).
  2. To refrain from taking that which is not freely given (stealing).
  3. To refrain from sexual misconduct.
  4. To refrain from incorrect speech (lying, harsh language, slander, idle chit-chat).
  5. To refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness.

This difference stems from the rationale behind them. While other religions institutes commandments and is based on the wishes or commands of a divine being, Buddhist precepts are based more on common sense that the Buddha highlights to Buddhists. Just as we would not want to be killed, others, cherishing their own life would not want to be killed. Hence we should not engage in harming or killing others. The same rationale applies to the latter 3 precepts. Jump to: navigation, search Sexual misconduct is in general any sexual activity between a person in a position of authority and one of his or her subordinates. ...


The last precept involving refrain from intoxicants is unique in that the act of taking intoxicants itself is commonly not seen as an immediate or direct harm towards others. Instead it may serve as the catalyst for further acts of transgression against others in terms of either a single or possible combination of any of the first four precepts. The daily news will ascertain for us that there are daily crimes and accidents around the world that result from taking of alcohol or other forms of intoxicants, many of which could have been avoided if only this training rule is observed.


In addition to the indirect effects of intoxicants is the direct impact that intoxicants have, of dulling the mind. Mindfulness, a central teaching in Buddhism, builds upon our ability to train our mind and develop it to its fullest potential of enlightenment, whereas taking of intoxicants runs counter to that and impedes mindfulness by allowing dullness and heedlessness of the mind.


The other distinguishing feature of the Buddhist precepts is that they are wider-ranging in implication than the "commandments" of some other religions. The first precept, against killing, for example, forbids the killing of animals as well as humans (but see #Vegetarianism). Furthermore, in Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha indicates how all-inclusive the injunction against killing is, saying (in The Scripture of Brahma's Net):

"Disciples of the Buddha, should you yourself kill, wilfully cause another to kill, encourage someone to kill, extol killing, take pleasure in seeing killing take place, deliberately wish someone dead, intentionally cause death, supply the instruments or means for killing, cut off a life even when sanctioned by law, that is, participate in any way in killing, you are committing a serious offense warranting exclusion. Pray, do not intentionally kill anything whatsoever which has life."

It should also be noted that the literal, and possibly original, meaning of the third precept covers more than the now generally standard meaning "sexual misconduct" and actually involves refraining from "wrong indulgence in all sensory pleasures".


In some schools of Buddhism, serious lay people or aspiring monks take an additional three to five ethical precepts, and some of the five precepts are strengthened. For example, the precept pertaining to sexual misconduct becomes a precept of celibacy. Fully ordained monks and nuns of the Theravada school also observe 227 and 311 patimokkha training rules respectively, while Fully ordained Mahayana monks and nuns observe 250 and 348 equivalent training rules respectively and also an additional set of, generally, 41 bodhisattva vows. In Buddhism, Patimokkha is the basic code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for monks (bhikkhus) and 311 for nuns (bhikkhunis). ... In the Bodhisattva vows (sometimes called the Bodhisattva Precepts) of Mahayana Buddhism, the bodhisattvas take vows stating that they will not realize or attain Nirvana until all sentient beings have done so. ...


See also: Pancasila and Buddha Statues of Bamiyan This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ... One of the Buddhas of Bamiyan before destruction, Afghanistan The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamiyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km northwest of Kabul at an altitude of 2500 meters. ...


The three marks of conditioned existence

According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals: Jump to: navigation, search Dharma (sanskrit, roughly law or way) is the way of the higher Truths. ...

  • Anicca
  • Dukkha
  • Anatta
  • Anicca (Pāli; Sanskrit: anitya): All compounded phenomena (things and experiences) are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. (Practically) everything is made up of parts, and is dependent on the right conditions for its existence. Everything is in constant flux, and so conditions and the thing itself is constantly changing. Things are constantly coming into being, and ceasing to be. Nothing lasts.
Important point here is that phenomena arises and ceases according to (complex) conditions and not according to our whims and fancy. While we have limited ability to effect change to our possessions and surroundings, experience tells us that our feeble attempts are not guarantee that the results of our efforts will be to our likings. More often than not, the results fall short of our expectations.
  • Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha): "Whatever is impermanent is subject to change. Whatever is subject to change is subject to suffering" - The Buddha.
Striving for what we desire, we may experience stress and suffering. Getting what we desired, we may find delight and happiness. Soon after, the novelty may wear out and we may get bored with it. Boredom is a form of disatisfaction (or suffering) and to escape from it, we divert ourselves from such boredom by indulging in a pursuit of new forms of pleasure. Sometimes not willing to relinquish objects that we are already disinterested in, we start to collect and amass possessions instead of sharing with others who may have better use in it than we do. Boredom is a result of change. Change of our interest in that object of desire that so captivated us in the first place.
If we do not get bored already, then change may instead occur in the object of desire. Silverware may become tarnished, a new dress worn thin or a gadget gone obsolete. Or it may become broken, causing us to grieve. In some cases it may get lost or stolen. In some cases, we may worry about such losses even before it happens. Husbands and wives worry about losing their spouses even though their partners are faithful. Unfortunately, sometimes our very worry and fear drives us to act irrationally, resulting in distrust and breaking up of the very relationship that we cherished so much.
While we like changes like becoming an adult when we are in our teens, we dislike the change called aging. While we strive for change to become rich, we fear the change of retrenchment. We are selective in our attitude towards the transient nature of our very existence. Unfortunately, this transient nature is unselective. We can try to fight it, just as many have tried since beginningless time, only to have our efforts washed away through the passages of time. As a result, we continually experience dissatisfaction or suffering due to the very impermanence of compounded phenomena.
  • Anatta (Pāli; Sanskrit: anātman): In Indian philosophy, the concept of a self is called ātman (that is, "soul" or metaphysical self), which refers to an unchanging, permanent essence conceived by virtue of existence. This concept and the related concept of Brahman, the Vedantic monistic ideal, which was regarded as an ultimate ātman for all beings, were indispensable for mainstream Indian metaphysics, logic, and science; for all apparent things there had to be an underlying and persistent reality, akin to a Platonic form. The Buddha rejected all concepts of ātman, emphasizing not permanence, but changeability. He taught that all concepts of a substantial personal self were incorrect, and formed in the realm of ignorance. However, in a number of major Mahayana sutras (e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Tathagatagarbha Sutra, the Srimala Sutra, among others), the Buddha is presented as clarifying this teaching by saying that, while the skandhas (constituents of the ordinary body and mind) are not the Self, there does truly exist an eternal, unchanging, blissful Buddha-essence in all sentient beings, which is the uncreated and deathless Buddha-nature ("Buddha-dhatu") or "True Self" of the Buddha himself. This immaculate Buddhic Self (atman) is in no way to be construed as a mundane, impermanent, suffering "ego", of which it is the diametrical opposite. On the other hand, this Buddha-essence or Buddha-nature is also often explained as the potential for achieving Buddhahood, rather than an existing phenomenon one can grasp onto as being me or self. It is the opposite of a personalised, samsaric "I" or "mine". The paradox is that as soon as the Buddhist practitioner tries to grasp at this inner Buddha potency and cling to it as though it were his or her ego writ large, it proves elusive. It does not "exist" in the time-space conditioned and finite mode in which mundane things are bodied forth. It is presented by the Buddha in the relevant sutras as ultimately inexplicable, primordially present Reality itself - the living potency for Buddhahood inside all beings. It is finally revealed (in the last of the Buddha's Mahayana sutras, the Nirvana Sutra) not as the circumscribed "non-self", the clinging ego (which is indeed anatta/anatman), but as the ever-enduring, egoless Great Self or Dharmakaya of the Buddha.
The scriptural evidence of the Nikāyas and Āgamas is ambivalent with regard to the Buddha's reported views on the existence or otherwise of a permanent self (ātman/atta). Though he is clearly reported to have criticized many of the heterodox concepts concerning an eternal personal self and to have denied the existence of an eternal self with regards to any of the constituent elements (skandha) of a being, he is nevertheless not reported to have explictly denied the existence of a non-personal, permanent self, contrary to the popular, orthodox view of the Buddha's teachings. Moreover, when the Buddha predicates "anātman" (anatta) with regards to the constituents of a being, there is a grammatical ambivalence in the use of the term. The most natural interpretation is that he is simply stating that "the constituents are not the self" rather than "the constituents are devoid of self". This ambivalence was to prove troublesome to Buddhists after the Buddha's passing. Some of the major schools of Buddhism that developed subsequently maintained the former interpretation, but other influential schools adopted the latter interpretation and took measures to establish their view as the orthodox Buddhist position. One such proponent of this hard-line "no self" position was the monk Nagasena, who appears in the Questions of King Milinda, composed during the period of the Hellenistic Bactrian kingdoms of the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE. In this text, Nagasena demonstrates the concept of absolute 'no self' by likening human beings to a chariot and challenges King Milinda to find the essence of the chariot. Nagasena states that just as a chariot is made up of a number of things, none of which are the essence of the chariot in isolation, without the other pieces, similarly no one part of a person is a permanent entity; we can be broken up into five constituents - body, sensations, ideation, mental formations and consciousness - the consciousness being closest to the permanent idea of 'self', but is ever-changing with each new thought according to this viewpoint.
According to some thinkers both in the East and the West, the doctrine of "non-Self", may imply that Buddhism is a form of nihilism or something similar. However, as thinkers like Nagarjuna have clearly pointed out, Buddhism is not simply a rejection of the concept of existence (or of meaning, etc.) but of the hard and fast distinction between existence and nonexistence, or rather between being and nothingness. Phenomena are not independent from causes and conditions, and do not exist as isolated things as we perceive them to be. Philosophers such as Nāgārjuna stress that the lack of a permanent, unchanging, substantial self in beings and things does not mean that they do not experience growth and decay on the relative level. But on the ultimate level of analysis, one cannot distinguish an object from its causes and conditions, or even object and subject. (This is an idea appearing relatively recently in Western science.) Buddhism thus has much more in common with Western empiricism, pragmatism, and anti-foundationalism than with nihilism.
In the Nikāyas, the Buddha and his disciples are commonly found to ask in question or declare "Is that which is impermanent, subject to change, subject to suffering fit to be considered thus: 'This I am, this is mine, this is my self'?" The question which the Buddha posts to his audience is whether compounded phenomena is fit to be considered as self, in which the audience agrees that it is unworthy to be considered so. And in relinquishing such an attachment to compounded phenomena, such a person gives up delight, desire and craving for compounded phenomena and is unbounded by its change. When completely free from attachments, craving or desire to the five aggregates, such a person experiences then transcends the very causes of suffering.
In this way, the insight wisdom or prajñā of non-self gives rise to cessation of suffering, and not an intellectual debate over whether a self exist or not.

It is by realizing (not merely understanding intellectually, but making real in one's experience) the three marks of conditioned existence that one develops prajñā, which is the antidote to the ignorance that lies at the root of all suffering. Impermanence (Sanskrit: anitya; Pali anicca; Tibetan: mi rtag pa; Chinese: 無常, wúcháng; Japanese: mujō) is one of the essential doctrines of Buddhism. ... Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and aversion. ... The Buddhist doctrine of Anatta (Pāli) or Anātman (Sanskrit) specifies the absence of a supposedly permanent and unchanging self or soul (ātman). ... Jump to: navigation, search The soul according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the ethereal substance — spirit (Hebrew:rooah or nefesh) — particular to a unique living being. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Monism is the metaphysical view that there is only one principle, essence, substance or energy. ... Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ... According to Platonic realism, universals exist in a realm (often so called) that is separate from space and time; one might say that universals have a sort of ghostly or heavenly mode of existence, but, at least in more modern versions of Platonism, such a description is probably more misleading... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Tathagatagarbha Sutra is an influential and doctrinally striking Mahayana Buddhist scripture which treats of the existence of the Tathagatagarbha (Buddha-Matrix, Buddha-Embryo) within all sentient creatures. ... The Śrīmālā Sūtra (full title: ) is one of the main early Mahayana Buddhist texts that taught the theories of tathagatagarbha and the Single Vehicle, through the words of the Indian Queen Śrīmālā. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual, ego, or soul (possibly atman) is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... This is a disambiguation page for the term atman (or atma). ... Jump to: navigation, search Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehankyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Buddhist doctrine of Anatta (Pāli) or Anātman (Sanskrit) specifies the absence of a supposedly permanent and unchanging self or soul (ātman). ... The Buddhist doctrine of Anatta (Pāli) or Anātman (Sanskrit) specifies the absence of a permanent and unchanging self or soul (ātman). ... The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gods death or nonexistence is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... Jump to: navigation, search A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Empiricism (greek εμπειρισμός, from empirical, latin experientia - the experience), is the philosophical doctrine that all human knowledge ultimately comes from the senses and from experience. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... Anti-foundationalism is a term applied to any philosophy which rejects a foundationalist approach; i. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ...


See also: three marks of existence After much meditation, the Buddha concluded that everything in the physical world (plus everything in the phenomenology of psychology) is marked by three characteristics, known as the three characteristics of existence or Dharma Seals. ...


Buddha-dhatu ("Buddha-Principle", "Buddha-nature")

The Buddha's Mahayana doctrines contain a set of "ultimate" (nitartha) teachings on the immanence of a hidden core reality within all sentient beings which is linked to the eternality of the Buddha and Nirvana. This immanent yet transcendent essence is variously called, in the key tathagatagarbha sutras which expound it, the Buddha-dhatu ("Buddha-element", Buddha-nature) or the Tathagatagarbha. This Buddha-dhatu is empty of all that is contingent, painful and impermanent. In the Nirvana Sutra, it is called by the Buddha the "True Self" (to distinguish it from the "false" worldly self of the five skandhas). It is no less than the unfabricated, uncreated, uncompounded, immaculate, immortal, all-knowing, radiantly shining Principle of blissful Buddhahood - the very Dharmakaya,Dhammakaya法身. This Tathagatagarbha/ Buddha-dhatu, inherent in all beings, can never be destroyed or harmed, and yet is concealed from view by a mass of obscuring mental and moral taints within the mind-stream of the individual being. Once the Buddha-dhatu is finally seen and known by the faithful Buddhist practitioner, it has the power to transform that seer and knower into a Buddha. The doctrine of the Tathagatagarbha/Buddha-dhatu is stated by the Buddha of the Mahaparinirvana Sutra to be the "absolutely final culmination" of his Dharma. The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehankyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual, ego, or soul (possibly atman) is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dhammakaya Tradition In the rapidly-changing social climate of Thailand over the past three decades, the Dhammakaya Movement has been one of only a few religious establishments whose work has attempted to keep pace with the changing spiritual demands of Thai society. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ...


Other principles and practices

  • Meditation or dhyāna of some form is a common practice in most if not all schools of Buddhism, for the clergy if not the laity.
  • Central to Buddhist doctrine and practice is the law of karma and vipaka; action and its fruition, which happens within the dynamic of dependent origination (pratītya-samutpāda). Actions which result in positive retribution (happiness) are defined as skillful or good, while actions that produce negative results (suffering) are called unskillful or bad actions. These actions are expressed by the way of mind, body or speech. Some actions bring instant retribution while the results of other actions may not appear until a future lifetime. Most teachers are, however, quick to point out that though it may be a result of someone's past-life karma that they suffer, this should not be used as an excuse to treat them poorly; indeed, all should help them and help to alleviate their suffering, leading to them working to alleviate their own suffering.
  • Rebirth, which is closely related to the law of karma. An action in this life may not give fruit or reaction until the next life time. This being said, action in a past life takes effect in this one, making a chain of existence. The full realization of the absence of an eternal self or soul (the doctrine of anatta (Pāli; Sanskrit: anātman)) breaks this cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Jump to: navigation, search Meditation refers to any of a wide variety of spiritual practices (and their close secular analogues) which emphasize mental activity or quiescence. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several Indian religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... Vipaka (Pali Lit. ... Dependent Origination (Sanskrit: pratītya-samutpāda, Pali: paticca samuppada) The doctrine of pratitya-samutpada is Buddhisms primary contribution to metaphysics. ... Jump to: navigation, search Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म from the root kri, to do, meaning deed) or Kamma (Pali: meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term in several Indian religions that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... According to Buddhism, there is a cycle of death and rebirth that can be transcended by the practice of the Eightfold Path. ... Jump to: navigation, search In Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and other related religions, samsara or saṃsāra refers to the concept of reincarnation or rebirth in Indian philosophical traditions. ...

Vegetarianism

The first lay precept in Buddhism prohibits killing. Many see this as implying that Buddhists should not eat the meat of animals. However, this is not necessarily the case. The Buddha made distinction between killing an animal and consumption of meat, stressing that it is immoral conduct that makes one impure, not the food one eats. In one of the Pali sutras belonging to the Theravada lineage of Buddhism, the Buddha says that vegetarianism is preferable, but as monks in ancient India were expected to receive all their food by begging they had little or no control over their diet. Furthermore, the Buddha did not wish to lay an extra burden on his lay followers by demanding that their food should be vegetarian. During the Buddha's time, there was no general rule requiring monks to refrain from eating meat. In fact, at one point the Buddha specifically refused to institute vegetarianism and the Pali Canon records the Buddha himself eating meat on several occasions. There were, however, rules prohibiting certain types of meat, such as human, leopard and elephant meat. Monks are also prohibited from consuming an animal if they have witnessed its death or know it was killed specifically for them. This rule was not applied to the commercial purchase of meat in the case of a general who sent a servant to purchase meat specifically to feed the Buddha. Therefore, eating commercially purchased meat is not prohibited. This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, poultry, fish or their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs [2]. The exclusion also extends to products derived from animal carcasses, such as lard, tallow, gelatin, rennet and cochineal. ... Jump to: navigation, search Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, drugs, alcohol, or other things from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leopards (Panthera pardus) are one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera. ... Jump to: navigation, search Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pest animals, the only family in the order Proboscidea that still exists today. ...


On the other hand, the Buddha in certain Mahayana sutras strongly denounces the eating of meat. In the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Buddha states that "the eating of meat extinguishes the seed of great compassion", adding that all and every kind of meat and fish consumption (even of animals already found dead) is prohibited by him. The Buddha also predicts in this sutra that later monks will "hold spurious writings to be the authentic Dharma" and will concoct their own sutras and mendaciously claim that the Buddha allows the eating of meat, whereas in fact (he says) he does not. A long passage in the Lankavatara Sutra shows the Buddha weighing strongly in favor of vegetarianism, since the eating of the flesh of fellow sentient beings is said by him to be incompatible with the compassion that a Bodhisattva should strive to cultivate. Several other Mahayana sutras also emphatically prohibit the consumption of meat. Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Lankavatara Sutra is one of the most important sacred texts of Mahayana Buddhism. ...


A solution to this problem was provided when monks from the Indian sphere of influence migrated to China, as of the year 65 CE. There they met followers who provided them with money instead of food. From those days onwards Chinese monastics, and others who came to inhabit northern countries, cultivated their own vegetable plots and bought food in the market.


In the modern world, attitudes toward vegetarianism vary by location. In the Theravada countries of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka, monks are bound by the vinaya to accept almost any food that is offered to them, often including meat, while in China and Vietnam monks are expected to eat no meat. In Japan and Korea, some monks practice vegetarianism, and most will do so at least when training at a monastery, but otherwise they typically do eat meat. In Tibet, where vegetable nutrition is historically very scarce, and the adopted vinaya was the Nikaya Sarvāstivāda, vegetarianism is very rare, although the Dalai Lama and other esteemed lamas invite their audiences to adopt vegetarianism when they can. In the West, of course, a wide variety of practices are followed. Lay Buddhists generally follow dietary rules less rigorously than monastics. Jump to: navigation, search Vegetables in a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary grain, fruit, nut, herb, or spice. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nutrition is the study of the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ... The Sarvastivada (roughly, Proclaiming that all exist) --a reference to one of the distinguishing doctrines of the school, the existence of dharmas in all of the three times (past, present, and future). ... Jump to: navigation, search The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (taa-lai bla-ma) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace back to 1391. ...


The three main branches of Buddhism

Stone carvings at Dazu near Chongqing, China.
Stone carvings at Dazu near Chongqing, China.

Buddhism has evolved into myriad schools that can be roughly grouped into three types: Nikaya, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Of the Nikaya schools, only the Theravada survives. Each branch sees itself as representing the true, original teachings of the Buddha, and some schools believe that the dialectic nature of Buddhism allows its format, terminology, and techniques to adapt over time in response to changing circumstances, thus validating dharmic approaches different from their own. Dazu Stone Carvings on Mount Baoding, Dazu County, near Chongqing, China - Photo taken 25 December 2004 by User: Calton. ... Dazu Stone Carvings on Mount Baoding, Dazu County, near Chongqing, China - Photo taken 25 December 2004 by User: Calton. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dazu Stone Carvings on Mount Baoding The Dazu Stone Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. ... Jump to: navigation, search Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of...


Although Buddhists concur that taking refuge should be undertaken with proper motivation (complete liberation) and an understanding of the objects of refuge, the Indian scholar Atisha identified that in practice there are many different motives found for taking refuge. His idea was to use these different motivations as a key to resolving any apparent conflicts between all the Buddha's teachings without depending upon some form of syncretism that would cause as much confusion as it attempted to alleviate. The various motives for taking refuge are enumerated as follows, typically introduced using the concept of the "scope" (level of motivation) of a practitioner: Jump to: navigation, search Atiśa Dipamkarashrijnana (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist teacher who reintroduced Buddhism into Tibet after King Langdharma has nearly destroyed it. ...

  • Worldly scope: to improve the lot of this life - this is not a Buddhist motivation.
  • Low scope: to gain high rebirth and avoid the low realms.
  • Middle scope: to achieve Nirvana (liberation from rebirth).
  • High scope: to achieve Buddhahood in order to liberate others from suffering, the basis of the Mahayana path.
  • Highest scope is also sometimes included: to achieve Buddhahood as soon as possible - in this life - which is the scope of the highest teachings on the Vajrayana (tantric) path.
  • The Theravada school, whose name means "Doctrine of the Elders", bases its practice and doctrine exclusively on the Pali Canon, which is a collection of what are known as agamas or nikaya sutras. The nikaya sutras are generally considered by modern scholars to be the oldest of the surviving types of Buddhist literature, and they are accepted as authentic in every branch of Buddhism. Theravada is the only surviving representative of the historical Nikaya branch. Nikaya Buddhism and consequently Theravada are sometimes referred to by the Mahayana as Hinayana or "small vehicle", although this is considered by some to be impolite. Native Theravada is practiced today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and portions of China, Vietnam, and Malaysia. The aim of Nikaya Buddhism is to achieve liberation from rebirth and thus Nirvana.
  • The Mahāyāna (literally "Great Vehicle") branch emphasizes universal compassion and the selfless ideal of the bodhisattva, whose goal is to achieve Buddhahood in order to be of greatest benefit to other sentient beings. In addition to the Nikaya scriptures, Mahāyāna schools recognize all or part of a genre of scriptures that were first put in writing around 1 CE. These scriptures were written in some form of Sanskrit, except a few manuscripts in Prakrit, and are concerned with the purpose of achieving Buddhahood by following the path of the bodhisattva over the course of what is often described as countless eons of time. Because of this immense timeframe, some Mahāyāna schools accept the idea of working towards rebirth in a Pure Land. The Pure Land is normally conceived of as a state which is not enlightenment in itself but which is a highly conducive environment for working toward enlightenment, although some sources indicate that it is synonymous with enlightenment. Native Mahāyāna Buddhism is practiced today in China, Japan, Korea, and most of Vietnam. The various sub-sects of Mahayana Buddhism include: various schools within Pure Land Buddhism (the dominant variety of Mahayana Buddhism) and Zen. Sub-sects within Mahayana are also due to the variations of local cultural interpretations. ie. Chinese Buddhism, Korean Buddhism, Japanese Buddhism, and Vietnamese Buddhism.
  • The Vajrayāna or "Diamond Vehicle" (also referred to as Mantrayana, Tantrayana, Tantric or esoteric Buddhism) shares the basic concepts of Mahāyāna, but also includes a vast array of spiritual techniques designed to enhance Buddhist practice. Vajrayana Buddhism exists today in the form of two major sub-schools: Tibetan Buddhism and Shingon Buddhism. One component of the Vajrayāna is harnessing psycho-physical energy as a means of developing profoundly powerful states of concentration and awareness. These profound states are in turn to be used as an efficient path to Buddhahood. Using these techniques, it is claimed that a practitioner can achieve Buddhahood in one lifetime, or even as little as three years. In addition to the Theravada and Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognise a large body of texts that include the Buddhist Tantras. Native Vajrayana is practiced today mainly in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, Kalmykia (in Russia), Siberia (in Russia), areas of India, and -- among the Shingon (Zhènyān, 真言) and Tendai schools -- in China and Japan.

Jump to: navigation, search Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ... Jump to: navigation, search Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Nikaya Buddhism is a general term for those schools of Buddhism that accept only the class of sutras collected in the Pāli Canon as authentic. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Jump to: navigation, search Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ... (Redirected from 1 CE) For other uses, see One (disambiguation), for the number, see Number 1. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... KalPa, short for Kalevan Pallo, is a Finnish ice hockey team based at Kuopion jäähalli (capacity 5165), Kuopio. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Jump to: navigation, search A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibetan Buddhism - formerly (and incorrectly) also called Lamaism, after their religious gurus known as lamas - is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Located in Kyoto, Japan, Daigoji is the head temple of the Ono branch of Shingon. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Jump to: navigation, search Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tendai-shÅ« (天台宗) is a Japanese school of Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. ...

Buddhist regions of the world

The following is a comprehensive aspect of the dominant forms of Buddhism along with the primary regions with which they are associated.

At the present time the teachings of all three branches of Buddhism have spread throughout the world and are now easily available in western countries, and increasingly translated into local languages. Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 The Mekong Delta is the region in Southeast Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries. ... Jump to: navigation, search Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: ; Vietnamese: Vân Nam) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Jump to: navigation, search Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih or (old orthography) ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; obsolete romanizations include Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Jump to: navigation, search Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibetan Buddhism - formerly (and incorrectly) also called Lamaism, after their religious gurus known as lamas - is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The Amur Oblast (363,700 km², pop. ... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... Khabarovsk Krai (Хаба́ровский кра́й) (1995 pop. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Located in Kyoto, Japan, Daigoji is the head temple of the Ono branch of Shingon. ...


It is believed that China is the only country where all of the major sects of Buddhism have significant numbers of followers.


Buddhism after the Buddha

One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.

Buddhism spread slowly in India until the powerful Mauryan emperor Ashoka converted to it and actively supported it. His promotion led to construction of Buddhist religious sites and missionary efforts that spread the faith into the countries listed at the beginning of the article. Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Jump to: navigation, search Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search Please see Ashoka (disambiguation) for other uses of the word Ashoka Ashoka the Great (also Asoka, अशोक Aśoka; pronounced Ashok, even though there is an a at the end) was the ruler of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. After a number of...


After about 500 CE, Buddhism showed signs of waning in India, becoming nearly extinct after about 1200 CE. This was in part due to Hinduism's revival movements such as Advaita and the rise of the bhakti movement. By the time Muslims entered the Subcontinent in large numbers, Buddhism had been pushed to the Indian "frontiers": Largely relegated to what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh. Over time, the local Buddhist populations gradually assimilated into Islam, hence the concentration of South Asian Islam in the far west and east of the Subcontinent. Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Jump to: navigation, search Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ...


Elements of Buddhism have remained within India to the current day: the Bauls of Bengal have a syncretic set of practices with strong emphasis on many Buddhist concepts. Other areas of India have never parted from Buddhism, including Ladakh and other areas bordering the Tibetan, Nepali and Bhutanese borders. Jump to: navigation, search Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla (Bengali), is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tikse monastery, Ladakh Hemis Monastery in the 1870s Ladakh is the largest district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, covering more than half the area of the state (of which it is the eastern part). ...


Buddhism also remained in the rest of the world although in Central Asia and later Indonesia it was mostly replaced by Islam. In China and Japan, it adopted aspects of the native beliefs of Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto respectively. In Tibet, the Tantric Vajrayana lineage was preserved after it disappeared in India.
Jump to: navigation, search Sage Confucius——孔子 Confucianism (Chinese: 儒家, Pinyin Rújiā, The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ... Jump to: navigation, search A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ...


History of the schools

Three months after the passing of Gautama Buddha, The First Council was held at Rajagaha by his immediate disciples who had attained Arahantship (Enlightenment). Maha Kassapa, the most respected and elderly monk, presided at the Council. The Dhamma and the Vinaya were recited at the First Council. All Arahants unanimously agree that no disciplinary rule laid down by the Buddha should be changed, and no new ones should be introduced. At this point, no conflict about what the Buddha taught is known to have occurred, so the teachings were divided into various parts and each was assigned to an elder and his pupils to commit to memory. These groups of people often cross-checked with each other to ensure that no omissions or additions were made. A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (Sanskrit, also arahat or arahant (Pali); Chinese: 阿羅漢, āluóhàn; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... Mahākāśyapa (摩訶迦葉) or Kāśyapa was a brahman of Magadha, who became one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni Buddha and who convened and directed the first council. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (Sanskrit, also arahat or arahant (Pali); Chinese: 阿羅漢, āluóhàn; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ...

Novice monks in Burma
Novice monks in Burma

At the Second Council, one hundred years later, it was not the dharma that was called into question but the monks' code of rules or vinaya. This resulted in the formation of the Sthaviravādin and Mahāsānghika schools. Opinions differ on the cause of the split: the Sthaviravādins described their opponents as lax monks who had ceased to follow all the vinaya rules, while the Mahāsānghikas argued that the Buddha had never intended a rigid adherence to all the minor rules. Apart from Pāli sources, an important independent account of this split is found in the Shāriputra-pariprcchā (The Enquiry of Shāriputra), an eclectic text of Indic origin, which differs radically from the received Theravādin version. According to this version, the Mahāsānghikas were not the defeated party, but the conservative party that preserved the original vinaya unchanged against the reformist attempts of the Sthāviras to establish a reorganized and stricter version. Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 691 KB)9 year old novice monks in Burma File links The following pages link to this file: Buddhism Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 691 KB)9 year old novice monks in Burma File links The following pages link to this file: Buddhism Categories: GFDL images ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The Mahāsaṃghika (Majority) sect of Buddhism was formed in the first Buddhist schism around 320 BCE. It split from the Sthaviravāda (Elders) school. ...


However, after this initial division, more were to follow. Schism in early Buddhism was typically not on points of doctrine (orthodoxy), but in the area of practice (orthopraxy). So if two schools shared a vinaya, but were in dispute over doctrinal matters, it was likely that they would continue to practice together. However, if one group disputed the vinaya of another, this would often prevent common practice.


In the 3rd century BCE, Theravadin sources state that a Third Council was convened under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka, but since no mention of this council is found in other sources and because of various implausible features in this account, most scholars treat the historicity of this Third Council with skepticism although it is generally accepted that one or several disputes did occur during Asoka's reign, involving both doctrinal and vinaya matters, although these are likely to have been too informal to be called a Council. This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ...


However, according to the Theravadin account, this Council was convened primarily for the purpose of establishing an official orthodoxy. At the council, small groups raised questions about the specifics of the vinaya and the interpretation of doctrine. The chairman of the council, Moggaliputta Tissa, compiled a book called the Kathavatthu, which was meant to refute these arguments. The council sided with Moggaliputta and his version of Buddhism as orthodox; it was then adopted by Emperor Ashoka as his empire's official religion. This school of thought was termed Vibhajjavada (Pali), literally "Teaching of Analysis". The version of the scriptures that had been established at the Third Council, including the vinaya, sutta and the abhidhamma commentaries (collectively known as Tripitaka), was taken to Sri Lanka by Emperor Ashoka's son, the Venerable Mahinda. There it was eventually committed to writing in the Pali language. The Pali Canon remains the only complete set of Nikaya scriptures to survive, although fragments of other versions exist. Kathavatthu (Pali), literally Points of Controversy, is one of the seven books in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Vibhajyavada (Pali: Vibhajjavada), is an umbrella classification for Buddhist denominations that promote analysis as a primary tool for developing insight. ... . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Abhidharma (Sanskrit; (Pāli Abhidhamma) is a category of Buddhist scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Mahinda was the son of Emperor Ashoka. ... Jump to: navigation, search Writing may refer to two activities: the inscribing of characters on a medium, with the intention of forming words and other constructs that represent language or record information, and the creation of material to be conveyed through written language. ... . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ...


Whatever might be the truth behind the Theravādin account, it was around the time of Asoka that further divisions began to occur within the Buddhist movement and a number of additional schools emerged, including the Sarvāstivāda and the Sammitīya. All of these early schools of Nikayan Buddhism eventually came to be known collectively as the Eighteen Schools in later sources. Unfortunately, with the exception of the Theravāda, none of early these schools survived beyond the late medieval period by which time several were already long extinct, although a considerable amount of the canonical literature of some of these schools has survived, mainly in Chinese translation. Moreover, the origins of specifically Mahāyāna doctrines may be discerned in the teachings of some of these early schools, in particular in the Mahāsānghika and the Sarvāstivāda. Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ...


Between the 1st century BCE and the 1st century CE, the terms Mahayana and Hinayana were first used in writing, in, for example, the Lotus Sutra. (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Hinayana (Sanskrit: inferior vehicle; Chinese:小乘, Xiǎoshèng; Japanese: Shōjō) is a term coined by the Mahayana, which appeared publicly around the 1st century CE. There are differing views on the use and meaning of the term, both among scholars and within Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharmapundarīka-sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Cn: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Jp: Myōhō Renge Kyō) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and the basis on which the Tiantai and Nichiren sects of Buddhism...


A Fourth Council is said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, around 100 CE at Jalandhar or in Kashmir, although it seems to have been primarily a Sarvāstivāda affair. For this reason, Theravāda Buddhism does not recognize the authenticity of this council, and sometimes they call it the “council of heretical monks”. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ...


It is said that Kanishka gathered 500 monks, headed by Vasumitra, primarily, it seems, to compile extensive commentaries on the Abhidharma, although it is possible that some editorial work was carried out upon the canon itself. The main fruit of this Council was the vast commentary known as the Mahā-Vibhāshā ("Great Exegesis"), an extensive compendium and reference work on a portion the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma. Scholars beleieve that it was also around this time that a significant change was made in the language of the Sarvāstivādin canon, by converting an earlier Prakrit version into Sanskrit. Although this change was probably effected without significant loss of integrity to the canon, this event was of particular significance since Sanskrit was the learned language of scholars in India, regardless of their specific religious or philosophical allegiance, thus enabling a far wider audience to gain access to Buddhist ideas and practices. For this reason, all major Buddhist scholars in India thereafter wrote their commentaries and treatises in Sanskrit. Jump to: navigation, search Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


During and after the 2nd century explicitly Mahayana philosophies were defined in the works of Nagarjuna, Asanga, Shantideva, Ashvagosha, and Vasubandhu. // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Jump to: navigation, search A statue depicting Nagarjuna Nāgārjuna (నాగార్జునా in Telugu, 龍樹 in Chinese) (c. ... Asanga (also called Aryasanga), born around 300 C.E., was a great exponent of the Yogacara. ... Shantideva (sometimes Santideva) was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist scholar at Nalanda University and an adherent of the Madhyamika philosophy. ... Vasubandhu (Sanskrit. ...

A painting depicting a Central Asian Tocharian monk (left) along with a Chinese monk (right). The painting is from the 9th or 10th century in the Tarim Basin.
A painting depicting a Central Asian Tocharian monk (left) along with a Chinese monk (right). The painting is from the 9th or 10th century in the Tarim Basin.

Around the 1st century, Buddhism spread from India through successive waves of merchants and pilgrims. It reached as far as Turkmenistan and Arabia to the west, and eastward to southeast Asia, where the first records of Buddhism date from around 400. Mahayana Buddhism established a major regional center in what is today Afghanistan, and from there it spread to China, Korea, Mongolia,Japan, and Vietnam. In 475, the Indian monk Bodhidharma travelled to China and established the Chan (Chinese; Japanese: Zen), school. During the first millennium, monks from China such as Faxian, Yijing and Xuanzang made pilgrimages to India and wrote accounts of their travels when they returned home. These Chinese travel records constitute extremely valuable sources for information concerning the state of Buddhism in India during the early medieval period. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Jump to: navigation, search Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... // Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... CHAN-TV Vancouver, British Columbia (otherwise known as Global BC) is the Global Television Networks owned-and-operated station in British Columbia, broadcasting from its studios in Lake City in Burnaby. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... (1st millennium BC – 1st millennium – 2nd millennium – other millennia) Events Beginning of Christianity and Islam London founded by Romans as Londinium Diaspora of the Jews The Olympic Games observed until 393 The Library of Alexandria, largest library in the world, burned Rise and fall of the Roman Empire Germanic kingdoms... Fǎxiǎn (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... Not to be confused with the I Ching 易經, the Book of Changes. ... Jump to: navigation, search Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ...


At one time, different Turkic and Tocharian groups along the northern fringe of East Turkestan (modern Xinjiang in western China) adhered to Nikaya Buddhism. However, Buddhism there was supplanted by the introduction of Islam around 1000. Jump to: navigation, search If you mean the Turks from Final Fantasy VII see: Turks (Final Fantasy VII) Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family of languages and which share in varying degrees, ethnic, cultural and historical traits. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... Jump to: navigation, search Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: (Shinjang)), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Nikaya Buddhism is a general term for those schools of Buddhism that accept only the class of sutras collected in the Pāli Canon as authentic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Vajrayana also evolved at this stage carried from India to Tibet from around 800 by teachers such as Padmasambhava and Atisha. There it initially coexisted with native belief systems such as Bön, but later came to largely supplant or absorb them. An early form of esoteric Vajrayana known as Shingon was also transmitted by the priest Kūkai to Japan, where it continues to be practiced. Jump to: navigation, search A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ... Jump to: navigation, search Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue - near Kulu Padmasambhava (Ch: 蓮華生上師; Tib: Padma Jungne), in Sanskrit meaning lotus-born, founded the Tibetan or tantric school of Buddhism in the 8th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search AtiÅ›a Dipamkarashrijnana (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist teacher who reintroduced Buddhism into Tibet after King Langdharma has nearly destroyed it. ... Bön has typically been described as the shamanistic religion in Tibet before the arrival of Buddhism in the 7th century. ... Shingon (真言宗) is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and the most important school of Vajrayana Buddhism outside of the Himalayan region. ... Painting of Kukai (774-835). ...


There is still an active debate as to whether or not Tantrism was initially developed within Buddhism or Hinduism. Buddhist literature tends to predate the later puranic Tantras, and there is some evidence to suggest that the basic structure of tantra depends upon the Mahayana Buddhist philosophical schools. However, it is thought by others that meditative Shiva sects seem to have existed from pre-Vedic times; also, from scriptural citations and study of the Vedas, some say Tantra saw its philosophical basis in the mystical rites and mantras of the Atharva Veda (and later the Upanishads and Mahayana school of Buddhism). Jump to: navigation, search Tantra (Sanskrit: loom), tantric yoga or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Meditation refers to any of a wide variety of spiritual practices (and their close secular analogues) which emphasize mental activity or quiescence. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vedas (Sanskrit:- वेद), refers to collectively a corpus of Old Indo Aryan religious Literature, the newest parts of which probably date back to around 500 BC. There is some controversy about the upper limit, dates around 1,500 BC have been advanced by mainstream scholars. ... The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upaniṣad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ...


See also: History of Buddhism and Timeline of Buddhism Jump to: navigation, search The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. ... // Before Common Era Trad. ...


Scriptures

The Buddhist canon of scripture is known in Sanskrit as the Tripitaka and in Pāli as the Tipitaka. These terms literally mean "three baskets" and refers to the three main divisions of the canon, which are: Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Tripitaka (Sanskrit, lit. ...

Young Tibetan Buddhist monks debating
Young Tibetan Buddhist monks debating
  • The Vināya Pitaka, containing disciplinary rules for the Sangha of Buddhist monks and nuns, as well as a range of other texts which explain why and how rules were instituted, supporting material, and doctrinal clarification.
  • The Sutta Pitaka (Pāli; Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka), containing discourses of the Buddha.
  • The Abhidhamma (Skt: Abhidharma) or commentary Pitaka, containing a philosophical systematization of the Buddha's teaching, including a detailed analysis of Buddhist psychology. Though the Theravādin Abhidhamma is well preserved and widely known, it should be noted that a number of the early Eighteen Schools each had their own distinct Abhidharma collection with virtually no common textual material.

During the first few centuries after Gautama Buddha, his teachings were transmitted orally, but around the 1st Century CE they began to be written down. A given school of Buddhism will generally have its own distinctive canon of texts, which will partially overlap with those of other schools. The most notable set of texts from the early period is the Pali Canon, which was preserved in Sri Lanka by the Theravāda school. The sutras it contains are also part of the canon of every other Buddhist sect. Full versions of the original text[1] and partial English translations[2] are now readily available on the internet. Young Buddhist monks in Tibet. ... Young Buddhist monks in Tibet. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sangha is a word in Indian languages that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Jump to: navigation, search In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... The Sutta Pitaka (or Sutra Pitaka) is the second of three divisions of the Tipitaka, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings. ... Abhidharma (Sanskrit; (Pāli Abhidhamma) is a category of Buddhist scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Current Era and sometimes the Christian Era, is the period beginning with the year 1 onwards. ... Jump to: navigation, search Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... Jump to: navigation, search Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ...


The appearance of the Mahāyāna tradition brought with it a collection of new texts, composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, many of which were also described as actual sermons of the Buddha. These include the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the Avataṃsaka, the Lotus Sutra, the Vimalakīrti Sutra, and the Nirvana Sutra. Many of the Mahayana sutras were translated into Tibetan and classical Chinese and are also now read in the West. Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to some of the Mahāyāna Buddhist Sutras, such as the Perfection of Wisdom. ... Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... Jump to: navigation, search Perfection of Wisdom is a translation of the Sanskrit term prajñā pāramitā (Hanzi. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Avataṃsaka SÅ«tra (Chinese 華嚴經; pinyin hua yan jing) is one of the most influential scriptures in East Asian Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharmapundarīka-sūtra; 妙法蓮華經 Cn: Miàofǎ Liánhuā Jīng; Jp: Myōhō Renge Kyō) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and the basis on which the Tiantai and Nichiren sects of Buddhism... Vimalakirti Sutra (Chinese 維摩經 wéimó jing, Japanese 維摩経 yuima-gyō, Korean 유마경 yuma-gyeong, Sanskrit विमलकीर्ति-निर्देश-सूत्र VimalakÄ«rti-nirdeÅ›a-sÅ«tra. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehankyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of Zhou Dynasty Chinese, making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ...


The Mahāyāna corpus of sutras further expanded after Buddhism was transmitted to China, where the existing texts were translated, and new texts were composed for the purpose of adapting the Indian tradition to the East Asian philosophical mindset. Some of these works are considered by modern scholars to be spurious. On the other hand, there were texts, such as the Platform Sutra and the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment did not pretend to be of Indian origin, but are widely accepted as valid scriptures on their own merits. Later writings include the Linji Lu of Chan master Linji. In the course of the development of Korean Buddhism and Japanese Buddhism, further important texts were composed. These included, for example, in Korea, some of the writings of Jinul, and in Japan, works such as Dogen's Shobogenzo. The Platform Sutra (more fully, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch) is a Buddhist scripture that was composed in China. ... Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment Buddhist Sūtra, original Chinese title is Yuanjue jing; 1 fasc. ... CHAN-TV Vancouver, British Columbia (otherwise known as Global BC) is the Global Television Networks owned-and-operated station in British Columbia, broadcasting from its studios in Lake City in Burnaby. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... Jinul (1158-1210) was a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism. ... Dōgen Zenji Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; January 19, 1200 - September 22, 1253) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and founder of the Soto school of Zen in Japan. ... The Shōbōgenzō (正法眼蔵), lit. ...


Arguably the most thorough compilation of Mahayana works is found in the Tibetan canon. This is split into those texts attributed to be authored by the Buddha (Kanjur), and those texts which are understood to be commentaries by Indian practitioners (Tenjur). Vajrayāna practitioners also study the Buddhist tantras. Jump to: navigation, search A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ...


Recently an important archaeological discovery was made, consisting of the earliest known Buddhist manuscripts, recovered from somewhere near ancient Gandhara in northwest Pakistan. These fragments, written on birch bark, are dated to the 1st century and have been compared to the Dead Sea scrolls in importance. Donated to the British Library in 1994, they are now being studied in a joint project at the University of Washington[3]. Jump to: navigation, search Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Relations with other Eastern faiths

Some Hindus (primarily in the northern regions of India) believe that Gautama is the 9th incarnation (see avatar) of Vishnu; there are accounts of the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu that are pro- and anti-Buddhist (i.e., either that Vishnu "really meant" what he said while incarnated as Buddha or that he was intentionally tricking those who follow unorthodox doctrines). This is not a majority view, however. The avatar theory came into existence in approximately the 9th century CE. Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search The 10 avatars of Lord Vishnu In Hinduism, an avatar or avatara (Sanskrit अवतार), is the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of an Immortal Being, or of the Ultimate Supreme Being. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ...


Traditionally, there has been a sharp distinction between Buddhism and what is today called "Hinduism"; this distinction is more accurately between Astika and Nastika philosophies, that is, philosophies in India which either affirmed the Vedas as divinely revealed scriptures or else regarded them as fallible human inventions. Thus Buddhism is essentially a heresy vis à vis orthodox Indian philosophy, though there are many syncretic or ecumenical tendencies within either group which are accepting of the beliefs and practices of the other. Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... AstikA is a brewery making a blond pilsner with an alcohol content of 5% ABV in the cito of Haskovo, in Southern Bulgaria. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Vedas (Sanskrit:- वेद), refers to collectively a corpus of Old Indo Aryan religious Literature, the newest parts of which probably date back to around 500 BC. There is some controversy about the upper limit, dates around 1,500 BC have been advanced by mainstream scholars. ... Jump to: navigation, search Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ...


In the Japanese religion of Shintoism Buddha is seen as a Kami (god). The Bahá'í Faith states he was an independent Manifestation of God. Siddhartha Gautama is thought to have been sanctified by the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Josaphat based on a mistaken account of his life that made him out to be a Christian convert. Some Muslims believe that Gautama Buddha is Dhul-Kifl, one of the prophets mentioned in the Qur'an. Jump to: navigation, search A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Jump to: navigation, search Kami (神) is the Japanese for god. The word is used to indicate any sort of god, beings of a higher place or belonging to a different sphere of existence. ... Jump to: navigation, search Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a nineteenth-century Iranian exile. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Saint Josaphat is said to have lived and died in the 3rd century or 4th century in India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Dhul-Kifl (Arabic ذو الكفل ) is considered by Muslims to be either a prophet of Islam or simply a righteous man mentioned in the Quran. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Jainism is an ancient religion and school of thought that predates Buddhism. One of its two most revered teachers, Mahāvīra (599 - 527 BCE according to Jains, though "some modern scholars prefer 549-477 B.C."1), was possibly a senior contemporary of the Buddha whose philosophy, sometimes described as dynamism or vitalism, was a blend of the earlier Jain teacher Pārśvanātha's order and the reforms instituted by Mahavira himself. Dialogues between the Buddha's disciples and Mahāvīra are recorded in Jain texts, and dialogues between Mahāvīra's disciples and the Buddha are included in Buddhist texts. Jump to: navigation, search Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mahavira (वर्धमान महावीर) or Mahavir (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC-527 BC, though possibly 549 BC-477 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... Dynamism is a term coined by libertarian pundit Virginia Postrel to describe her social philosophy that embraces cultural change, individual choice, and the open society. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... In Jainism, Parshva, also called Parshvanatha or Parswanath, was twenty-third Tirthankara. ...


The relationships between Taoism (Chinese folk religion still popular today) and Buddhism are complex, as they influenced each other in many ways while often competing for influence. The arrival of Buddhism forced Taoism to renew and restructure itself and address existential questions raised by Buddhism. Buddhism was seen as a kind of foreign Taoism and its scriptures were translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary. Zen (Chan) Buddhism in particular holds many beliefs in common with philosophical Taoism. Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ...


Confucianism also has much in common with Buddhism, and historically, people have practiced both. Some would argue however, that Confucianism is in fact not a religion, but a philosophy. Whatever the case, Buddhism shares many commonalities with Neo-Confucianism , which is Confucianism with more religious elements. In fact, the ritual of ancestor worship normally practiced by Confucianists, has been adapted to Chinese Buddhist beliefs. Jump to: navigation, search Sage Confucius——孔子 Confucianism (Chinese: 儒家, Pinyin Rújiā, The School of the Scholars; or, less accurately, 孔教 Kŏng jiào, The Religion of Confucius) is an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. ... These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... Jump to: navigation, search Neo-Confucianism (理學 Pinyin: Lǐxué) is a term for a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang dynasty. ...


Buddhism in the modern world

The international Buddhist flag was designed in Sri Lanka in the 1880s with the assistance of Henry Steele Olcott and was later adopted as a symbol by the World Fellowship of Buddhists.
The international Buddhist flag was designed in Sri Lanka in the 1880s with the assistance of Henry Steele Olcott and was later adopted as a symbol by the World Fellowship of Buddhists.
Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: It transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology; it covers both the natural and the spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity.
Albert Einstein

Estimates of the number of Buddhists vary between 230 and 500 million, with 350 million as the most commonly cited figure. [4] Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Flag_of_Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Flag_of_Buddhism. ... Buddhist flag The Buddhist flag is a flag designed to symbolise Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, is well-known as the first prominent person of Western descent to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. ... The World Fellowship of Buddhists (WFB) is arguably the largest and most influential international Buddhist organization. ...


Modern Asia

In northern Asia, Mahāyāna remains the most common form of Buddhism in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, (parts of) Indonesia and Singapore. Theravāda predominates in most of Southeast Asia, including Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, as well as Sri Lanka. It has seats in Malaysia and Singapore. Vajrayāna is predominant in Tibet, Mongolia, portions of Siberia and portions of India, especially those areas bordering Tibet. Kalmykia, while geographically located in Europe, is culturally closely related to Mongolia and thus its Buddhism is more properly grouped with Asian than with Western Buddhism. Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Jump to: navigation, search Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ... Jump to: navigation, search Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...


While in the West, Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive; in the East, Buddhism is regarded as familiar and part of the establishment. Buddhist organizations in Asia frequently are well-funded and enjoy support from the wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has led critics to charge that certain monks and organizations are too closely associated with the powerful and are neglecting their duties to the poor.


Buddhism and the West

In the latter half of the 19th century, Buddhism (along with many other of the world's religions and philosophies) came to the attention of Western intellectuals. These included the pessimistic German philosopher Schopenhauer-- who encountered Buddhism, and Eastern thought in general, after having devised a philosophical system of considerable compatibility, and the American philosopher Henry David Thoreau, who translated a Buddhist sutra from French into English. Western spiritual seekers were attracted to what they saw as the exotic and mystical tone of the Asian traditions, and created esoteric societies such as the Theosophical Society of H.P. Blavatsky. The Buddhist Society, London was founded by Theosophist Christmas Humphreys in 1924. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Jump to: navigation, search Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, naturalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is famous for Walden (available at wikisource) on simple living amongst nature and Civil Disobedience (available at wikisource) on... The Theosophical Society was the original organization formed to advance the religious doctrine known as Theosophy. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... The Buddhist Society, London was created in London as an offshoot of a Theosophical Lodge by Christmas Humphreys, a British judge and convert to Buddhism, along with his wife. ... Justice Christmas Humphreys Q.C. (1901 - April 1983) lawyer, High Court judge, and founder of the Buddhist Society, London. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


At first Western Buddhology was hampered by poor translations (often translations of translations), but soon Western scholars such as Max Müller began to learn Asian languages and translate Asian texts. Jump to: navigation, search Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (i dont know when he was alive), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German-born British Philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


In 1880 a committee comprised of Ven Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera (Chairman), Ven. Migettuwatte Gunananda Thera, Don Carolis Hewavitharana (father of Anagarika Dharmapala), Andiris Perera Dharmagunawardhana (maternal grandfather of Anagarika Dharmapala), William de Abrew, Charles A. de Silva, Peter de Abrew, H. William Fernando, N. S. Fernando and Carolis Pujitha Gunawardena (Secretary) designed the International Buddhist flag to celebrate the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and (Theosophist) Henry Steel Olcott made suggestions for modifying it [5]. Its stripes symbolise universal compassion, the middle path, blessings, purity and liberation, wisdom, and the conglomeration of these. The flag was accepted as the International Buddhist Flag by the 1952 World Buddhist Congress. Jump to: navigation, search 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Anagarika Dharmapala (1864 - 1933) was born David Hewavitarne in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Buddhist flag The Buddhist flag is a flag designed to symbolise Buddhism. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of belief which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ... Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, is well-known as the first prominent person of Western descent to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

A hallway in California's Hsi Lai Temple
A hallway in California's Hsi Lai Temple

In 1899 Gordon Douglas became the first Westerner to be ordained as a Buddhist monk. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search Covering 15 acres, Hsi Lai Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in the United States. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Gordon Douglas could refer to one of the following: Gordon Douglas, ordained the first Western monk in Buddhism in 1899. ...


The first Buddhists to arrive in the United States were Chinese. Hired as cheap labor for the railroads and other expanding industries, they established temples in their settlements along the rail lines. See the article on Buddhism in America for further information. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Covering 15 acres (61,000 m²), California’s Hsi Lai Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in the western hemisphere. ...


During the 20th century the German writer Hermann Hesse showed great interest in Eastern religions, writing a book entitled Siddhartha. American beat generation poet Jack Kerouac became a well-known literary Buddhist, for his roman-a-clef The Dharma Bums and other works. The cultural re-evaluations of the hippie generation in the late 1960s and early 1970s led to a re-discovery of Buddhism, which seemed to promise a more methodical path to happiness than Christianity and a way out of the perceived spiritual bankruptcy of Western life. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Hermann Hesse Hermann Hesse (July 2, 1877 – August 9, 1962) was a German author, and the winner of the 1946 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York... Jump to: navigation, search Jack Kerouac (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and part of the Beat Generation. ... A roman à clef or roman à clé (French for novel with a key) is a novel describing real-life events behind a façade of fiction. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Dharma Bums cover The Dharma Bums is a 1958 novel by Beat Generation author Jack Kerouac. ... Jump to: navigation, search Flower-Power Bus Hippie (also hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ...


Many of these 'seekers', traveling to Asia in pursuit of gurus and ancient wisdom, first encountered Buddhism in Nepal or northern India through contact with Tibetan monks who had fled the Chinese occupancy in 1959. Within a few years Tibetan lamas such as Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, Geshe Ngawang Wangyal and the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, were invited to teach in the West. Jump to: navigation, search Chögyam Trungpa (1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher and artist. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (taa-lai bla-ma) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace back to 1391. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ...


In addition to this a number of Americans who had served in the Korean or Vietnam Wars stayed out in Asia, seeking to understand both the horror they had witnessed and its context. A few of these eventually ordained as monks in the Theravadan tradition, and upon returning home became influential meditation teachers establishing such centres as IMS in America.


Another contributing factor in the flowering of Buddhist thought in the West was the popularity of Zen amongst the counter-culture poets and activists of the 60's, due to the writings of Alan Watts and D.T. Suzuki. Since that time Buddhism has become the fastest-growing religion in Australia and many other Western nations. Jump to: navigation, search From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan - July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ...


A distinctive feature of Buddhism has been the continuous evolution of the practice as it was transmitted from one country to another. This dynamic aspect is particularly evident today in the West. Chögyam Trungpa, the founder of the Shambhala meditation movement, claimed in his teachings that his intention was to strip the ethnic baggage away from traditional methods of working with the mind and to deliver the essence of those teachings to his western students. Another example of a school evolving new idioms for the transmission of the dharma is the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, founded by Sangharakshita. Lama Surya Das is a prominent Western-born teacher continuing to bring the teachings of Buddhism to Westerners. Jump to: navigation, search Chögyam Trungpa (1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher and artist. ... Jump to: navigation, search In Tibetan Buddhist tradition, Shambhala (or Shambala) is a mystical kingdom hidden somewhere beyond the snowpeaks of the Himalayas. ... Jump to: navigation, search Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO) is a Buddhist movement that was founded in the UK by Sangharakshita (formerly Dennis Lingwood) in 1967, followed by the Western Buddhist Order in 1968. ... Sangharakshita (1925-) is the founder of the Western Buddhist Order, and the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO). ... Lama Surya Das is one of the foremost American-born lamas in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism and a popular teacher of Buddhism in the United States. ...


Sogyal Rinpoche is well known for the Modern Classic 'The Tibetan Book of Living & Dying' and along with his brother Dzogchen Rinpoche are the founders of the intenational RIGPA sangha (http://www.rigpa.org.uk/).


Some, mainly American convert Buddhists including Jack Kerouac, are recently incorporating Jesus into Buddhism. They claim that Jesus is a bodhisattva in that he achieved a very high degree of enlightenment and power. Jump to: navigation, search Jack Kerouac (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and part of the Beat Generation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jesus, also known as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, most of the followers of which worship Jesus as the Messiah, son of God, and God incarnate. ... Jump to: navigation, search Enlightenment may refer to: Enlightenment (concept), a concept in mysticism, philosophy and psychology For the Hindu religious concept of enlightenment, see moksha For the Buddhist religious concept, see Bodhi, Satori For the Yoga concept of enlightenment, see Yogic Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment, a period in...


See also

Buddhism

Jump to: navigation, search A stone image of the Buddha. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... Jump to: navigation, search There is great variety in Buddhist texts. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Faith (saddha/ sraddha) is an important constituent element of the teachings of the Buddha - both in the Theravada tradition as in the Mahayana. ... Jump to: navigation, search The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddharta Gautama. ... Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel Amara Sinha B... Jump to: navigation, search A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ... In Buddhism, the Pali word kilesa (Sanskrit: kleÅ›a or klesha) is used to mean defilements or corruptions. Three main kinds of kilesa are: lobha: greed, lust (rāga), attachment. ...

Related systems and religions

Jump to: navigation, search In the West, the term Jinghaonian philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Jinghao Yan, including Iran, China, India, Japan, and the general area. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ...

References

  • Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) (2003). The Illustrated Guide to World Religions, Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-84483-125-6.
  • K. Sri Dhammananda, What the Buddha Taught. Buddhist Mission Society of Malaysia. (1964) ISBN 9834007127.
  • Gethin, Rupert (1998). Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192892231.
  • Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English, Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861713214.
  • The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra (Nirvana Publications 1999-2000), tr. by Kosho Yamamoto, revised and edited by Dr. Tony Page.
  • Thich Nhat Hanh. The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching. Broadway Books, 1974. ISBN 0767903692.
  • Thurman, Robert A. F. (translator) (1976). Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti: Mahayana Scripture, Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271006013.
  • Walpola Rahula. What the Buddha Taught. Grove Press, 1974. ISBN 0802130313.
  • Yin Shun, Yeung H. Wing (translator). The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master. Wisdom Publications, 1998. ISBN 0861711335.

Dhammananda is a Buddhist monk. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Thich Nhat Hanh Thích Nhất Hạnh (born 1926) is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in English. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (born 1941) is Jey Tsong Khapa Professor of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Studies at Columbia University and is the co-founder and president of Tibet House New York. ... The Rev. ... Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Venerable Master Yin Shun (印順導師, Yin Shun Dao Shi) (March 12th, 1906–June 4, 2005) was an important figure in modern Mahayana Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^  The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. Keith Crim, editor. Harper & Row Publishers: New York, 1989. 451.

External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Buddhism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Buddhist Channel | All you need is love (371 words)
At a Buddhist centre in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia a Nepali monk is preparing a two-year-long course in Buddhist teachings for devotees and others interested in Buddhism.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia -- The Buddhist Channel have received an email notice by the Chair of the Trustees from Pine Forest for allegations of publishing a "series of defamatory, wholly inaccurate and malicious material" regarding their organization.
Sacred Buddhist Relics en Route to Trinidad and Tobago
The E. F. Schumacher Society • Buddhist Economics (2717 words)
The Buddhist point of view takes the function of work to be at least threefold: to give man a chance to utilise and develop his faculties; to enable him to overcome his ego-centredness by joining with other people in a common task; and to bring forth the goods and services needed for a becoming existence.
From the Buddhist point of view, there are therefore two types of mechanisation which must be clearly distinguished: one that enhances a man’s skill and power and one that turns the work of man over to a mechanical slave, leaving man in a position of having to serve the slave.
A Buddhist economist would consider this approach excessively irrational: since consumption is merely a means to human well-being, the aim should be to obtain the maximum of well-being with the minimum of consumption.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m