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Encyclopedia > Buddhas of Bamyan

Coordinates: 34°49′55″N, 67°49′36″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamyan Valley*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

One of the two buddhas of Bamyan in 1963
State Party  Afghanistan
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 208
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2003  (Twenty seventh Session)
Endangered 2003-
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Bamyan valley with Buddhas.

The Buddhas of Bamyan (Persian: بت های باميان - but hay-e bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of Kabul at an altitude of 2500 meters (8,202 ft). Built during the sixth century, the statues represented the classic blended style of Indo-Greek art. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Download high resolution version (526x707, 131 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 408 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 509 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to fr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 408 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 509 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to fr. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... Buddhas of Bamyan, which dated back to Pre-Islamic Afghanistan, were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001 calling them Un-Islamic. Photo by Hadi Zaheer Bamyan is one of the most beautiful and fertile valleys in Afghanistan. ... The habitat of Hazara ethnic group is usually knows as the Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstone cliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco. This coating, practically all of which was worn away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carmine red and the smaller one was painted multiple colors.[1] The lower parts of the statues' arms were constructed from the same mud-straw mix while supported on wooden armatures. It is believed that the upper parts of their faces were made from great wooden masks or casts. The rows of holes that can be seen in photographs were spaces that held wooden pegs which served to stabilize the outer stucco. This article is about the geological formation. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Carmine Carminic acid Carmine (IPA: []), also called Crimson Lake, Cochineal, Natural Red 4, C.I. 75470 or E120, is a pigment of a bright red color obtained from the carminic acid produced by some scale insects, such as the cochineal and the Polish cochineal, and is used as a general...


They were intentionally dynamited and destroyed in 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, after the Taliban government declared that they were "idols" (which are forbidden under Sharia law). Japan and Switzerland, among others, have pledged support for the rebuilding of the statues.[2] This article is about a high explosive. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Contents

History

Bamyan lies on the Silk Road, a caravan route linking the markets of China with those of Western Asia. Until the eleventh century AD, Bamyan was part of the Indian kingdom of Gandhara. It was the site of several Buddhist and Hindu monasteries, and a thriving center for religion, philosophy, and Indo-Greek art. It was a Buddhist religious site from the second century up to the time of the Islamic invasion in the ninth century. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Monks at the monasteries lived as hermits in small caves carved into the side of the Bamyan cliffs. Many of these monks embellished their caves with religious statuary and elaborate, brightly-colored frescoes. For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...


The two most prominent statues were the giant, standing Buddhas Vairocana and Sakyamuni, measuring 55 and 37 metres (180 and 121 feet) high respectively, the largest examples of standing Buddha carvings in the world. They were perhaps the most famous cultural landmarks of the region and the site was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the surrounding cultural landscape and archaeological remains of the Bamyan Valley. The statues represented wearing Hellenic tunics, an echo of Alexander the Great's contribution to the Central Asian mix almost a millennium earlier. This article is about the primordial Buddha Vairocana. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


The smaller of the two statues was built in AD 507, the larger in 554.[3] The statues are believed to have been built by the Kushans and Indo-Hephthalites (both eastern Indo-European peoples) at the heyday of their empires. The above mentioned groups were the ancestors of the Hazaras, the most persecuted ethnic group in Afghanistan.[4] Physical and facial features of the Hazaras are greatly similar to those in the frescoes found in the ancient relics and caves. Furthermore, considering the historical importance of the Buddhas of Bamyan, unsuccessful claims over the Buddha's heritage have been made by all the ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ...


The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang passed through the area around AD 630 and described Bamyan as a flourishing Buddhist center "with more than ten monasteries and more than a thousand monks". He also noted that both Buddha figures were "decorated with gold and fine jewels" (Wriggins, 1995). Xuan Zang's account is intriguing as he mentions a third, even larger, reclining statue of Buddha;[1] although it is generally believed destroyed, some archaeological expeditions are searching for it. A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...


A monumental sitting Buddha similar in style to those at Bamyan still exists in the Bingling Temple caves in China's Gansu province. Smaller relief images The Great Maitreya Buddha The Bingling Temple (Chinese: 炳灵寺; Pinyin: Bǐnglíng Sì) is a series of grottoes filled with Buddhist sculpture carved into natural caves and caverns in a canyon along the Yellow River. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The destruction of the statues led to widespread anger in Europe and North America because, in part, it was an affront to many Westerners who believe that religious expression is a fundamental freedom. Afghanistan, until then, was unknown to many, but the destruction of the Bamyan Buddhas became a symbol of oppression and a rallying point. Despite the fact that Afghanis are Muslim, they too had embraced their past and many were appalled by this destruction.


History of attacks on the Buddhas

Eleventh century to the twentieth century

When Mahmud of Ghazni conquered Afghanistan and part of west India in the eleventh century, the Buddhas and frescoes were spared from destruction though Buddhist monasteries and other artifacts were looted or destroyed. Nader Shah fired cannon at the statues. But over the centuries the statues had largely been left untouched. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ...


Muslim extremism and icon taste painstakingly cut the nose and eyes of the large buddah image, but left the figure standing. And the face was scratched by Amir Abdur Rahman, on the politics considerations because Buddah had the same face structure as the local people Hazaras. In the seventeen century Nadir shah had broken the legs of the large Buddha as symbol of Power execution.


Abdur Rahman, Nadir Shah and Mullah Muhammad Omar (The Spiritual Leader of Taliban) will be remaining in the annals of the history as criminals, dictators and extremists and the history will never forget or forgive them because they did their best to destroy and vanish the identity of Afghanistan.


Preface to 2001, under the Taliban

In July 1999, Mullah Mohammed Omar issued a decree in favor of the preservation of the Bamyan Buddhas. Because Afghanistan's Buddhist population no longer existed, which removed the possibility of the statues being worshipped, he added: "The government considers the Bamyan statues as an example of a potential major source of income for Afghanistan from international visitors. The Taliban states that Bamyan shall not be destroyed but protected."[5]


Afghanistan's radical clerics began a campaign to crack down on "un-Islamic" segments of Afghan society. The Taliban soon banned all forms of imagery, music and sports, including television, in accordance with what they considered a strict interpretation of Islamic law.[6] Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Information and Culture Minister Qadratullah Jamal told Associated Press of a decision by 400 religious clerics from across Afghanistan declaring the Buddhist statues against the tenets of Islam. "They came out with a consensus that the statues were against Islam," said Jamal. The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


According to UNESCO Director-General Koïchiro Matsuura, a meeting of ambassadors from the 54 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) was conducted. All OIC states - including Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, three countries that officially recognised the Taliban government - joined the protest to spare the monuments.[7] A statement issued by the ministry of religious affairs of Taliban regime justified the destruction as being in accordance with Islamic law.[8] Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates would later condemn the destruction as "savage".[citation needed] Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... [[Image:Koïchiro_ ... OIC redirects here. ...


Dynamiting and destruction, March 2001

Photograph of a statue being destroyed with dynamite on March 21, 2001.

The statues were destroyed by dynamite over several weeks, starting in early March, carried out in different stages. Initially, the statues were fired at for several days using anti-aircraft guns and artillery. This damaged them, but did not obliterate them. Later, the Taliban placed anti-tank mines at the bottom of the niches, so that when fragments of rock broke off from artillery fire, the statues would receive additional destruction from particles that set off the mines. In the end, the Taliban tied ropes around some local Hazara men, lowered them down the cliff face, and forced them to place explosives into holes in the Buddhas.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


On March 6, 2001 The Times quoted Mullah Mohammed Omar as stating, "Muslims should be proud of smashing idols. It has given praise to God that we have destroyed them." He had clearly changed his position from being in favor of the statues to being against them. During a March 13 interview for Japan's Mainichi Shimbun, Afghan Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmad Mutawakel stated that the destruction was anything but a retaliation against the international community for economic sanctions: "We are destroying the Buddha statues in accordance with Islamic law and it is purely a religious issue". is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Headquarters in Tokyo Osaka Office Newsagents shop in Higashi-osaka Printing plant in Settsu The Mainichi Shimbun , lit. ... Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil. ...


On March 18, The New York Times reported that a Taliban envoy said the Islamic government made its decision in a rage after a foreign delegation offered money to preserve the ancient works. The report also added, however, that other reports "have said the religious leaders were debating the move for months, and ultimately decided that the statues were idolatrous and should be obliterated."[10] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Then Taliban ambassador-at-large, Sayed Rahmatullah Hashemi, said that the destruction of the statues was carried out by the Head Council of Scholars after a single Swedish monuments expert proposed to restore the statues' heads. Hashimi is reported as saying: "When the Afghani head council asked them to provide the money to feed the children instead of fixing the statues, they refused and said, 'No, the money is just for the statues, not for the children'. Herein, they made the decision to destroy the statues". However, he did not comment on the fact that a foreign museum offered to "buy the Buddhist statues, the money from which could have been used to feed children."[11] Ambassador-at-Large is the title for an Ambassador (diplomat of the highest carreer rank, not counting the rather political superiors in government) who is NOT posted (in residence) in a given embassy (accredited to one or exceptionally several, usually neighbouring, governments and/or seat of international organizations), but given... There are mulitple individuals named Rahmatullah who intelligence analysts assert are associated with the Taliban. ...


There were 3 reasons given for the destruction of the Buddhas at Bamyan. The first was that it was an easy target. The second was that Bamyan was the base for the Taliban operation and considered the Buddhas to be a Northern alliance heritage. Thirdly, they were upset with the lack of international humanitarian aid coming to a country ravaged by drought, earthquakes and war. But the real reason behind destruction of the statues were hidden. It was believed to be a monument built by the Hazara people.[12]


Aftermath of the destruction

On April 19, 2004, in an interview to a Pakistani journalist Mohammad Shehzad, Mullah Mohammad Omar said the following, "I did not want to destroy the Bamyan Buddha. In fact, some foreigners came to me and said they would like to conduct the repair work of the Bamyan Buddha that had been slightly damaged due to rains. This shocked me. I thought, these callous people have no regard for thousands of living human beings — the Afghans who are dying of hunger, but they are so concerned about non-living objects like the Buddha. This was extremely deplorable. That is why I ordered its destruction. Had they come for humanitarian work, I would have never ordered the Buddhas' destruction."[citation needed] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Islamist Taliban government decreed that the statues, which had survived for over 1,500 years, were idolatrous and un-Islamic. During the destruction, Taliban Information Minister Qudratullah Jamal lamented that, "this work of destruction is not as simple as people might think. You can't knock down the statues by shelling as both are carved into a cliff; they are firmly attached to the mountain."[citation needed] The two largest Buddhas faced dynamite and tank barrages and were demolished after almost a month of intensive bombardment. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Commitment to rebuild

Though the figures of the two large Buddhas are almost completely destroyed, their outlines and some features are still recognizable within the recesses. It is also still possible for visitors to explore the monks' caves and the passages which connect them. As part of the international effort to rebuild Afghanistan after the Taliban war, the Government of Japan and several other organizations, among them the Afghanistan Institute in Bubendorf, Switzerland, along with the ETH in Zurich, have committed themselves to rebuilding the two largest Buddhas; anastylosis is one technique being considered. This article describes the structure of the Japanese Government For an outlook on current and historical political events, see Politics of Japan. ... For other uses, see Bubendorf (disambiguation). ... Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Celsus Library in Ephesos (Turkey), anastylosis carried out 1970-1978 Anastylosis (from the Ancient Greek: ; = again, and = to erect (a stela or building)) is an archaeological term referring to a reconstruction technique where a ruined monument is restored after careful study and mensuration using original architectural elements where possible. ...


Developments since 2002

The site of the Buddhas in August 2005.

In May 2002, a mountainside sculpture of the Buddha was carved out of a mountain in Sri Lanka. It was designed to closely resemble one of the Buddhas of Bamyan.


The Afghan government has commissioned Japanese artist Hiro Yamagata to recreate the Bamyan Buddhas using fourteen laser systems to project the images of the Buddhas onto the cliff where they once stood. The laser systems will be solar and wind-powered. The project, which will cost an estimated $9 million, is currently pending UNESCO approval. If approved, the project is estimated to be completed by June 2012. Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ...


In September 2005, Mawlawi Mohammed Islam Mohammadi, Taliban governor of Bamyan province at the time of the destruction and widely seen as responsible for its occurrence, was elected to the Afghan Parliament. On January 26, 2007, he was gunned down in Kabul. Mawlawi Mohammed Islam Mohammadi is a former Taliban governor and a current member of the National Assembly of Afghanistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Swiss filmmaker Christian Frei made a 95-minute documentary entitled The Giant Buddhas (released in March 2006) on the statues, the international reactions to it, and an overview of the controversy. The movie makes the controversial claim (quoting a local Afghan) that the destruction was ordered by Osama Bin Laden and that initially, Mullah Omar and the Afghans in Bamyan had opposed the destruction.[13] Christian Frei (b. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


In the summer of 2006, Afghan officials were deciding the timetable for the re-construction of the statues. The mullahs[who?] in the province have stated that the destruction was an "atrocity" and the statues deserve restoration.[citation needed] While they wait for the Afghan government and international community to decide whether to rebuild them, a $1.3 million UNESCO-funded project is sorting out the chunks of clay and plaster — ranging from boulders weighing several tons to fragments the size of tennis balls — and sheltering them from the elements.


The Buddhist remnants at Bamyan were included on the 2008 World Monuments Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by the World Monuments Fund. It is hoped that the listing will put continued national and international attention on the site in order to ensure its long-term preservation, and to make certain that future restoration efforts maintain the authenticity of the site and that proper preservation practices are followed. The World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic art and architecture worldwide through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training. ... The World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic art and architecture worldwide through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training. ...


Oil painting discovery

After the destruction of the Buddhas, 50 caves were revealed. In 12 of the caves wall paintings were discovered.[14] In December 2004, Japanese researchers discovered that the wall paintings at Bamyan were actually painted between the fifth and the ninth centuries, rather than the sixth to eighth centuries as previously believed. The discovery was made by analysing radioactive isotopes contained in straw fibers found beneath the paintings. It is believed that the paintings were done by artists travelling on the Silk Road, the trade route between China and the West.[15] For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


Scientists from the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties in Tokyo (Japan), the Centre of Research and Restoration of the French Museums-CNRS (France), the Getty Conservation Institute (United States) and the ESRF (the European Synchrotron radiation facility) in Grenoble analysed samples from the paintings,[16] typically less than 1 mm across.[17] They discovered that the paint contained pigments such as vermilion (red mercury sulfide) and lead white (lead carbonate). These were mixed with a range of binders, including natural resins, gums (possibly animal skin glue or egg)[17] and oils, probably derived from walnuts or poppies.[15] Specifically, researchers identified drying oils from murals showing Buddhas in vermilion robes sitting cross-legged amid palm leaves and mythical creatures as being painted in the middle of the 7th century.[14] It is believed that they are the oldest known surviving examples of oil painting, possibly predating oil painting in Europe by as much as six centuries.[15] The discovery may lead to a reassessment of works in ancient ruins in Iran, China, Pakistan, Turkey and India.[15] For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is one of the most prominent scientific research institutions in France. ... Grenoble (Franco-Provençal: Grenoblo) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Mercury Sulfide is a chemical compound composed of the elements Mercury and Sulfur. ... Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite Cerussite (also known as Horn silver, Lead carbonate, White lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. ... Mona Lisa, Oil on wood panel painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ...


Some have cautioned that the oils may in fact be contamination from fingers, as the touching of the painting is encouraged in Buddhist tradition;[17] however, analysis by spectroscopy and chromatography indicates an unambiguous signal for the use of oils rather than any other contaminant.[17] In addition oils were discovered underneath other layers of paint, negating the presence of surface contaminants.[17] Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ...


References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta. "From Ruins of Afghan Buddhas, a History Grows", The New York Times, 2006-12-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  2. ^ Waduge, Shenali. "Afghans destroy Buddhas, but cry foul over cartoons", The Nation, 2008-03-14. Retrieved on 2008-04-29. 
  3. ^ Gall, Carlotta. "Afghans consider rebuilding Bamyan Buddhas", International Herald Tribune, 2006-12-05. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  4. ^ Mohammadi, Ishaq (1999). A Profile On Bamyan Civilization. hazara.net. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  5. ^ Harding, Luke. "How the Buddha got his wounds", The Guardian, 2001-03-03. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. 
  6. ^ Vawda, Moulana Imraan. The Destruction of Statues Displayed in an Islamic State. Ask-Imam.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  7. ^ "World appeals to Taleban to stop destroying statues", CNN, 2001-03-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  8. ^ "Destruction of Giant Buddhas Confirmed", AFP, 2001-03-12. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  9. ^ "Destruction and Rebuilding of the Bamyan Buddhas" by Slate Magazine.
  10. ^ Crossette, Barbara. "Taliban Explains Buddha Demolition", The New York Times, 2001-03-19. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  11. ^ Kassaimah, Sahar. "Afghani Ambassador Speaks At USC", IslamOnline, 2001-01-12. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  12. ^ Why did the Taliban destroy the Buddhas at Bamiyan, an Analysis by USAToday.
  13. ^ "Laden ordered Bamyan Buddha destruction", The Times of India, 2006-03-28. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 
  14. ^ a b Scientitsts discover first-ever oil paintings in Afghanistan. Earthtimes.org. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
  15. ^ a b c d Oil painting 'invented in Asia, not Europe'. Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved on April 24, 2008. However, the press release picked up by media, clearly misdates the earliest uses of oil paint in Europe, which is well known to be fully described in a treatise by Theophilus Presbyter of 1100-1120, and may date back to the Ancient Romans. See: Rutherford John Gettens, George Leslie Stout, 1966, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 0486215970 Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopedia (online text), p.42[1]
  16. ^ Ancient Buddhist Paintings From Bamiyan Were Made Of Oil, Hundreds Of Years Before Technique Was 'Invented' In Europe. Sciencedaily.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c d e Ancient Buddhas painted in oils. nature.com. Retrieved on April 24, 2008.

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... External Links: MangoDaily. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Theophilus Presbyter (approx. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Fabio Maniscalco, World Heritage and War, monographic series "Mediterraneum", vol. 6, Naples 2007, Massa Publisher [2]
  • Japanese researchers make breakthrough on destroyed Bamyan paintings. Mainichi Shimbun, Japan, 2004-12-11.
  • Wriggins, Sally Hovey. Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996
  • Theosophical website with pictures
  • Buddhas of Bamyan and more photographs from Afghanistan
  • Artist to recreate Afghan Buddhas. BBC News, 9 August 2005.
  • "The Giant Buddhas" trilingual site (English, Deutsch, Français) - a film about the destruction of the giant statues. By Christian Frei, Switzerland (2005).
  • The Giant Buddhas at the Internet Movie Database
  • "World appeals to Taleban to stop destroying statues". CNN, 3 March 2001. (New York)
  • http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/apr/12inter.htm
  • Pakistani, Saudi engineers helped destroy BuddhasDaily Times, Sunday, March 19, 2006.
  • "Afghan who had statues destroyed killed", Associated Press, January 26, 2007.
  • Gall, Carlotta. "Afghans consider rebuilding Bamyan Buddhas", Herald Tribune, December 5, 2006.
  • Harding, Luke. " How the Buddha got his wounds ", The Guardian, March 3, 2001.
  • Kassaimah, Sahar. "Afghani Ambassador Speaks At USC", IslamOnline, March 12, 2001.
  • Cloonan, Michele V. "The Paradox of Preservation", Library Trends, Summer 2007.

Headquarters in Tokyo Osaka Office Newsagents shop in Higashi-osaka Printing plant in Settsu The Mainichi Shimbun , lit. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian Frei (b. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Buddhas of Bamiyan
  • News articles about the Buddhas of Bamyan
  • Photos of the Buddhas of Bamyan
  • Bamyan Afghanistan Laser Project
  • World Heritage Tour: 360 degree image (after destruction)
  • Bamyan Development Community Portal for cultural heritage management of Bamyan
  • The World Monuments Fund's Watch List 2008 listing for Bamyan
  • Historic Footage of Bamyan Statues, circa 1973

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


 
 

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