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Encyclopedia > Buddhism in the United States
Covering 15 acres (61,000 m²), California’s Hsi Lai Temple is one of the largest Buddhist temples in the western hemisphere.
Covering 15 acres (61,000 m²), California’s Hsi Lai Temple is one of the largest Buddhist temples in the western hemisphere.

Buddhism is a religion with millions of followers in the United States, including traditionally Buddhist Asian Americans as well as non-Asians, many of whom are converts. The U.S. presents a strikingly new and different environment for Buddhists, leading to a unique history and a continuing process of development as Buddhism and America come to grips with each other. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Path To Buddhahood, linking both the Bodhisattva hall and the Main Shrine. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...

Contents

Early history

One of the oldest images of the Buddha, from the Greco-Buddhist period in Central Asia, 1st-2nd century CE.
One of the oldest images of the Buddha, from the Greco-Buddhist period in Central Asia, 1st-2nd century CE.

Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (973x1600, 463 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Media:Example. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

Buddhism and the West

Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years. Perhaps the most significant of these began in 334 BC, early in the history of Buddhism, when the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquered most of Central Asia. The Seleucids and successive kingdoms established an important Hellenistic influence in the area, which interacted with the Buddhism that had been introduced from India to produce Greco-Buddhism. Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ...


In the Christian era, Buddhist ideas would periodically filter into Europe via the Middle East. A notable example is the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, folk heroes who were canonized by the Roman Catholic Church and whose story is believed to be an altered account of the life of Siddhartha Gautama, translated from Persian to Arabic to Greek. The first direct encounter between European Christians and Buddhists to be recorded was in 1253 when the king of France sent William of Rubruck as an ambassador to the court of the Mongol Empire. Later, in the 17th century, a group of Mongols practicing Tibetan Buddhism established Kalmykia, the only Buddhist nation in Europe, at the eastern edge of the continent. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Barlaam and Josaphat are said to have lived and died in the 3rd century or 4th century in India. ... Saint Josaphat preaching Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Buddhism in the New World

Because the above examples produced very little real religious interaction, the European settlers who would come to colonize the Americas had virtually no exposure to Buddhism. This almost complete isolation would last largely undisturbed until the 19th century, when significant numbers of immigrants from East Asia began to arrive in the New World. In the United States, the first immigrants from China entered around 1820, but they began to arrive in large numbers following the California Gold Rush of 1849. The first Buddhist temple in America was built in 1853 in San Francisco by the Sze Yap Company, a Chinese American fraternal society. Another society, the Ning Yeong Company, built a second in 1854; by 1875, there were eight such temples, and by 1900 there were approximately 400 Chinese temples on the west coast of the United States, most of them containing at least some Buddhist elements. These temples were often the subject of suspicion and ignorance by the rest of the population, and were dismissively referred to as joss houses. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Joss house or Miu (廟) is a place for worshiping a variety of indigenous Chinese deities, saints and supernatural beings from Taoist, Buddhism, Confucianism, heroes and folklores. ...


The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 curtailed the growth of the Chinese American population, but large-scale immigration from Japan began in the late 1880s and from Korea around 1903. In both cases, immigration was at first limited primarily to Hawaii. Populations from other Asian Buddhist countries followed, and in each case, the new communities established Buddhist temples and organizations. For instance, the first Japanese temple in Hawaii was built in 1896 near Paauhau by the Honpa Hongwanji branch of Jodo Shinshu. In 1898, Japanese missionaries and immigrants established a Young Men’s Buddhist Association, and the Rev. Sōryū Kagahi was dispatched from Japan to be the first Buddhist missionary in Hawaii. The first Japanese Buddhist temple in the continental U.S. was built in San Francisco in 1899, and the first in Canada was built at the Ishikawa Hotel in Vancouver in 1905 [1]. The first Buddhist clergy to take up residence in the continental U.S. were Shuye Sonoda and Kakuryo Nishimjima, missionaries from Japan who arrived in 1899. The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This category contains articles pertaining to temples belonging to the Japanese Buddhism traditions, both in and outside of Japan. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Jōdo ShinshÅ« (浄土真宗 True Pure Land School), also known as Shin Buddhism, was founded by the once Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shonin. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Monasticism is one of the most fundamental institutions of Buddhism. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Henry David Thoreau, along with Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited The Dial, a magazine which published the first English translation of a portion of the Lotus Sutra into English from French.
Henry David Thoreau, along with Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited The Dial, a magazine which published the first English translation of a portion of the Lotus Sutra into English from French.

At about the same time that Asian immigrants were first starting to arrive in America, some American intellectuals were beginning to come to terms with Buddhism, based primarily on information reaching them from British colonial possessions in India and East Asia. The Englishmen William Jones and Charles Wilkins had done pioneering work translating Sanskrit texts into English. The American Transcendentalists and associated persons, in particular Henry David Thoreau took an interest in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. In 1844, The Dial, a small literary publication edited by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, published the first English version of a portion of the Lotus Sutra; it had been translated by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody from a French version recently completed by Eugène Burnouf (this translation is often attributed to Thoreau himself, but this appears to be erroneous). His Indian readings may have influenced his later experiments in simple living: at one point in Walden he wrote: “I realized what the Orientals meant by contemplation and the forsaking of works.” The poet Walt Whitman also admitted to an influence of Indian religion on his writings. Henry David Thoreau This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Henry David Thoreau This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... The January 1920 issue of the Dial. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... Sir Charles Wilkins (1749?–1836), was an English Orientalist. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance... Hinduism (known as in some modern Indian languages[1]) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Jan. ... The January 1920 issue of the Dial. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, (May 16, 1804_January 3, 1894) educator who opened the first English_language kindergarten in the United States. ... Eugène Burnouf (April 8, 1801 - May 28, 1852) was a French orientalist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819–March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ...


The first prominent American to publicly convert to Buddhism was Henry Steel Olcott. Olcott, a former U.S. army colonel during the Civil War, had grown increasingly interested in reports of supernatural phenomena that were popular in the late 19th century. In 1875, he, along with Helena Blavatsky and William Quan Judge founded the Theosophical Society, which was dedicated to the study of the occult and was partly influenced by Hindu and Buddhist scriptures. The group’s leaders believed or claimed to believe that they were in contact, via visions and messages, with a secret order of adepts referred to as the “Himalayan Brotherhood” or “the Masters”. In 1879, Olcott and Blavatsky travelled to India and then, in 1880, to Sri Lanka, where they were met enthusiastically by local Buddhists, who saw them as allies against an aggressive Christian missionary movement. On May 25 of that year, Olcott and Blavatsky took the pancasila vows of a lay Buddhist before a monk and a large crowd of onlookers. Although most of the Theosophists appear to have counted themselves as Buddhists, they held idiosyncratic beliefs that separated them from all known Buddhist traditions; only Olcott was enthusiastic about following mainstream Buddhism. He would return to Sri Lanka on two further occasions, where he worked to promote Buddhist education, and also visited Japan and Burma. Olcott authored a Buddhist Catechism, stating his view of the basic tenets of the religion. Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), founder and first president of the Theosophical Society, is well-known as the first prominent person of Western descent to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London, England), better known as Helena Blavatsky or Madame Blavatsky was the founder of Theosophy. ... William Quan Judge (1851-March 22, 1896 New York) was one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pancasila or pañca-sila is the fundamental code of Buddhist ethics, willingly undertaken by lay followers of Gautama Buddha. ...

A series of new publications greatly increased public knowledge of Buddhism in 19th century America. In 1879, Edwin Arnold, an English aristocrat, published The Light of Asia[2], an epic poem he had written about the life and teachings of the Buddha, expounded with much wealth of local color and not a little felicity of versification. The book became immensely popular in the United States, going through eighty editions and selling more than 500,000 copies. Dr. Paul Carus, a German American philosopher and theologian, was at work on a more scholarly prose treatment of the same subject. Carus was the director of Open Court Publishing Company, an academic publishing house specializing in philosophy, science, and religion, and editor of The Monist, a journal with a similar focus, both based in La Salle, Illinois. In 1894, Carus published The Gospel of the Buddha, which was compiled from a variety of Asian texts and, true to its name, presented the Buddha’s story in a form resembling the Christian Gospels. Edwin Arnold (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Edwin Arnold (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), English poet and journalist, was born on June 10, 1832 at Gravesend, the son of a Sussex magistrate, and was educated at Kings school, Rochester; Kings College, London; and University College, Oxford. ... The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, is a book by Edwin Arnold. ... Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), English poet and journalist, was born on June 10, 1832 at Gravesend, the son of a Sussex magistrate, and was educated at Kings school, Rochester; Kings College, London; and University College, Oxford. ... The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, is a book by Edwin Arnold. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Paul Carus (1852‑1919). ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Open Court Publishing Company is a publisher with offices in Chicago and La Salle, Illinois. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The Monist: An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry is an American learned journal in the field of philosophy. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


Perhaps the most significant event in the 19th century history of Buddhism in America was the Parliament of the World’s Religions, held in Chicago in 1893. Although most of the delegates to the Parliament were Christians of various denominations, the Buddhist nations of China, Japan, Thailand, and Sri Lanka sent representatives. Buddhist delegates included Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen abbott; Zenshiro Noguchi, a Japanese translator; Anagarika Dharmapala, a Sri Lankan associate of H. S. Olcott’s; and Chandradat Chudhadharn, a brother of King Chulalongkorn of Thailand. Paul Carus also attended as an observer. The Parliament provided the first major public forum from which Buddhists could address themselves directly to the Western public; Dharmapala was particularly effective in this role because he spoke fluent English. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Parliament of the Worlds Religions. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Soyen Shaku (1859 – 1919; sometimes written as Soen Shaku or Kogaku So’en Shaku) was the first Zen Buddhist master to teach in the United States. ... Zen is a form of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on praxis and experiential wisdom, particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen, in the attainment of enlightenment as experienced by the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama. ... Anagarika Dharmapala (1864 - 1933) was born David Hewavitarne in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... His Majesty King Rama V of Siam, with his son, HRH Crown Prince Maha Vajirunnahis (portrait in National History Museum, Bangkok) King Chulalongkorn the Great or Rama V (royal name: Phra Chula Chomklao Chaoyuhua; Thai script: พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) (September 20, 1853 - October 23, 1910) was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty...

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Buddhism
This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Dharmic religions
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... Buddhist concept. ... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli) or stong pa nyid (Tibetan), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, intimately related to the doctrine of the three marks of existence (ti-lakkhana). ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

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A few days after the end of the Parliament, in a brief ceremony conducted by Anagarika Dharmapala, Charles T. Strauss, a New York businessman of Jewish descent, became, it is believed, the first person to formally convert to Buddhism on American soil. A few fledgling attempts at establishing a Buddhism for Americans followed. One of the most interesting, in fact, had initially appeared prior to the Parliament, met with little fanfare, in 1887: The Buddhist Ray, a Santa Cruz, California-based magazine published and edited by Phillangi Dasa, born Herman Carl (or Carl Herman) Veetering (or Vettering), a recluse about whom little is known. The Ray’s tone was, in the words of Rick Fields, “ironic, light, saucy, self-assured ... one-hundred-percent American Buddhist” (Fields, 1981), which was by all means a novel development in that time and place. It ceased publication in 1894. Elsewhere, six white San Franciscans, working with Japanese Jodo Shinshu missionaries, established the Dharma Sangha of Buddha in 1900 and began publishing a bimonthly magazine, The Light of Dharma. In Illinois, Paul Carus wrote further books about Buddhism and attempted setting portions of Buddhist scripture to Western classical music. 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The Early 20th Century

In the first half of the 20th century, it would prove to be Buddhist teachers from Japan who played the most active role in disseminating Buddhism to the American public, perhaps because Japan was the most developed and self-confident Buddhist country at the time. In 1905, Soyen Shaku was invited to stay in the United States by a Mr. and Mrs. Russell, a wealthy American couple. He lived for nine months in their home near San Francisco, where he established a small zendo in their home and gave regular zazen lessons, making him the first Zen Buddhist priest to teach in North America. This short sojourn eventually produced an effect on American Buddhism that continues to the present. Shortly after Shaku settled in to his erstwhile home, he was followed by Nyogen Senzaki, a young monk from Shaku’s home temple in Japan. Senzaki briefly worked for the Russell family and then, expressing his desire to stay in America, he was reportedly advised by Shaku to spend seventeen years as an ordinary worker before teaching Buddhism. Thus, it was in 1922 that Senzaki first rented a hall and gave an English talk on a paper by Soyen Shaku; his periodic talks at different locations became known as the “floating zendo”. In 1931, he established a permanent sitting hall in Los Angeles, where he would teach until his death in 1958. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Zendo (禅堂, Chinese: Chántáng) is a Japanese term translating roughly as meditation hall. In Zen Buddhism, the zendo is a spiritual dojo where zazen (sitting meditation) is practiced. ... Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Nyogen Senzaki Nyogen Senzaki (18??-1958) was a Japanese-born Zen monk and teacher. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another Zen teacher, Sokatsu Shaku, one of Soyen Shaku’s senior students, arrived in late 1906. Although he stayed only a few years and had limited contact with the English-speaking public, one of his disciples, Shigetsu Sasaki, made a permanent home. Sasaki, better known under his monastic name, Sokei-an, spent a few years wandering the west coast of the United States, at one point living among American Indians near Seattle, and reached New York City in 1916. After completing his training and being ordained in 1928, he returned to New York to teach. In 1931, his small group incorporated as the Buddhist Society of America, later renamed the First Zen Institute of America. By the late 1930s, one of his most active supporters was Ruth Fuller Everett, a British socialite and the mother-in-law of Alan Watts. Shortly before Sokei-an’s death in 1945, he and Everett would wed, at which point she took the name Ruth Fuller Sasaki. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sokei-an Shigetsu Sasaki (1882 - 1945) was a Rinzai Zen Buddhist priest who was the first Zen Master to take residence on United States soil. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ...


In 1914, under the leadership of Koyu Uchida, who succeeded Shuye Sonoda as the head of Jodo Shinshu missionary effort in North America, several Japanese Buddhist congregations formed the Buddhist Mission of North America (BMNA). This organization would later form the basis of the Buddhist Churches of America, currently the largest and most influential ethnic-based Buddhist organization in the U.S. The BMNA focused primarily on social and cultural activities for and ministering to Japanese American communities. In the late 1920s, it first began to develop programs to train English-speaking priests, for the benefit of the growing number of American-born parishoners. Also, in 1927, the Soto sect of Japanese Zen opened its own mission with Zenshuji temple in Los Angeles, although it did not make attempts at the time to attract non-Japanese members. The Buddhist Churches of America is the United States branch of the Hongwanji-ha Hongwanji (also known as Honpa Hongwanji / Nishi-Hongwanji) sub-sect of Jōdo ShinshÅ« (淨土眞宗 True Pure Land School) Buddhism. ... For the vegetable, see Celosia. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


One American who made his own attempt to establish an American Buddhist movement was Dwight Goddard (1861 – 1939). Goddard had been a Christian missionary to China, when he first came in contact with Buddhism. In 1928, he spent a year living at a Zen monastery in Japan. In 1934, he founded “The Followers of Buddha, an American Brotherhood”, with the goal of applying the traditional monastic structure of Buddhism more strictly than Senzaki and Sokei-an. The group was largely unsuccessful: no Americans were recruited to join as monks and attempts failed to attract a Chinese Chan (Zen) master to come to the United States. However, Goddard’s efforts as an author and publisher bore considerable fruit. In 1930, he began publishing ZEN: A Buddhist Magazine. In 1932, he collaborated with D. T. Suzuki (see below), on a translation of the Lankavatara Sutra. That same year, he published the first edition of A Buddhist Bible, an anthology of Buddhist scriptures focusing on those used in Chinese and Japanese Zen, which was enormously influential.[3] Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Chán is the Chinese name for the school of Mahāyāna Buddhism known in Japanese as Zen. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, another Japanese person, also an associate of Soyen Shaku’s, had an even greater literary impact. This was D. T. Suzuki. At the World Parliament of Religions in 1893, Paul Carus befriended Soyen Shaku and requested his help in translating and preparing Oriental spiritual literature for publication in the West. Shaku instead recommended Suzuki, then a young scholar and former disciple of his. Starting in 1897, Suzuki worked from Dr. Carus’s home in Illinois; his first projects were translations of the Tao Te Ching and Asvaghosa's Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana. At the same time, Suzuki began writing his first major book, Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism, which was published in 1907. Suzuki returned to Japan in 1909 and married an American Theosophist and Radcliffe graduate in 1911. Through English language essays and books, such as Essays in Zen Buddhism (1927), he established himself as the most visible literary expositor of Zen Buddhism, its unofficial goodwill ambassador to Western readers, until his death in 1966. His 1949 book, An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, featured a 30-page introduction by Carl Jung, an emblem of the deepening relationship between Buddhism and major Western thinkers. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... AÅ›vaghoá¹£a (?80-?150 CE) (Devanagari: अश्वघोष) was an Indian philosopher-poet, born in Saketa in Central India. ... The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana (or Awakening of Mahayana Faith, 大乘起信論) is a text of the Mahayana branch of Buddhism. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ...


Modern American Buddhism

California’s City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, one of the first Chinese Ch'an monasteries in America.
California’s City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, one of the first Chinese Ch'an monasteries in America.

Some scholars, such as Charles Prebish, have suggested that the social phenomenon of Buddhism in America can be seen to be comprised of three broad types. The oldest and largest of these is “immigrant” or “ethnic Buddhism”, those Buddhist traditions that arrived in America along with immigrants who were already believers and that largely remained with those immigrants and their descendants. The next oldest and arguably the most visible and best-heralded type is referred to as “import Buddhism”, because it came to America largely in response to the demand of interested American converts who sought it out, either by going abroad or by supporting foreign teachers; this is sometimes also called “elite Buddhism” because its practitioners, especially early in the process, tended to come from social elites. The newest trend in Buddhism is "export" or "evangelical Buddhism", groups which are based in another country and who are actively recruiting members in America from various backgrounds; by far the most successful of these has been Soka Gakkai, which will be discussed below. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB) Summary This is a picture of the Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas taken by me (Kungming2) at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB) Summary This is a picture of the Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas taken by me (Kungming2) at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Soka Gakkai International (International Value-Creation Society; also, SGI) is the international umbrella organization for Soka Gakkai-affiliated lay organizations in over 190 countries. ...


Immigrant Buddhists

Chùa Quang Minh Buddhist Temple, a Vietnamese American temple in Chicago
Chùa Quang Minh Buddhist Temple, a Vietnamese American temple in Chicago

Immigrant Buddhist congregations in North America come in an extremely wide variety, exactly as wide a variety as exists in the different peoples of Asian Buddhist extraction who have settled there. The New World is home to Chinese Buddhists, Japanese Buddhists, Korean Buddhists, Sri Lankan Buddhists, Vietnamese Buddhists, Thai Buddhists, and Buddhists with family backgrounds in nearly every Buddhist country and region in the world. The passage of the 1965 Immigration Act in the United States greatly increased the number of immigrants arriving from China, Vietnam, and the Theravada-practicing countries of southeast Asia. Download high resolution version (1884x1360, 2025 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1884x1360, 2025 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... Sri Lanka is the oldest continually Buddhist country, Theravada Buddhism being the major religion in the island since its official introduction in the 2nd century BC by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka of India during the reign of King Devanampiya. ... Buddhism in Vietnam is Buddhism that had been localized to Vietnam from India and later from China. ... Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ...


It is common for Buddhist temples and societies to serve as foci for the social life of an immigrant community, helping to maintain a connection to Old World traditions in a foreign environment. However, as the passing of time produces congregations increasingly dominated by persons born in America, which is especially common among Japanese Buddhists, questions arise about how their religious customs should adapt.


The largest and most influential[citation needed] national immigrant Buddhist organization in the United States is the Buddhist Churches of America and the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii. The BCA is an affiliate of Japan's Nishi Hongwanji, a sect of Jōdo Shinshū, which is in turn a form of Pure Land Buddhism. Tracing its roots to the Young Men’s Buddhist Association founded in San Francisco at the end of the 19th century and the Buddhist Mission of North America founded in 1914, it took its current form in 1944. All of the Buddhist Mission’s leadership, along with almost the entire Japanese American population, had been interned during World War II. The name Buddhist Churches of America was adopted at Topaz Relocation Center in Utah; the use of the word “church”, which normally implies a Christian house of worship, was significant. After internment ended, some members returned to the West Coast and revitalized churches there, while a number of others moved to the Midwest and built new churches. During the 1960s and 1970s, the BCA was in a growth phase and was very successful at fund-raising. It also began to publish two periodicals, one in Japanese and one in English. However, since 1980, BCA membership has declined markedly. The Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii has 36 temples throughout the state of Hawaii. The history and organization of the Mission is quite similar to the BCA. The Buddhist Churches of America is the United States branch of the Hongwanji-ha Hongwanji (also known as Honpa Hongwanji / Nishi-Hongwanji) sub-sect of Jōdo ShinshÅ« (淨土眞宗 True Pure Land School) Buddhism. ... Jōdo ShinshÅ« (浄土真宗 True Pure Land School), also known as Shin Buddhism, was founded by the once Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shonin. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Buddhist Churches of America is the United States branch of the Hongwanji-ha Hongwanji (also known as Honpa Hongwanji / Nishi-Hongwanji) sub-sect of Jōdo ShinshÅ« (淨土眞宗 True Pure Land School) Buddhism. ... For other uses, see Topaz (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


It is interesting to note that, while a very large majority of the Buddhist Churches of America’s membership are ethnically Japanese, it does have some members from non-Asian backgrounds. Thus, it can be seen as having some, currently very limited, aspects of an export Buddhist institution. As declining involvement by its ethnic community creates questions about its future, there has been internal discussion as to whether it should devote more attention to attracting the broader public. The term Ethnic Japanese, or Nikkei (日系), usually refers to people who live outside Japan, who either emigrated from Japan or are descendants of a person who emigrated from Japan. ...


Another institution with some appeal both to a specific ethnic group as well as to Americans generally is Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California. Hsi Lai is the American headquarters of Fo Guang Shan, an enormously successful modern Buddhist group in Taiwan. Hsi Lai was built in 1988 at a cost of $10 million and is often described as the largest Buddhist temple in the Western hemisphere. Although it continues to cater primarily to Chinese Americans, it also has regular services and outreach programs in English. Hsi Lai was at the center of a bizarre incident in the history of American Buddhism when a 1996 fund-raising event by Vice President Al Gore provoked a controversy; at the time Hsi Lai was often referred to in the media as simply "the Buddhist temple". The Path To Buddhahood, linking both the Bodhisattva hall and the Main Shrine. ... Hacienda Heights is an unincorporated census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the community had a total population of 53,122. ... The Fo Guang Shan emblem, used by all FGS affilated branch temples and organizations. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Path To Buddhahood, linking both the Bodhisattva hall and the Main Shrine. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ...


Import Buddhists

The Zen Buddhist Temple in Chicago, part of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom
The Zen Buddhist Temple in Chicago, part of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom

Since Henry Steele Olcott travelled to Sri Lanka in 1880, interested Americans have sought out Buddhist teachers from a variety of countries in Asia, many of which have now established their teachings in America. The three most notable trends of this type are Zen, Tibetan Buddhism, and Vipassana, which is an outgrowth of Theravada Buddhism. Because its membership tends strongly to be among educated, white, native English speakers, import Buddhism has come to enjoy a higher level of prominence and prestige than other types of Buddhism in America. Download high resolution version (1360x2048, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1360x2048, 1410 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (Sanskrit) means insight. While it is often referred to as Buddhist meditation, the practice taught by the Buddha was non-sectarian, and has universal application. ...


Zen

Beginning with Soyen Shaku’s invitation to San Francisco and then the ministries of Nyogen Senzaki and Sokei-an, Zen Buddhism was the first import Buddhist trend to put down roots in North America. In the late 1940s and 1950s, writers associated with the Beat Movement, including Gary Snyder, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and Kenneth Rexroth, took a serious interest in Zen, which helped increase its visibility. In 1951, an octagenarian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki returned to the United States to take a visiting proffessorship at Columbia University, where he began a long series of public lectures on Zen; Kerouac and Ginsberg were among the attendees. In 1956, the Zen Studies Society was formed to support his work. After moving to Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1957, Suzuki was also involved in founding the Cambridge Buddhist Association, which was likely the first Buddhist group in America which was dedicated primarily to practicing zazen meditation. The Zen Studies Society, which had become completely dormant when Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki left Columbia, would be revived in 1965 by Eido Tai Shimano, a New York–based Rinzai Zen teacher. Nyogen Senzaki Nyogen Senzaki (18??-1958) was a Japanese-born Zen monk and teacher. ... Sokei-an Shigetsu Sasaki (1882 - 1945) was a Rinzai Zen Buddhist priest who was the first Zen Master to take residence on United States soil. ... The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: This is... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American Beat poet. ... Kenneth Rexroth (December 22, 1905 – June 6, 1982) was an American poet, translator and critical essayist. ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen Zazen (坐禅) is at the heart of Zen Buddhist practice. ... Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (October 18, 1870, Kanazawa, Japan – July 22, 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. ... Eido Tai Shimano Roshi is a Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist teacher whom received Dharma transmission from Soen Nakagawa Roshi in 1972. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Rinzai and Linji. ...


One of the most influential figures in 20th century American Zen was Shunryu Suzuki. After serving as a temple priest in Japan, Suzuki requested to be sent to America, and, in 1959, at the age of 54, he travelled to San Francisco to manage Sokoji, the city’s Soto sect mission. When he arrived, his congregation consisted almost exclusively of older Japanese people, although his predecessors had begun to make some efforts at a broader outreach. Suzuki himself proved to be more comfortable teaching Americans than Japanese. He quickly attracted a group which met for regular zazen sittings and lectures in English. The group incorporated as the San Francisco Zen Center and, in 1966, purchased a tract of land near Los Padres National Forest to began building Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, described as the first Buddhist training monastery located outside of Asia. In 1969, Suzuki left Sokoji when the Zen Center started its own new temple in San Francisco, operating largely independently of the Soto Sect in Japan. In 1970, Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind, an edited collection of talks given by Suzuki, was published and became one of the most popular brief introductions to Zen practice. The San Francisco Zen Center remains one of America’s largest and most influential Buddhist groups and is now part of a network of related centers. Shunryu Suzuki (鈴木 俊隆 Suzuki ShunryÅ«, dharma name Shogaku Shunryu) (May 18, 1904 - December 4, 1971) was a Japanese Zen master of the Soto school, who played a major role in establishing Buddhism in America. ... San Francisco Zen Center (SFZC) is the largest Soto Zen temple and practice place in the United States and possibly anywhere outside of Japan. ... View into the Los Padres backcountry, Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California: everything in this picture is within the Los Padres National Forest Los Padres National Forest is a forest located in southern and central California, which includes most of the mountainous land along the California coast from Ventura to... Tassajara Zen Mountain Center was established in 1966 as the first Soto Zen Buddhist monastery in the United States by Shunryu Suzuki. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Sanbo Kyodan Zen is a contemporary Japanese Zen lineage which had an impact in the West disproportionate to its size Japan. It is rooted in the reformist teachings of Harada Daiun (1871-1961) and his disciple Yasutani Hakuun (1885-1971), who argued that the existing Zen institutions of Japan, the Soto and Rinzai sects, had become complacent and, with few exceptions, were unable to teach real Dharma. Harada had studied with both Soto and Rinzai teachers and Yasutani founded Sanbo Kyodan in 1954 to preserve what he saw as the vital core of teachings from both schools. Sanbo Kyodan’s first American member was Philip Kapleau, who first travelled to Japan in 1945 as a court reporter for the war crimes trials. In 1947, Kapleau visited D. T. Suzuki at Engaku-ji in Japan and in the early 1950s, he was a frequent attendee of Suzuki’s Columbia lectures. In 1953, he returned to Japan, where he met with Nakagawa Soen, a protégé of Nyogen Senzaki. At Nakagawa’s recommendation, he began to study with Harada and later with Yasutani, whose disciple he became. In 1965, he published a book, The Three Pillars of Zen, which recorded a set of talks by Yasutani outlining his approach to practice, along with transcripts of dokusan interviews and some additional texts. The book quickly became popular in America and Europe, contributing to the prominence of the Sanbo Kyodan approach to Zen. Later in 1965, Kapleau returned to America and, in 1966, established the Rochester Zen Center in Rochester, New York, making him the first American-born Zen priest to found a training temple. In 1967, Kapleau had a falling out with Yasutani over some of Kapleau’s moves to Americanize the style of his temple, after which it became independent of Sanbo Kyodan. The Rochester Zen Center is now part of a network of related centers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Mexico, and New Zealand, referred to collectively as the Cloud Water Sangha. One of Kapleau’s most notable early disciples was Toni Packer, who herself left Rochester in 1981 to found a nonsectarian meditation center, not specifically Buddhist or Zen. The Sanbō Kyōdan (Japanese: 三宝教団) is Zen Buddhist sect based in Japan. ... Philip Kapleau was born in New Haven, Connecticut, and became a teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Harada-Yasutani tradition, a blending of Soto and Rinzai schools. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Soen Nakagawa (1907 - 1984) was a Japanese teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Rinzai tradition. ... Nyogen Senzaki Nyogen Senzaki (18??-1958) was a Japanese-born Zen monk and teacher. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The Rochester Zen Center is a Soto and Rinzai Zen Buddhist sangha located in Rochester, NY in the Sanbo Kyodan lineage established in 1966 by Philip Kapleau. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy Area  - City  37. ... Toni Packer was born 1927 in Germany to a German father and Jewish mother. ...


Robert Aitken is another important American member of Sanbo Kyodan. He was first introduced to Zen as a prisoner in Japan during the Second World War. After returning to the United States, he began studying with Nyogen Senzaki in Los Angeles in the early 1950s. In 1959, while still a Zen student himself, he founded the Diamond Sangha, a zendo in Honolulu, Hawaii. Three years later, the Diamond Sangha hosted the first U.S. visit by Yasutani Hakuun, who would visit various locations in the U.S. six more times before 1969. Aitken travelled frequently to Japan and became a disciple of Yamada Koun, Yasutani’s successor as head of the Sanbo Kyodan. Aitken became a dharma heir of Yamada’s, authored more than ten books, and developed the Diamond Sangha into an international network with temples in the United States, Argentina, Germany, and Australia. In 1995, he and his organization split with Sanbo Kyodan in response to reorganization of the latter following Yamada’s death. The Pacific Zen Institute led by John Tarrant, Aitken's first Dharma successor continues as an independent Zen line. Robert Aitken and Anne Aitken Robert Baker Aitken (born 1917 in Philadelphia) is an American teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Harada-Yasutani (or Sanbo Kyodan) tradition, a blending of Soto and Rinzai schools. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Diamond Sangha is an organization of Zen Buddhist centers founded by Robert and Anne Aitken in the living room of their Hawaii home in October of 1959. ... “Honolulu” redirects here. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Yamada Koun-roshi (1907 - 1989) was born in Nihonmatsu, Japan. ... John Tarrant is a Western Zen master, currently director of the Pacific Zen Institute in Santa Rosa, California. ...


Another influential Japanese Zen teacher was Taizan Maezumi, who arrived as a young priest to serve at Zenshuji, the North American Soto sect headquarters in Los Angeles, in 1956. Like Shunryu Suzuki, he showed considerable interest in teaching Zen to Americans of various backgrounds and, by the mid-1960s, had formed a regular zazen group. In 1967, he and his supporters founded the Zen Center of Los Angeles. He was later instrumental in establishing the Kuroda Institute and the Soto Zen Buddhist Association, the latter an organization of American teachers with ties to the Soto tradition. In addition to his membership in Soto, Maezumi was also recognized as an heir by a Rinzai teacher and by Yasutani Hakuun of the Sanbo Kyodan. Maezumi, in turn, had several American dharma heirs who have become prominent, such as Bernie Glassman, John Daido Loori, Charlotte Joko Beck, and Dennis Genpo Merzel. His successors and their network of centers have organized as the White Plum Sangha.[4] This article needs to be wikified. ... For the vegetable, see Celosia. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Soto Zen Buddhist Association] was formed in 1996 by American and Japanese Zen teachers in response to a perceived need to draw the various autonomous lineages of the North American Soto stream of Zen together for mutual support as well as the development of common training and ethical standards. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Rinzai and Linji. ... Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, Roshi (or Bernie Glassman) is the leader of the engaged Buddhist group Peacemaker Circles International. He is a direct spiritual descendant of Taizan Maezumi, Roshi. ... John Daido Loori, Roshi is one of the West’s leading Zen masters. ... Charlotte Joko Beck is a Zen teacher in the United States and the author of the books Everyday Zen: Love and Work and Nothing Special: Living Zen. ... Zen Master Dennis Genpo Merzel, Roshi, was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1944 shortly before his family moved to Los Angeles, California, and then to Long Beach, California, where he grew up. ...


Not all the successful Zen teachers in the United States have been from Japanese traditions. There have also been teachers of Chinese Zen (also known as Chan), Korean Zen (or Seon), and Vietnamese Zen (or Thien). The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... JQ IS HERE GO AWAY DONT TOUCH MY NAME SHOOOO! ...

Covering over 480 acres of land and located in Talmage, California, the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is the largest Buddhist community in the western hemisphere.
Covering over 480 acres of land and located in Talmage, California, the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is the largest Buddhist community in the western hemisphere.

The first Chinese Buddhist priest to teach Westerners in America was Hsuan Hua, a disciple of the preeminent 20th century Chan master, Hsu Yun. In 1962, Hsuan Hua moved to San Francisco’s Chinatown, where, in addition to Zen, he taught Chinese Pure Land, Tiantai, Vinaya, and Vajrayana Buddhism. Initially, his students were mostly ethnic Chinese, but he eventually attracted a range of followers. In 1970, Hsuan Hua founded Gold Mountain Monastery in San Francisco and in 1976 he established a retreat center, the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, on a 237 acre (959,000 m²) property in Talmage, California. These monasteries are noted for their close adherence to the vinaya, the austere traditional Buddhist monastic code. Hsuan Hua also founded the Buddhist Text Translation Society, which works on the translation of scriptures into English. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB) Summary Picture taken by me, Qin Zhi Lau at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB) Summary Picture taken by me, Qin Zhi Lau at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Talmage is a census-designated place located in Mendocino County, California. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Venerable Master Hsuan Hua (Traditional Chinese: 宣化上人; Hanyu Pinyin: Xuān Huà Shàng Rén; Vietnamese: Hòa Thượng Tuyên Hóa) (April 16, 1918 – June 7, 1995) was an important figure in Western Mahayana Buddhism. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... An intersection of Chinatown in San Francisco. ... Tiantai (天台宗, Wade-Giles: Tien Tai) is one of the thirteen schools of Buddhism in China and Japan, also called the Lotus Sutra School because of its emphasis on the supremacy of that scripture. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Talmage is a census-designated place located in Mendocino County, California. ... The Vinaya (a word in Pali as well as in Sanskrit, with literal meaning discipline) is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ...


Another Chinese Zen teacher with a Western following is Sheng-yen, a master trained in both the Caodong and Linji schools (equivalent to the Japanese Soto and Rinzai, respectively). He first visited the United States in 1978 under the sponsorship of the Buddhist Association of the United States, an organization of Chinese American Buddhists. In 1980, he founded the Ch’an Mediation Society in Queens, New York. In 1985, he founded the Chung-hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies in Taiwan, which now sponsors a variety of Chinese Zen activities in the United States.[5]. Venerable Master Sheng-yen (聖嚴法師) (1931-) is one of the more famous living teachers of Chan (Japanese: Zen) Buddhism. ... Caodong (Chinese 曹洞宗) is a Chinese Zen Buddhist sect founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his Dharma_heirs in the 9th century. ... Japanese painting of Linji Yixuan (Jap. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ...


The most prominent Korean Zen teacher in America was Seung Sahn. Seung Sahn had been the abbot of a temple in Seoul and had also lived in Hong Kong and Japan when, in 1972, not speaking any English, he decided to move to America. On the flight to Los Angeles, a Korean American passenger offered him a job at a laundry in Providence, Rhode Island, the city which was to become the headquarters of Seung Sahn’s Kwan Um School of Zen. Shortly after arriving in Providence, he attracted a group of America students and founded the Providence Zen Center. The affiliated Kwan Um School now has more than 100 Zen centers on six continents. Another notable Korean Zen teacher in America is Samu Sunim, who moved to America in 1968 and founded Toronto’s Zen Buddhist Temple in 1971. He is now the head of the Buddhist Society for Compassionate Wisdom, which has temples in Ann Arbor, Chicago, and Mexico City. Seung Sahn Soen-sa (1927-2004) was a Korean Zen Buddhist monk, and the 78th patriarch in his lineage of Korean Zen (or Korean Sŏn) Buddhism. ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... Nickname: Location in Rhode Island Coordinates: Country United States State Rhode Island County Providence Government  - Mayor David N. Cicilline (D) Area  - City  20. ... The Kwan Um School of Zen is an umbrella organization for the various Zen centers and groups founded by the Korean Zen master Seung Sahn. ... The Providence Zen Center was founded by the Korean Zen master Seung Sahn. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...


Two notable Vietnamese Zen teachers have been influential in America: Thich Thien-An and Thich Nhat Hanh. Thich Thien-An came to America in 1966 as a visiting professor at UCLA and taught traditional Thien meditation. Thich Nhat Hanh was a monk in Vietnam during the Vietnam War, during which he was a peace activist. In response to these activities, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1967 by Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1966, he left Vietnam in exile and now resides at Plum Village, a monastery in France. He has written more than one hundred books about Buddhism, which have made him one of the very few most prominent Buddhist authors among the general readership in the West. In his books and talks, Thich Nhat Hanh emphasizes mindfulness (sati) as the most important practice in daily life. Dr. Thich Thien An (September 1926 - November 1980) was an influential teacher of Vietnamese Zen Buddhism who was active in the United States. ... Thich Nhat Hanh (Press Release Photo) Courtesy of Plum Village Practice Center, France Thich Nhat Hanh (Thích Nhất Hạnh; IPA: ; born in 1926, is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in both Vietnamese and English. ... Dr. Thich Thien An (September 1926 - November 1980) was an influential teacher of Vietnamese Zen Buddhism who was active in the United States. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, generally known as UCLA, is a public university whose main campus is located in the affluent Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Thich Nhat Hanh (Press Release Photo) Courtesy of Plum Village Practice Center, France Thich Nhat Hanh (Thích Nhất Hạnh; IPA: ; born in 1926, is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in both Vietnamese and English. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Arrival area for Upper Hamlet, Plum Vilage. ... Mindfulness (Pali: Sati) is a technique in which a person becomes intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. ...


Tibetan Buddhism

The Dalai Lama in conversation with U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House
The Dalai Lama in conversation with U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House

Perhaps the most widely visible Buddhist teacher in the world is Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, who first visited the United States in 1979. As the exiled political leader of Tibet, he has become a popular cause célèbre. His early life was depicted in glowing terms in Hollywood films such as Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet. He has attracted celebrity religious followers such as Richard Gere and Adam Yauch. The first Western-born Tibetan Buddhist monk was Robert A. F. Thurman, now a noted academic supporter of the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama maintains a North American headquarters at Namgyal Monastery in Ithaca, New York. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Kundun is a 1997 film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese, both of whom (along with several other members of the production) were banned by the Chinese Government from ever entering Tibet as a result of making the film. ... Seven Years in Tibet is the 1997 film adaptation of the adventure story written by Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer based on his real life experiences in Tibet between 1944 and 1951 during the onset of the Second World War and the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Invasion. ... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. ... Adam Nathaniel Yauch, pronounced Yauk, also known as MCA and Nathaniel Hornblower, is a founding member of hip-hop trio the Beastie Boys. ... Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (born 1941) is Jey Tsong Khapa Professor of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Studies at Columbia University and is the co-founder and president of Tibet House New York. ... Namgyal Monastery (rNam Gyal in Tibetan, named for a long-life deity) is any of several Tibetan Buddhist institutions associated with the Dalai Lama(s). ... The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York State. ...


The best-known Tibetan Buddhist lama to live in the United States was Chögyam Trungpa. Trungpa, part of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism, moved to England in 1963, founded a temple in Scotland, and then relocated to Barnet, Vermont, and Boulder, Colorado in 1970. He established a series of what he named Dharmadhatu meditation centers, which were eventually organized under a national umbrella group called Vajradhatu (later to become Shambhala International). The methods and techniques he developed for teaching Westerners he termed Shambhala Training. Following Trungpa’s death, his followers built the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya, a traditional reliquary monument, near Red Feather Lakes, Colorado. Consecrated in 2001, it is the largest stupa in the United States.[6] Chögyam Trungpa (February 1939 - April 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2006 estimate... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Barnet, Vermont Barnet is a town located in Caledonia County, Vermont. ... The City of Boulder ( , Mountain Time Zone) is a home rule municipality located in Boulder County, Colorado, United States. ... Shambhala International is a worldwide network of urban Buddhist meditation centers, retreat centers, monasteries, a university, and other enterprises, founded by the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche (XI Trungpa Tulku) under the name Vajradhatu. ... Shambhala International is a worldwide network of urban Buddhist meditation centers, retreat centers, monasteries, a university, and other enterprises, founded by the Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche (XI Trungpa Tulku) under the name Vajradhatu. ... Shambhala Training is a secular approach to meditation developed by the late meditation master Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and his students. ... Red Feather Lakes is a census-designated place located in Larimer County, Colorado. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ...

The consecration ceremony of the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya in Colorado, one of two largest stupas in the western world.
The consecration ceremony of the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya in Colorado, one of two largest stupas in the western world.

The first Tibetan Buddhist lama to come to the United States was Geshe Ngawang Wangyal, a Kalmyk-Mongolian of the Gelug lineage, who came to the United States in 1955 and founded the "Lamaist Buddhist Monastery of America" in New Jersey in 1958. Among his students were the future western scholars Robert Thurman, Jeffrey Hopkins and Alexander Berzin. Other early arrivals included Deshung Rinpoche, a Sakya lama who settled in Seattle, WA, in 1960, and Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche, the first Nyingma teacher in America, who arrived in the U.S. in 1968 and established the "Tibetan Nyingma Meditation Center" in Berkeley, California in 1969. Download high resolution version (400x601, 33 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (400x601, 33 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alexander Berzin (b. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ...


There are four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism: the Gelug, the Kagyu, the Nyingma, and the Sakya. Of these, the greatest impact in the West was made by the Gelug, which is led by the Dalai Lama, and the Kagyu, specifically its Karma Kagyu branch, which is led by the Karmapa. As of the early 1990s, there were four significant strands of Kagyu practice in the United States: Chögyam Trungpa’s Shambhala movement; the Karma Triyana Choling, a network of centers affiliated directly with the Karmapa’s North American seat in Woodstock, New York; a network of centers founded by Kalu Rinpoche; and an organization established by Ole Nydahl, a Danish-born lama with many supporters in Europe.(Lehnert, 1997) The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... Karma Kagyu is the largest lineage of the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Karmapa (officially His Holiness the Gyalwa Karmapa; Tibetan: རྒྱལ་ད་ཀར་མ་པ་) is the head of the Karma Kagyu, the largest sub-school of the Kagyupa (Tib. ... Woodstock, New York The name Woodstock is associated with two locales in New York. ... Kalu Rinpoche (1905 - May 10, 1989) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar and teacher. ... Lama Ole Nydahl, London, 2005 Lama Ole Nydahl (b. ...


In the 21st century, the Nyingma lineage is increasingly represented in the West, by both Western and Tibetan teachers. Lama Surya Das is a Western-born teacher carrying on the great rimé, or non-sectarian, branch of Tibetan Buddhism. H.E. Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, before his death in 2002, founded centers in Seattle and Brazil. Khandro Rinpoche is a modern female Tibetan teacher who has a strong presence in America. Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo, the first Western woman to be recognized and enthroned as a Tulku, has also established Nyingma centers in Sedona, AZ and Poolesville, MD. The Nyingma tradition is one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Lama Surya Das is one of the foremost American-born lamas in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism and a popular teacher of Buddhism in the United States. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... H.E. Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche (1930-2002) was a renowned teacher of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Khandro Rinpoche, the daughter of His Holiness Mindrolling Tichen, was born in Kalimpong, India in 1967. ... Sedona is a city and community that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai Counties in the Verde Valley of northern Arizona. ... Poolesville is a town located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ...


The Gelug tradition is most strongly represented in America by the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT), founded by Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa. Another prominent Gelugpa teacher is Geshe Michael Roach, the first American to be awarded a Geshe degree, who has established centers in New York, NY, and at Diamond Mountain University in Arizona. The Geluk (dge lugs) School was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), Tibets best known religious reformer and arguably its greatest philosopher. ... The Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (F.P.M.T.) is a network of Buddhist centers focusing on the Gelugpa tradition of Tibet. ... Lama Thubten Yeshe (1935-1984) was a Tibetan lama and tulku who, while exiled in Nepal, co-founded Kopan Monastery (1969) and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (1975). ... Thubten Zopa Rinpoche (born 1946) is a lama from the Solo Khumbu region of Nepal. ... Geshe Michael Roach, founder of Diamond Mountain, was born in Los Angeles in 1952 and was raised in Phoenix, AZ. As a student at Princeton University he concentrated his studies in religion and ancient Sanskrit and Russian language. ... Geshe is a Buddhist academic degree for scholars. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Diamond Mountain is a Buddhist university and retreat center located south of Bowie, Arizona in the Sonora Desert. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


Also quite active in the United States is the self-described New Kadampa Tradition (NKT) established by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. A schismatic offshoot of the Gelug school founded in the 1990s in the UK, the NKT has over 50 Kadampa (NKT) Buddhist Centers and branches in the United States. Geshe Kelsang Gyatso is the only Tibetan associated with the movement—most of its followers are Westerners or in the far east, principally in Hong Kong and Singapore. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Geshe Kelsang Gyatso was born in Tibet in 1931 and ordained as a Buddhist monk at the age of eight. ...


Vipassana

Vipassana, also referred to by the rough translation “insight meditation” is an ancient meditative practice described in the Pali Canon of the Theravada school of Buddhism, and in similar scriptures of other schools. Vipassana also refers to a distinct movement which was begun in the 20th century by reformers such as Mahāsi Sayādaw, a Burmese monk. Mahāsi Sayādaw was a Theravada bhikkhu and Vipassana is rooted in the Theravada teachings, but its goal is to simplify ritual and other peripheral activities in order to make meditative practice more effective and available both to monks and to laypeople. This openness to lay involvement is an important development in Theravada, which has sometimes appeared to focus exclusively on monasticism. Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaÅ›yanā (Sanskrit) means insight. While it is often referred to as Buddhist meditation, the practice taught by the Buddha was non-sectarian, and has universal application. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Mahāsi Sayādaw (1904-1982) was a famous Burmese Buddhist monk and meditation master who had a significant impact on the teaching of Vipassana (Insight) meditation in the West and throughout Asia. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...


In 1965, monks from Sri Lanka established the Washington Buddhist Vihara in Washington, D.C., the first Theravada monastic community in the United States. The Vihara was fairly accessible to English-speakers, and naturally vipassana meditation was part of it activities. However, the direct influence of the Vipassana movement would not reach the U.S. until a group of Americans returned there in the early 1970s after studying with Vipassana master in Asia. Joseph Goldstein, after journeying to Southeast Asia with the Peace Corps, had lived in Bodhgaya, where he was a student of Anagarika Munindra, the head monk of Mahabodhi Temple and himself a student of Māhāsai Sayādaw’s. Jack Kornfield had also been in the Peace Corps in Southeast Asia, after which he studied and ordained in the Thai Forest Tradition under Ajahn Chah, who was perhaps the most influential figure in 20th century Thai Buddhism. Sharon Salzberg went to India in 1971 as a spiritual seeker and studied with Dipa Ma, a former Calcutta housewife trained in vipassana by Māhāsai Sayādaw[7]. Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Crisis corps be merged into this article or section. ... Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya is the location of Gautama Siddharthas attainment of Enlightenment. ... The Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. ... Jack Kornfield was trained as a Buddhist monk in Thailand, Burma and India and has taught meditation worldwide since 1974. ... The Thai Forest Tradition is a loosely organized movement within Thai Theravadin Buddhism, emphasizing meditation and strict adherence to the vinaya over intellectual pursuits. ... Venerable Ajahn Chah Subhatto (Chao Khun Bodhinyanathera) (alternatively spelled Achaan Chah, occasionally with honorific titles Luang Por and Phra) (17 June 1918, Thailand – 16 January 1992), was one of the greatest meditation masters of the twentieth century. ... Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school. ... Sharon Salzberg is a teacher of Asian meditation practices, particularly Vipasannā, (mindfulness), and mettā (lovingkindess) methods. ... Dipa Ma (March 25, 1911 - September 1989) was born Nani Bala Barua in East Bengal. ...


Goldstein and Kornfield met in 1974 while teaching at the Naropa Institute in Colorado. The next year, Goldstein, Kornfield, and Salzberg, who had very recently returned from Calcutta, along with Jacqueline Schwarz, founded the Insight Meditation Society on an 80 acre (324,000 m²) property near Barre, Massachusetts. IMS became the central Vipassana instituation in America, hosting visits by Māhāsi Sayādaw, Munindra, Ajahn Chah, and Dipa Ma. In 1981, Kornfield moved to California, where he founded another Vipassana center, Spirit Rock Meditation Center, in Marin County. In 1985, Larry Rosenberg founded the Cambridge Insight Meditation Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Another important Vipassana center is the Vipassana Metta Foundation, located on Maui. Naropa University is a private, liberal arts university in Boulder, Colorado, which was founded in 1974 by Chogyam Trungpa. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The Insight Meditation Society is a Buddhist organization located in Barre, Massachusetts. ... Barre is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Marin County (pronounced mah-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - City  7. ... The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727 square miles (1883 km²). Maui is part of the State of HawaiÊ»i and is the largest island in Maui County. ...


In 1989, the Insight Meditation Center established the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies near the IMS headquarters, with the goal of promoting scholarly investigation of Buddhism from various perspectives. It director is Mu Seong, a former Korean Zen monk.


S. N. Goenka is a Burmese-born meditation teacher who can also be considered part of the Vipassana movement. His teacher, Sayagyi U Ba Khin of Burma, was a contemporary of Māhāsi Sayādaw’s, and taught a style of Buddhism with similar emphases on simplicity and accessibility to laypeople. Goenka has established a method of instruction which has proven very popular in Asia and throughout the world. In 1981, he established the Vipassana Research Institute based in Igatpuri, India. He and his students have built several active centers in North America. [8] Sri Satya Narayan Goenka (born 1924) is a leading lay teacher of Vipassana meditation and a student of Sayagyi U Ba Khin. ... Sayagyi U Ba Khin (March 6, 1899 – January 18, 1971) was born in Rangoon, Burma. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Export Buddhists

Although ethnic-based institutions, such as Hsi Lai Temple and the Buddhist Churches of America, show some evangelical tendencies, there is only one Buddhist group in North America which has focused on recruiting converts from among the general public and been successful: Soka Gakkai, a Japan-based society which promotes Nichiren Buddhism. Soka Gakkai International or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ... Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shūha) is a branch of Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ...


Soka Gakkai, which literally means “Establishing Value Education Society”, was founded in Japan in 1930 as a fraternal auxiliary to Nichiren Shoshu, the largest sect of Nichiren Buddhism. It was perhaps the most successful of Japan’s new religious movements, which enjoyed tremendous growth after the end of the Second World War. During the occupation of Japan, some American soldiers became aware of it, and it was the Japanese wives of veterans who became the first active Soka Gakkai members in the West. A U.S. branch was formally organized on October 13, 1960. Its Korean-Japanese leader took the name George M. Williams to emphasize his commitment to reaching the English-speaking public. Soka Gakkai expanded rapidly in the U.S. through an aggressive recruitment technique called shakubuku. One of the results of this outreach is that Soka Gakkai has been much more effective than any other group at attracting non-Asian minority converts, chiefly African American and Latino, to Buddhism. It has also been successful in attracting the support of celebrities, such as Tina Turner, Herbie Hancock, and Orlando Bloom. Nichiren ShōshÅ« (日蓮正宗) is a branch of Nichiren Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (1222–1282). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Surrender of Japan Japan surrendered to the Allies... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock on November 26, 1939) is a seven-time Grammy Award-winning African-American rock (one grammy win with ex-husband Ike, six as a solo artist, and one win by Whats Love Got to Do With It songwriters Graham Lyle and Terry Britten... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom[1] (born January 13, 1977) is an English actor. ...


Soka Gakkai has no priests of its own and was originally part of Nichiren Shoshu, a formal religious sect in Japan. In fact, its United States branch was originally named Nichiren Shoshu America (NSA). However, in 1991 Soka Gakkai split from Nichiren Shoshu and became a separate organization; at that time, the U.S. branch changed its name to Soka Gakkai International - United States of America (SGI-USA). Nichiren Shoshu proper maintains six temples of its own in the U.S. and another Nichiren group exists which is primarily the domain of ethnic Japanese. Soka Gakkai International (創価学会インターナショナル) or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ...


The main religious practice of Soka Gakkai members, like other Nichiren Buddhists, is chanting the mantra Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō and sections of the Lotus Sutra. Unlike import Buddhist trends such as Zen, Vipassana, and Tibetan Buddhism, Soka Gakkai does not teach meditative techniques other than chanting. Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō (南無妙法蓮華経, also transliterated Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) is a mantra, which is recited as part of the practice of Nichiren Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: Saddharma PuṇḍarÄ«ka SÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Chinese: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Japanese: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and...


Demographics of Buddhism in the United States

"American Buddhist with Thai Buddha", Living Enrichment Center, Wilsonville, Oregon, 1998.

it is not easy to arrive at an accurate idea of the number of Buddhists in the United States. The simplest reason is that it is not at all clear how to define who is and who is not a Buddhist. The easiest and most intuitive definition is one based on self-description, but this has its pitfalls. Because Buddhism exists as a cultural concept in American society, there may be individuals who self-describe as Buddhists but have essentially no knowledge of or commitment to Buddhism as a religion or practice; on the other hand, others may be deeply involved in meditation and committed to the Buddhadharma, but may refuse the label “Buddhist”. Despite these difficulties, several scholars have investigated this question. Most studies have indicated a Buddhist population in the United States of between 1 and 4 million. The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report for 2004 indicates that 2% of the U.S. population is Buddhist, which would mean a total of 5,973,446 Buddhists. Other estimates, perhaps relying on a greater degree of intuition, are larger: in the 1990s, Robert A. F. Thurman stated his opinion that there were 5 to 6 million Buddhists in America, and others might speculate there are more. Whatever the total number, it appears that roughly 75 to 80 percent of Buddhists in the U.S. are of Asian descent and inherited Buddhism as a family tradition; the remaining 20 to 25 percent are non-Asians. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1349x1829, 457 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1349x1829, 457 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The entrance to Living Enrichment Center. ... Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (born 1941) is Jey Tsong Khapa Professor of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist Studies at Columbia University and is the co-founder and president of Tibet House New York. ...


Ethnic divide

Discussion about Buddhism in America has sometimes focused on the issue of the visible ethnic divide separating ethnic Buddhist congregations from import Buddhist groups.[9] Although many Zen and Tibetan Buddhist temples were founded by Asians, they now tend to attract very few Asian-American members. With the exception of Soka Gakkai,[citation needed] almost all active Buddhist groups in America can be readily classed as either ethnic or import Buddhism based on the demographics of their membership. There is often very limited contact between these Buddhists of different ethnic groups. This divide can be disturbing in view of the historical necessity of relying on Asian peoples to transmit Buddhism, and in light of ongoing and complex tensions surrounding ethnicity and immigration in America. Some Asian-American Buddhists feel that their non-Asian counterparts ignore the many contributions of their ethnic communities toward the development of American Buddhism. Soka Gakkai International or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ...


However, the cultural divide should not necessarily be seen as pernicious. It is often argued that the differences between Buddhist groups arise benignly from the differing needs and interests of those involved. Convert Buddhists tend to be interested in meditation and philosophy, in some cases eschewing the trappings of religiosity altogether. On the other hand, for immigrants and their descendants, preserving tradition and maintaining a social framework assume a much greater relative importance, making their approach to religion naturally more conservative. Further, Kenneth K. Tanaka suggests, based on a survey of Asian-American Buddhists in San Francisco, that “many Asian-American Buddhists view non-Asian Buddhism as still in a formative, experimental stage” and yet they believe that it “could eventually mature into a religious expression of exceptional quality”.[10] A large statue in Bangalore depicting Shiva meditating Meditation describes a state of concentrated attention on some object of thought or awareness. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ...


Additional questions come from the demographics within import Buddhism. Researchers and casual observers alike report that the vast majority of American converts practicing at Buddhist centers are white people with Christian or Jewish backgrounds. Only Soka Gakkai has attracted significant numbers of black or Latino members. A variety of ideas have been broached regarding the nature, causes, and significance of this racial uniformity. A key question is the degree of importance ascribed to discrimination, which is suggested to be mostly unconscious, on the part of white converts toward potential minority converts. To some extent, the racial divide is indicative of a class divide, because convert Buddhists tend strongly to be drawn from the more educated segments of society. Among the African American Buddhists who have commented on the dynamics of the racial divide in convert Buddhism are Jan Willis and Charles R. Johnson.[11] Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles R. Johnson (born 1948 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American scholar and author of novels, short stories, and essays. ...


Trends in American Buddhism

Engaged Buddhism

An important trend that has developed in Buddhism in the West is socially engaged Buddhism. While some critics have asserted that the term is redundant, as it is mistaken to believe that Buddhism in the past has not affected and been affected by the surrounding society, others have suggested that Buddhism is sometimes seen as too quietistic and passive toward public life. This is particularly true in the West, where almost all converts to Buddhism come to it outside of an existing family or community tradition. Engaged Buddhism is an attempt to apply Buddhist values to larger social problems, including war and environmental concerns. The term engaged Buddhism was coined by Thich Nhat Hanh, who developed the idea during his years as a peace activist in Vietnam. The most notable engaged Buddhist organization is the Buddhist Peace Fellowship, which was founded in 1978 by Robert Aitken, Anne Aitken, Nelson Foster, and others and received early assistance from Gary Snyder, Jack Kornfield, and Joanna Macy.[12] Another engaged Buddhist group is the Zen Peacemaker Order, which was founded in 1996 by Bernie Glassman and Sandra Jishu Holmes.[13] Engaged Buddhism is a term originally coined by Vietnamese Zen Buddhist teacher Thich Nhat Hanh. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Thich Nhat Hanh (Press Release Photo) Courtesy of Plum Village Practice Center, France Thich Nhat Hanh (Thích Nhất Hạnh; IPA: ; born in 1926, is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in both Vietnamese and English. ... The mission of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship (BPF), founded in 1978, is to serve as a catalyst for socially engaged Buddhism. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Aitken and Anne Aitken Robert Baker Aitken (born 1917 in Philadelphia) is an American teacher of Zen Buddhism in the Harada-Yasutani (or Sanbo Kyodan) tradition, a blending of Soto and Rinzai schools. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Jack Kornfield was trained as a Buddhist monk in Thailand, Burma and India and has taught meditation worldwide since 1974. ... Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, Roshi (or Bernie Glassman) is the leader of the engaged Buddhist group Peacemaker Circles International. He is a direct spiritual descendant of Taizan Maezumi, Roshi. ...


Buddhist Education in the United States

A variety of Buddhist groups have established institutions of higher learning in America. The first four-year Buddhist college in the U.S. was the Naropa Institute (now Naropa University), which was founded in 1974 by Chögyam Trungpa. It has enjoyed consistent involvement both from convert Buddhists and counterculture personalities, such as Allen Ginsberg, who christened the Institute’s poetry department the “Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics”. Naropa is currently fully accredited and offers degrees in some subjects not directly related to Buddhism. Another Buddhist university is the University of the West, which is affiliated with Hsi Lai Temple and was, until recently called Hsi Lai University. Soka Gakkai also sponsors two branches of Soka University, which is based in Japan. The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas is the site of Dharma Realm Buddhist University, a four-year college teaching courses primarily related to Buddhism but including some general-interest subjects. The Buddhist Churches of America runs its Institute of Buddhist Studies in Berkeley, California, which offers a master's degree in Buddhist Studies but is primarily a seminary affiliated with the Graduate Theological Union. It recently opened a Jodo Shinshu Center also in Berkeley. Naropa University is a private, liberal arts university in Boulder, Colorado, which was founded in 1974 by Chogyam Trungpa. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American Beat poet. ... The University of the West (Ch. ... Soka Gakkai International or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ... Soka University (創価大学, Sōka Daigaku) opened in Japan in 1971 (undergraduate) and 1975 (graduate). ... The Buddhist Churches of America is the United States branch of the Hongwanji-ha Hongwanji (also known as Honpa Hongwanji / Nishi-Hongwanji) sub-sect of Jōdo ShinshÅ« (淨土眞宗 True Pure Land School) Buddhism. ... The Institute of Buddhist Studies is a Jodo Shinshu-affiliated seminary and graduate school, located in Berkeley, California. ... A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... The Graduate Theological Union is a consortium of nine independent theological schools and eight program centers in Berkeley, California. ...


The first Buddhist high school in the United States, Developing Virtue Secondary School, was founded in 1981 by the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association at their branch monastery in the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Ukiah, California. A second Buddhist high school, the Pacific Buddhist Academy, opened in Honolulu, Hawai'i in 2003. It shares a campus with the Hongwanji Mission School; an elementary and middle school. Both schools are affiliated with the Honpa Hongwanji Jodo Shinshu mission.[14] Main article: Secondary education High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory education. ... Classrooms of Developing Virtue Boys School Classrooms of Developing Virtue Girls School Developing Virtue Secondary School (DVS, Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Peide Zhongxue) is a private Buddhist school located in the town of Talmage, California, and also the first Buddhist high school founded in the United States. ... The DRBA logo The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, the headquarters of DRBA. The Dharma Realm Buddhist Association (shortened to DRBA, Chinese: 法界佛教總會, PY: Fajie Fuojiao Zonghui, formerly known as the Sino-American Buddhist Association) is an international, non-profit Buddhist organization founded by the Venerable Master... The mountain gate to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. ... Ukiah is the county seat of Mendocino County, California. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Established 1949 School Type Private Preparatory Day Students 325, Co-educational Grades Pre-K–8 Community Urban Religion Buddhist Accreditation Western Association of Schools and Colleges Mascot Dolphins Colors Purple and Gray Distinctions First and one of the largest Buddhist institutions established outside of Japan. ...


See also

A feature of Buddhism in the West has been the emergence of groups, which although they draw on traditional Buddhism, are in fact an attempt at creating a new style of Buddhist practice. ... There is a small, growing Buddhist community in Canada. ... The American Zen Teachers Association was founded in the late nineteen eighties as the Second Generation Zen Teachers Group. ... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The Washington National Cathedral, located in the capital of the U.S., is one of the largest churches in the country. ... See also Religion in the United States The religious history of the United States is a complex narrative that begins more than a century before the former British colonies became the United States of America in 1776. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ...

References

  • Fields, Rick (1981, 1992). How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America. London: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-583-2.
  • Lehnert, Tomek (1997). Rogues in Robes. Nevada City, California: Blue Dolphin Publishing. ISBN 1-57733-026-9.
  • Prebish, Charles (2003). Buddhism — the American Experience. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books, Inc.. ISBN 0-9747055-0-0.

Tomek Lehnert Tomek Lehnert was born on August 15, 1956 in Gdańsk, Poland. ...

External links

  • List of Buddhist organizations, centers and groups in U.S.A.
  • Buddhism — The American Experience, Chapter 1 by Charles Prebish (first chapter is available without charge, complete book must be ordered)
  • American Buddhist Net: Buddhist News & Forums
  • “Surveying the Buddhist Landscape”, article by Charles Prebish, from Shambhala Sun
  • “Global Buddhism: Developmental Periods, Regional Histories, and a New Analytical Perspective”, article by Martin Baumann
  • Buddhism Comes to Main Street”, article by Jan Nattier on UrbanDharma.org
  • “Buddhist Studies and its Impact on Buddhism in Western Societies”, article by Max Deeg
  • Archives of American Tibetan Buddhist scholar Alexander Berzin
  • Review of Tweed, Thomas A. The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844-1912. Reviewed by J. I. Bakker
  • “Buddhism evolves as followers multiply”, article from the Poughkeepsie Journal, April 23, 2004
  • Shin Buddhism in the American Context”, article by Dr. Alfred Bloom
  • Chronology of the lives of important persons in the history of Zen in America, from Terebess Online
  • A chronology of Theravada Buddhism, from accesstoinsight.org
  • Garden State Sangha: Buddhist Organizations in New Jersey USA
  • Timeline of Buddhist history and related events, from awakening.to
  • Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, an independent voice of dharma in the West
  • The New Georgia Encyclopedia: Buddhism in the U.S.

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