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Encyclopedia > Buddhism in the West
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Buddhism


A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
The Five Precepts
Nirvāna · Three Jewels
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Chattari Arya Sachchhani, Chinese: 四聖諦 Sìshèngdì), being among the most fundamental Buddhist teachings, appear many times throughout the most ancient Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon. ... The Noble Eightfold Path (Sanskrit Āryo ṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ , Pāli Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) of Buddhism, as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ... Pancasila or pañca-sila is the fundamental code of Buddhist ethics, willingly undertaken by lay followers of Gautama Buddha. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ...

Key Concepts
Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Samsara · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... After much meditation, the Buddha concluded that everything in the physical world (plus everything in the phenomenology of psychology) is marked by three characteristics, known as the three characteristics of existence or Dharma Seals. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... // Rebirth in the context of other religions and other Buddhist beliefs One of the features that distinguishes the Middle Eastern religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) from the Indian religions (most notably Hinduism and Buddhism) is the view of life and death. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for an aspect of the Buddhist metaphysical critique as well as Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit) or Paṭiccasamuppāda (Pāli; Tibetan: ) is Buddhisms primary contribution to metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit karman) or Kamma (Pāli) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
Gautama Buddha
Buddha's Disciples · Family
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...

Practices and Attainment
Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
A large Buddha image in Yangon, Myanmar In Buddhism, a buddha (Sanskrit बुद्ध) is any being who has become fully awakened (enlightened), has permanently overcome greed, hate, and ignorance, and has achieved complete liberation from suffering. ... In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: púsà; Japanese: 菩薩 bosatsu; Korean: ë³´ì‚´ bosal ; Tibetan changchub sempa (byang-chub sems-dpa); Vietnamese: Bồ Tát; Thai: พระโพธิสัตว์) is a being who is dedicated to assisting all sentient beings in achieving complete Buddhahood. ... The Four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an arhat which a Buddhist can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim. The closest word for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism is bhavana or mental development. // Methods of meditation The main methods of Buddhist meditation are divided into samatha... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Buddhism by Region
Southeast Asia · East Asia
Tibet · India · Western
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...

Schools of Buddhism
Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Chinese :   金剛乘   jin gang cheng A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
Pali Canon
Pali Suttas · Mahayana Sutras
Vinaya · Abhidhamma
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... The Sutta Pitaka (or Sutra Pitaka) is the second of three divisions of the Tipitaka, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
Image:Dharma_wheel_1.png The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

This box: viewtalkedit
The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism.
The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism.

Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years. Perhaps the most significant of these began in 334 BCE, early in the history of Buddhism, when the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquered much of Central Asia. The Seleucids and the successive Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms established an important Hellenistic influence in the area, which interacted with Buddhism, as exemplified by the emergence of Greco-Buddhist art. The conversion to Buddhism of the Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is described in Indian sources (the Milinda Panha), and echoed in Western ones (Plutarch). This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC - 334 BC - 333 BC 332 BC 331... The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ),[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of, if not the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of the known world before his death; he is regarded as... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... The Milinda Pañha (Pali. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ...

Contents

Greco Buddhism

Main article: Greco-Buddhism

Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Græco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 800 years in Central Asia in the area corresponding to modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century CE. Greco-Buddhism influenced the artistic (and, possibly, conceptual) development of Buddhism, and in particular Mahayana Buddhism, before it was adopted by Central and Northeastern Asia from the 1st century CE, ultimately spreading to China, Korea, Japan, and Mongolia. The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


Buddhism and the Roman World

Several instances of interaction between Buddhism and the Roman world are documented by Classical and early Christian writers. Roman historical accounts describe an embassy sent by the "Indian king Pandion (Pandya?), also named Porus," to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE. The embassy was travelling with a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members was a sramana who burned himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. The event made a sensation and was described by Nicolaus of Damascus, who met the embassy at Antioch, and related by Strabo (XV,1,73 [1]) and Dio Cassius (liv, 9). A tomb was made to the sramana, still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention: Several instances of interaction between Buddhism and the Roman world are documented by Classical and early Christian writers. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Abgarus of Edessa is reinstalled as king of Osroene. ... It has been suggested that shramana be merged into this article or section. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece and the birthplace of democracy. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos DamaskÄ“nos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ...

"ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ"
("The sramana master from Barygaza in India")

These accounts at least indicate that Indian religious men (Sramanas, to which the Buddhists belonged, as opposed to Hindu Brahmanas) were circulating in the Levant during the time of Jesus. It has been suggested that shramana be merged into this article or section. ... Bharuch (also known as Broach) is a district in south Gujarat state in India. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit word IAST ; Devanagari ), also known as Vipra, Dvija, Dvijottama (best of the Dvijas), (god on Earth) is a member of an upper caste within Hindu society. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ...


Buddhism and Western Culture

In the latter half of the 19th century, Buddhism (along with many other of the world's religions and philosophies) came to the attention of Western intellectuals. These included the pessimistic German philosopher Schopenhauer, who encountered Buddhism, and Eastern thought in general, after having devised a philosophical system of considerable compatibility; and the American philosopher Henry David Thoreau, who translated a Buddhist sutra from French into English. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau) was an American author, development critic, naturalist, transcendentalist, pacifist, tax resister and philosopher who is most famous for his written account, Walden, a reflection upon simple living amongst nature, and his essay, Civil Disobedience... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The German Friedrich Nietzsche delivered praise to Buddhism in his 1895 work The Anti-Christ (exceptional in the case of this iconoclastic philosopher), taking care to exclude it from his condemnation of Christianity. He stated that "Buddhism is a hundred times more realistic than Christianity" (Nietzsche 2003:141), because unlike the dogmatic desire for a pleasurable afterlife through the avoidance of earthly sin, the Buddha's aims of non-suffering through adjustment of self were attainable in life. Nietzsche's own beliefs and his rare sympathy toward the Buddhist outlook have sparked various comparisons between the two philosophies.[2] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a German philosophical book by Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... A large Buddha image in Yangon, Myanmar In Buddhism, a buddha (Sanskrit बुद्ध) is any being who has become fully awakened (enlightened), has permanently overcome greed, hate, and ignorance, and has achieved complete liberation from suffering. ...


Western spiritual seekers were attracted to what they saw as the exotic and mystical tone of the Asian traditions, and created esoteric societies such as the Theosophical Society of H.P. Blavatsky. The Buddhist Society, London was founded by Theosophist Christmas Humphreys in 1924. At first Western Buddhology was hampered by poor translations (often translations of translations), but soon Western scholars such as Max Müller began to learn Asian languages and translate Asian texts. During the 20th century the German writer Hermann Hesse showed great interest in Eastern religions, writing a book entitled Siddhartha. American beat generation poet Jack Kerouac became a well-known literary Buddhist, for his roman-a-clef The Dharma Bums and other works. The cultural re-evaluations of the hippie generation in the late 1960s and early 1970s led to a re-discovery of Buddhism, which seemed to promise a more methodical path to happiness than Christianity and a way out of the perceived spiritual bankruptcy of Western life. [citation needed] Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... The Buddhist Society, London was created in London as an offshoot of a Theosophical Lodge by Christmas Humphreys, a British judge and convert to Buddhism, along with his wife. ... Justice Christmas Humphreys Q.C. (1901 - April 1983) lawyer, High Court judge, and founder of the Buddhist Society, London. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Hermann Hesse in 1927 Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter who became a Swiss citizen. ... Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian man called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. ... The term Beat Generation refers primarily to a group of American writers of the 1950s. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and part of the Beat Generation. ... A roman à clef or roman à clé (French for novel with a key) is a novel describing real-life events behind a façade of fiction. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Inflow of Buddhism

Further information: Buddhism in the United States
A hallway in California's Hsi Lai Temple.
A hallway in California's Hsi Lai Temple.

The first Buddhists to arrive in the United States were Chinese. Hired as cheap labor for the railroads and other expanding industries, they established temples in their settlements along the rail lines. Many of these 'seekers', traveling to Asia in pursuit of gurus and ancient wisdom, first encountered Buddhism in Nepal or northern India through contact with Tibetan monks who had fled the Chinese occupancy in 1959. By the 1970s, Tibetan lamas such as the Karmapa (Rangjung Rigpe Dorje), Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, Geshe Wangyal, Geshe Lhundub Sopa, Dezhung Rinpoche, Sermey Khensur Lobsang Tharchin, Tarthang Tulku, and Lama Yeshe and Thubten Zopa Rinpoche had all established teaching centers in the West. Buddhism is a religion with millions of followers in the United States, including traditionally Buddhist Asian Americans as well as non-Asian converts. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Path To Buddhahood, linking both the Bodhisattva hall and the Main Shrine. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Karmapa (officially His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa; Tibetan: རྒྱལ་ད་ཀར་མ་པ་) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyupa (Tib. ... The sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpei Dorje (1924-1981)(Wylie Rang byung rig pai rdo rje) was spiritual leader of the Karma Kagyu lineage of [Tibetan Buddhism]]. He was born in Denkhok in the Dergé district of Kham (Eastern Tibet), near the Yangtze River. ... Chögyam Trungpa (February 1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... Geshe Wangyal, Kalmyk Lama, Teacher and Scholar was born in a Kalmykia, came to the United States from Tibet in 1955, taking over the spiritual leadership of the Kalmuk Buddhist Temple and community near Freehold, N.J.. He later taught at Columbia University and during the 1960s and 1970... Sermey Khensur Lobsang Tharchin Rinpoche (1921-2004), was an eminent lama and renowned scholar of the Tibetan Gelukpa tradition. ... Tarthang Tulku is a Tibetan lama who lives in America, where he works to preserve the art and culture of Tibet. ... Thubten Yeshe (1935-1984) was a Tibetan lama who, while exiled in Nepal, co-founded Kopan Monastery (1969) and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (1975). ... Thubten Zopa Rinpoche (born 1946) is a lama from Thami, a village in the Solo Khumbu region of Nepal. ...


Certainly Tibetan Buddhism has seen dramatic growth in the West. Fuelled in part by the 'shangri-la' view of this country and due to the fact that Western media agencies are largely sympathetic with the 'Tibetan Cause'. All four of the main Tibetan Buddhist schools have had success. The Dalai Lama's Gelugpa school are well known and whenever he gives lectures in the West they are always very well attended. The Kagyu school are represented throughout Europe and the Americas. And both the Sakya and Nyingma schools are also very well known. This article describes the Dalai Lama lineage. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའབརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ...


In addition to this a number of Americans who had served in the Korean or Vietnam Wars stayed out in Asia, seeking to understand both the horror they had witnessed and its context. A few of these were eventually ordained as monks in the Theravadan tradition, and upon returning home became influential meditation teachers establishing such centres as IMS (Insight Meditation Society) in America. Another contributing factor in the flowering of Buddhist thought in the West was the popularity of Zen amongst the counter-culture poets and activists of the 60's, due to the writings of Alan Watts and D.T. Suzuki. Since that time Buddhism has become the fastest-growing religion in Australia and many other Western nations. From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ...


Western Buddhism

Today, Buddhism is practiced in large numbers in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. For the most part, Western Buddhism is identical to Buddhism in East Asia, borrowing Asian practicises such as the sangha and meditation (although most Asian Buddhist rituals are not borrowed). Usually, practicitioners do not see any reason to create a distinction between the śīla or enlightenment they aim for and the goals of Asian Buddhists. Western Buddhism, however, also has its roots in the Western concepts of freethought and secular humanism. A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... It has been suggested that bhikkhu be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Sanskrit, śīla is a term in Indian-derived systems such as Hinduism and Buddhism which is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics (Tibetan tshul khrims). ... . For other uses, see Enlightenment. ... Freethought is a philosophical doctrine that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be comprised by authority, tradition or any other dogmatic or otherwise fallacious belief system that restricts logical reasoning. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice and specifically rejects rituals and ceremonies as a means to affirm a life stance. ...


There is a general distinction between Buddhism brought to the West by Asian immigrants, which may be Mahayana or a traditional East Asian mix, and Buddhism as practiced by converts, which is often Zen, Pure Land, Indian Vipassana or Tibetan Buddhism. Some Western Buddhists are actually non-denominational and accept teachings from a variety of different sects, which is far less frequent in Asia. Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Zen is a form of Mahayana Buddhism which places great importance on moment-by-moment awareness and seeing deeply into the nature of things by direct experience. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (Sanskrit) means insight. While it is often referred to as Buddhist meditation, the practice taught by the Buddha was non-sectarian, and has universal application. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...

Arrival area for Upper Hamlet at Plum Village, Thich Nhat Hanh's Buddhist monastery in France
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Arrival area for Upper Hamlet at Plum Village, Thich Nhat Hanh's Buddhist monastery in France

A feature of Buddhism in the West has been the emergence of groups which, even though they draw on traditional Buddhism, are in fact an attempt at creating a new style of Buddhist practice. Chögyam Trungpa's Shambhala group is one example, and the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order founded by Sangharakshita is another. Some, mainly American convert Buddhists including Jack Kerouac, are recently incorporating Jesus into Buddhism. They claim that Jesus is a bodhisattva in that he achieved a very high degree of enlightenment. Image File history File linksMetadata Arrival_-_Upper_Hamlet_Plum_Village. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arrival_-_Upper_Hamlet_Plum_Village. ... Arrival area for Upper Hamlet, Plum Vilage. ... Thich Nhat Hanh (Press Release Photo) Courtesy of Plum Village Practice Center, France Thich Nhat Hanh (Thích Nhất Hạnh; IPA: ; born in 1926, is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in both Vietnamese and English. ... Chögyam Trungpa (February 1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... In Tibetan Buddhist tradition, Shambhala (also spelled Shambala or Shamballa) is a mystical kingdom hidden somewhere beyond the snowpeaks of the Himalayas. ... Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO) is a Buddhist movement founded by Sangharakshita in 1967 in the UK. It was followed by the foundation of the WBO Western Buddhist Order in 1968. ... Sangharakshita (1925-) is the founder of the Western Buddhist Order, and the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO). ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and part of the Beat Generation. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... . For other uses, see Enlightenment. ...


Chögyam Trungpa, the founder of the Shambhala meditation movement, claimed in his teachings that his intention was to strip the ethnic baggage away from traditional methods of working with the mind and to deliver the essence of those teachings to his western students. Chögyam Trungpa also founded Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado in 1974. Another example of a school evolving new idioms for the transmission of the dharma is the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO), founded by Sangharakshita in 1967. Lama Surya Das is a prominent Western-born teacher continuing to bring the teachings of Buddhism to Westerners. Chögyam Trungpa (February 1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... Seal of Shambhala International displaying the Tiger, Lion, Garuda, and Dragon The term Shambhala Buddhism has come into use as an umbrella term referring to the teachings of Karma Kagyu and Nyingma lineages of Tibetan Buddhism, mixed with the various Shambhalian teachings and practices revealed by the Vidyadhara Chögyam... Chögyam Trungpa (February 1940 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Lama Surya Das is one of the foremost American-born lamas in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism and a popular teacher of Buddhism in the United States. ...


Some of these new schools are not without criticism however, and in some quarters are not felt to represent an 'authentic' transmission of Buddhism.


See also

A stupa in Vienna, Austria. ... Historically, Buddhism has been incoroporated into Russian lands as early as the late 15th century, when Russian explorers travelled to and settled in Siberia and what is now the Russian Far East. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ...

References

  • Annet C. Rich (1914), Christ or Buddha?, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7661-9165-6
  • Helen Tworkov, Zen in America: Profiles of Five Teachers, San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols and The Anti-Christ, Penguin Books, 2003. ISBN 0-14-044514-5
  • "Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities, Reviewed by David R. Loy" by David R. Loy, July 1998, retrieved August 9, 2006
  • Rick Fields, How the Swans came to the Lake, about history of Buddhism in America.

 
 

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