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A large Buddha image in Yangon, Myanmar
A large Buddha image in Yangon, Myanmar
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Buddhism


Buddha can refer to several things: A Buddha, someone achieving spiritual enlightenment. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 167 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 167 KB) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Yangon (Burmese: , population 4,082,000 (2005 census), formerly Rangoon), is the largest city of Myanmar (formerly Burma) and its former capital. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
Dharmic religions
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
The Five Precepts
Nirvāna · Three Jewels
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Chattari Arya Sachchhani, Chinese: 四聖諦 Sìshèngdì), being among the most fundamental Buddhist teachings, appear many times throughout the most ancient Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon. ... The Noble Eightfold Path (Sanskrit Āryo ṣṭāṅgo mārgaḥ , Pāli Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) of Buddhism, as taught by the Buddha Śākyamuni, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ... The five precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wǔ jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ...

Key Concepts
Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Samsara · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... After much meditation, the Buddha concluded that everything in the physical world (plus everything in the phenomenology of psychology) is marked by three characteristics, known as the three characteristics of existence or Dharma Seals. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... // Rebirth in the context of other religions and other Buddhist beliefs One of the features that distinguishes the Middle Eastern religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) from the Indian religions (most notably Hinduism and Buddhism) is the view of life and death. ... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit, Pali: suññatā), or Emptiness, is a term for an aspect of the Buddhist metaphysical critique as well as Buddhist epistemology and phenomenology. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli; Tibetan: ) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit karman) or Kamma (Pāli) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
Gautama Buddha
Buddha's Disciples · Family
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...

Practices and Attainment
Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: púsà; Japanese: 菩薩 bosatsu; Korean: ë³´ì‚´ bosal ; Tibetan changchub sempa (byang-chub sems-dpa); Vietnamese: Bồ Tát; Thai: พระโพธิสัตว์) is a being who is dedicated to assisting all sentient beings in achieving complete Buddhahood. ... The Four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an arhat which a Buddhist can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim. The closest word for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism is bhavana or mental development. // Methods of meditation The main methods of Buddhist meditation are divided into samatha... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Buddhism by Region
Southeast Asia · East Asia
Tibet · India · Western
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Schools of Buddhism
Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Chinese :   金剛乘   jin gang cheng A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
Pali Canon
Pali Suttas · Mahayana Sutras
Vinaya · Abhidhamma
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... The Sutta Pitaka (or Sutra Pitaka) is the second of three divisions of the Tipitaka, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive either as original texts in Sanskrit and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit or as primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan, with... Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
Image:Dharma_wheel_1.png The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

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In Buddhism, a buddha (Sanskrit बुद्ध) is any being who has become fully awakened (enlightened), has permanently overcome greed, hate, and ignorance, and has achieved complete liberation from suffering. Enlightenment (or nirvana (Pali: nibbana)) is the highest form of happiness. The name Buddha is commonly used to refer to Siddhartha Gautama (Pali: Siddhattha Gautama), the historical founder of Buddhism. Buddha literally means "awakened" or "that which has become aware". It is the past participle of the Sanskrit root budh, meaning "to awaken", "to know", or "to become aware". Buddha as a title means 'The Awakened One'. A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Greed is often associated with death and disease. ... Look up hate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ignorance is a lack of knowledge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... Happiness is an emotional or affective state that feels good or pleasing. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... In linguistics, a participle is an adjective derived from a verb. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


The teachings of the Buddha are called the Dharma (Pali: Dhamma). The Dharma teaches that all suffering arises from attachment, particularly attachment to worldly desires. Nirvana is achieved by learning to achieve peace and ignore the attachment one has to certain objects. Dharma (Sanskrit धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli) means Natural Law or Reality, and with respect to its significance for spirituality and religion might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths. ...


A common misconception views Buddha as the Buddhist counterpart to “God”; Buddhism, however, is non-theistic (i.e., in general it does not teach the existence of a supreme creator god (see God in Buddhism) or depend on any supreme being for enlightenment; Buddha is a guide and teacher who points the way to nirvana). The commonly accepted definition of the term "God" describes a being that not only rules but actually created the universe (see origin belief). Such ideas and concepts are disputed by Buddha and Buddhists in many Buddhist discourses. In Buddhism, the supreme origin and creator of the universe is not a god, but Avidya (ignorance). Buddhists try to dispel this darkness through constant practice, compassion and wisdom (known as prajna). This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Gautama Buddha (as portrayed in the Pali scriptures/ the agamas) set an important trend in nontheism in Buddhism (in the sense of not affirming the existence of an omnipotent Creator God), by refusing to answer certain questions of a metaphysical nature. ... An origin belief is any story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). ... Avidya is the Buddhist term for ignorance. ... Prajñā (Sanskrit; Pali: paññā; Tibetan: shes rab, Chinese: 般若, banruo) meaning wisdom, cognitive acuity; or know-how -- but especially the Buddhist wisdom that is based on a realization of dependent origination, not-self, emptiness, etc. ...


In the Pali Canon, the term 'buddha' refers to anyone who has become enlightened (i.e., awakened to the truth, or Dharma) on their own, without a teacher to point out the Dharma, in a time when the teachings on the Four Noble Truths or the Eightfold Path do not exist in the world. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... Dharma (Sanskrit धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli) means Natural Law or Reality, and with respect to its significance for spirituality and religion might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths. ... The word dharma (Sanskrit; धर्म in the Devanagari script) or dhamma (Pali) is used in most or all philosophies and religions of Indian origin, Dharmic faiths, namely Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Chattari Arya Sachchhani, Chinese: 四聖諦 Sìshèngdì), being among the most fundamental Buddhist teachings, appear many times throughout the most ancient Buddhist texts, the Pali Canon. ... The Noble Eightfold Path, according to Buddhism and as taught by Gautama Buddha, is the way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths. ...


Generally, Buddhists do not consider Siddhartha Gautama to have been the only buddha. The Pali Canon refers to Gautama Buddha at least once as the 28th Buddha (see List of the 28 Buddhas). A common Buddhist belief is that the next Buddha will be one named Maitreya (Pali: Metteyya). Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... In most Theravada countries it is the custom for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals to honor 28 Buddhas. ... Maitreya Bodhisattva (Sanskrit), Metteyya Bodhisatta (Pāli), or Miroku Bosatsu (Japanese, kanji 弥勒) is the future Buddha in Buddhist eschatology. ...


Buddhism teaches that anyone can become awakened and experience nirvana. Theravada Buddhism teaches that one doesn't need to become a Buddha to become awakened and experience nirvana, since an Arahant (Sanskrit: Arhat) also has those qualities. Some Buddhist texts (e.g., the Lotus Sutra) imply that all beings will become Buddhas at some point in time. [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: SaddharmapundarÄ«ka-sÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Cn: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Jp: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Kr: Myobeop Yeonhwa Kyong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and...

Contents

Types of Buddhas

Main article: Types of Buddhas

In the Pali Canon, there are considered to be two types of buddhas: samyaksambuddhas (Pali: sammasambuddhas) and pratyekabuddhas (Pali: paccekabuddhas). In the mainstream Buddhist tradition (the various buddhist schools), two types of Buddha are generally recognized. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... A Pratyeka Buddha (Sanskrit pratyekabuddha; Pali pacceka-buddha) is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism (the others being the śrāvakas and Samyaksam-Buddhas). ...


1. Samyaksambuddhas attain buddhahood, then decide to teach others the truth they have discovered. They lead others to awakening by teaching the Dharma in a time or world where it has been forgotten or has not been taught before. Siddhartha Gautama is considered a samyaksambuddha. (See also the List of the 28 Buddhas (all of whom are samyaksambuddhas).) A stone image of the Buddha. ... Dharma (Sanskrit धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli) means Natural Law or Reality, and with respect to its significance for spirituality and religion might be considered the Way of the Higher Truths. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... In most Theravada countries it is the custom for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals to honor 28 Buddhas. ...


2. Pratyekabuddhas, sometimes called 'silent Buddhas') are similar to samyaksambuddhas in that they attain nirvana and acquire the same powers as a samyaksambuddha, but choose not to teach what they have discovered. They are considered second to the samyaksambuddhas in spiritual development. They do ordain others; their admonition is only in reference to good and proper conduct (abhisamācārikasikkhā). In some texts, the pratyekabuddhas are described as those who understand the Dharma through their own efforts, but obtain neither omniscience nor mastery over the 'fruits' (phalesu vasībhāvam).[1] A Pratyeka Buddha (Sanskrit pratyekabuddha; Pali pacceka-buddha) is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism (the others being the śrāvakas and Samyaksam-Buddhas). ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ...


The disciple of a samyaksambuddha is called a savaka ("hearer" or "follower") or an arahant (noble one). These terms have slightly varied meanings but can all be used to describe the enlightened disciple. Anubuddha is a rarely used term, but was used by the Buddha in the Khuddakapatha[1] to refer to those who become Buddhas after being given instruction. Enlightened disciples attain nirvana and parinirvana as the two types of Buddha do. Arahant is the term most generally used for them. Sravaka (Sanskrit śrāvaka; Tibetan nyan thos; Pali sāvaka) is a hearer, a term applied to the personal disciples of the Buddha, distinguished as mahā-śrāvaka; it is also applied to hearers, or disciples in general; but its general connotation relates it... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ... A garden featuring depictions of various arhats (Hsi Lai Temple, California) An arhat (also arahat or arahant; Chinese: 阿羅漢, aluohan; Tibetan: dgra-bcom-pa; Jp. ...


One 12th century Theravadin commentary uses the term 'savakabuddha' to describe the enlightened disciple. According to this scripture there are three types of buddhas. In this case, however, the common definition of the meaning of the word buddha (as one who discovers the Dharma without a teacher) no longer applies. Mainstream Theravadin and Mahayana scriptures do not recognize this term and state that there are only two kinds of Buddhas.

A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa.
A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4741 KB) Summary This is a photograph I took of the statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in the Tawang Gompa in Arunachal Pradesh, India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 4741 KB) Summary This is a photograph I took of the statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in the Tawang Gompa in Arunachal Pradesh, India. ... The Tawang district is located at the north-west of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. ... Gompas are Buddhist temples, located in Tibet, Ladakh (India), Nepal, and Bhutan. ...

Characteristics of a Buddha

Nine characteristics

Buddhists meditate on (or contemplate) the Buddha as having nine characteristics:

"The Blessed One is:
  1. a worthy one
  2. perfectly self-enlightened
  3. stays in perfect knowledge
  4. well gone
  5. unsurpassed knower of the world
  6. unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed
  7. teacher of the Divine Gods and humans
  8. the Enlightened One
  9. the Blessed One or fortunate one.

These characteristics are frequently mentioned in the Pali Canon, and are chanted daily in many Buddhist monasteries. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ...


Spiritual realizations

All Buddhist traditions hold that a Buddha has completely purified his mind of greed, aversion and ignorance, and that he is no longer bound by Samsara. A Buddha is fully awakened and has realized the ultimate truth, the non-dualistic nature of life, and thus ended (for himself) the suffering which unawakened people experience in life. Illustration depicting the transmigration of the soul. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Nature of Buddha

Further information: Buddhology

The various Buddhist schools hold some varying interpretations on the nature of Buddha (see below). Buddhology is the study of the nature of Buddhas. ...


Pali Canon: Buddha was human

Main article: Buddha - God or Man

From the Pali Canon emerges the view that Buddha was human, endowed with the greatest psychic powers (Kevatta Sutta). The body and mind (the five khandhas) of a Buddha are impermanent and changing, just like the body and mind of ordinary people. However, a Buddha recognizes the unchanging nature of the Dharma, which is an eternal principle and an unconditioned and timeless phenomenon. This view is common in the Theravada school, and the other early Buddhist schools. The status of Buddha in the oldest buddhist scriptures of the Pali Canon and the Agamas is that he is a man, a Bodhisattva, who in his final rebirth, becomes perfected. Of course, even the oldest Pali Canon has his miraculous birth from the side of Queen Maya. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... ... In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...


Eternal Buddha in Mahayana Buddhism

Main article: Eternal Buddha

Some schools of Mahayana Buddhism believe that the Buddha is no longer essentially a human being but has become a being of a different order altogether and that, in his ultimate transcendental "body/mind" mode as Dharmakaya, he has eternal and infinite life and is possessed of great and immeasurable qualities. In the Mahaparinirvana Sutra the Buddha declares: "Nirvana is stated to be eternally abiding. The Tathagata [Buddha] is also thus, eternally abiding, without change." This is a particularly important metaphysical and soteriological doctrine in the Lotus Sutra and the Tathagatagarbha Sutras. According to the Tathagatagarbha Sutras, failure to recognize the Buddha's eternity and - even worse - outright denial of that eternity, is deemed a major obstacle to the attainment of complete awakening (bodhi). A stone image of the Buddha. ... The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally Three bodies or personalities; 三身 Chinese: Sānshén, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma (Sanskrit: SaddharmapundarÄ«ka-sÅ«tra; 妙法蓮華經 Cn: MiàofÇŽ Liánhuā JÄ«ng; Jp: Myōhō Renge Kyō; Kr: Myobeop Yeonhwa Kyong) is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sutras in East Asia and... The Tathagatagarbha doctrine says that each sentient being contains the potential to become a Buddha. ... Bodhi, the Pāli and Sanskrit word for awakening or enlightenment, is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (Pāli) and bodhati or budhyate (Sanskrit). ...


Depictions of the Buddha in art

Buddha statues at Shwedagon Paya
Buddha statues at Shwedagon Paya
Jade Buddha statue at Shwedagon Paya
Jade Buddha statue at Shwedagon Paya

Buddhas are frequently represented in the form of statues and paintings. Commonly seen designs include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2873 KB) Summary Location: Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar Description: Buddha Statues By: Dr. Sithu Win, from sithuwin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2873 KB) Summary Location: Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar Description: Buddha Statues By: Dr. Sithu Win, from sithuwin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2343 KB) Summary Location: Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar Description: Buddha statue, from a single block of jade with ruby circlet, surrounded by kyats By: Dr. Sithu Win, from sithuwin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2343 KB) Summary Location: Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar Description: Buddha statue, from a single block of jade with ruby circlet, surrounded by kyats By: Dr. Sithu Win, from sithuwin. ...

  • the Seated Buddha
  • the Reclining Buddha
  • the Standing Buddha
  • Hotei, the obese, Laughing Buddha, usually seen in China (This figure is believed to be a representation of a medieval Chinese monk who is associated with Maitreya, the future Buddha, and is therefore technically not a Buddha image.)
  • the Emaciated Buddha, which shows Siddhartha Gautama during his extreme ascetic practice of starvation.

The Buddha statue shown calling for rain is a pose common in Laos. Statue of Hotei from Mampuku-ji in Japan For the Japanese musician, see Tomoyasu Hotei. ... Statue of Hotei from Mampuku-ji in Japan For the Japanese musician, see Tomoyasu Hotei. ...


Markings

Most depictions of Buddha contain a certain number of markings, which are considered the signs of his enlightenment. These signs vary regionally, but two are common:

  • a protuberance on the top of the head (denoting superb mental acuity)
  • long earlobes (denoting superb perception)

In the Pali Canon there is frequent mention of a list of 32 physical marks of Buddha. Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Southern Buddhist (Theravada) tradition. ... Thirty-two marks of the Buddha are mentioned in the Lakkhana Sutta and are very cultural in origin. ...


Hand-gestures

The poses and hand-gestures of these statues, known respectively as asanas and mudras, are significant to their overall meaning. The popularity of any particular mudra or asana tends to be region-specific, such as the Vajra (or Chi Ken-in) mudra, which is popular in Japan and Korea but rarely seen in India. Others are more common; for example, the Varada (Wish Granting) mudra is common among standing statues of the Buddha, particularly when coupled with the Abhaya (Fearlessness and Protection) mudra. Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana or Single Legged Pidgeon Asana is Sanskrit for seat. It is no accident that this word be chosen to describe the posture of Yoga. ... A statue of Gautama Buddha showing a dharmacakra mudra In Hinduism, a mudra (Sanskrit, literally seal; 印相 inzō in Japanese) is a symbolic gesture made with the hand or fingers. ... Vajrasattva holds the vajra in his right hand and a bell in his left hand. ... Korea (Korean: 조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


Buddha in art history

http://72.5.117.144/fif=fpx/sc1/SC168748.fpx&obj=iip,1.0&wid=400&cvt=jpeg Amida, the Buddha of Infinite Light Original Title: Amida nyorai zazo 阿弥陀如来坐像 一躯 Japanese, late Heian period, 12th century


Japan 140.5 cm (55 5/16 in.) (height of figure) Japanese cypress with gold; joined woodblock construction



Classification: Sculpture Type, sub-type: Sculpture Catalogue: Kajima Volume 1: Chapter 2, pg. 35: no. 15


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


Denman Waldo Ross Collection, 1909 Accession number: 09.73


Provenance/Ownership History: 1909 gift of Denman Waldo Ross


ANALYSIS:


This statue of Buddha is pretty lame. It's often the focus of many History of Art classes, particularly one at Framingham State that stinks. There isn't much more to it, except that Buddha is rather fat. And made of rock or something. The end.


Buddha in popular culture

Sakyamuni(Theatre) (2000) Sakyamuni is a play by the Turkish author Mehmet Murat İldan, first published (in Turkish) in Ankara by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2000. ... Mehmet Murat İldan (born on 16 May 1965 in Elazığ). Contemporary Turkish novelist and playwright. ...

References

Cited references

  1. ^ Ratanasutta:56

General references

  • What the Buddha Taught (Grove Press, Revised edition July 1974), by Walpola Rahula
  • Buddha - The Compassionate Teacher (2002), by K.M.M.Swe

See also

Find more information on Buddha by searching Wikipedia's sister projects:

 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... In most Theravada countries it is the custom for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals to honor 28 Buddhas. ... Maitreya Bodhisattva (Sanskrit), Metteyya Bodhisatta (Pāli), or Miroku Bosatsu (Japanese, kanji 弥勒) is the future Buddha in Buddhist eschatology. ... Amitabha Buddha and his two acolytes, Mahasthamaprapta and Avalokitesvara Amitābha is a celestial Buddha described in the scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Daibutsu of Todaiji, a Kegon Buddhist temple in Nara, Japan. ... Buddha-nature (originally in Sanskrit, Buddha-dhatu - Buddha Element, Buddha-Principle) is a doctrine important for many schools of Mahayana Buddhism. ... Nirvana Sutra or Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra (Chinese: Niepan Jing (涅槃經); Japanese: Nehangyō (涅槃経)) is one of the major texts of Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... This short list of Buddha claimants is a list of people who claimed to have attained enlightenment and became Buddhas, claimed themselves to be manifestations of Bodhisattvas, or have been honored as a Buddha or Bodhisattva due to popularity or proof of auspicious signs. ... Thirty-two marks of the Buddha are mentioned in the Lakkhana Sutta and are very cultural in origin. ... Fourteen unanswerable questions in Buddhism refers to the fourteen common philosophical questions at the Buddhas time, that Buddha refused to give an answer to. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lord Buddha (4223 words)
Buddha was born in B.C. 560 and died at the age of eighty in B.C. The place of his birth was a grove known as Lumbini, near the city of Kapilavastu, at the foot of Mount Palpa in the Himalayan ranges within Nepal.
Buddha realized then that he should not go to extremes in torturing the body by starvation and that he should adopt the golden mean or the happy medium or the middle path by avoiding extremes.
Ananda, one of Buddha's cousins, was one of the principal early disciples of Buddha and was a most devoted friend and disciple of Buddha.
Ethics of Buddha and Buddhism by Sanderson Beck (9205 words)
Buddha means "one who is intuitive, awakened, or enlightened." The famous historical person known as Buddha was also called the Tathagata, which means "the one who has come thus," and Shakyamuni, which means "the sage of the Shakya tribe." He is said to have lived eighty years, and thus was probably born in 563 BC.
The Buddha advised his followers not to feel ill will or get angry when others spoke against them, because this might disrupt their self-mastery and prevent them from being able to judge whether the criticism was valid or not.
The Buddha accepted his confession and noted that in the tradition of the noble ones' discipline whoever sees one's fault as a fault and correctly confesses it shall attain self-restraint in the future.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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