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Encyclopedia > Buchenwald concentration camp

Coordinates: 51°01′20″N, 11°14′53″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Gate with the words Jedem das Seine (literally, “to each his own”, but figuratively “everyone gets what he deserves”)
Gate with the words Jedem das Seine (literally, “to each his own”, but figuratively “everyone gets what he deserves”)
Forced laborers in Buchenwald; (Elie Wiesel is 2nd row, 7th from left). April 16, 1945
Forced laborers in Buchenwald; (Elie Wiesel is 2nd row, 7th from left). April 16, 1945

Buchenwald concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain) near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany (at the time, Nazi Germany), in July 1937, and one of the largest such camps on German soil. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1149 KB) Summary Photo of Camp Main Gate at KZ Buchenwald taken by myself Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1149 KB) Summary Photo of Camp Main Gate at KZ Buchenwald taken by myself Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Jedem das Seine is a German translation of an old Greek principle of justice which translates literally into English as To each his own, but with the idiomatic meaning of To each according to his merits. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 739 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2699 × 2190 pixel, file size: 934 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions See also Image:Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 739 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2699 × 2190 pixel, file size: 934 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions See also Image:Buchenwald. ... Elie Wiesel (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928)[1] is a writer, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... See also the related List of German concentration camps Concentration camp in Nazi Germany. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Camp prisoners worked primarily as forced labour in local armament factories. Inmates were Jews, political prisoners, homosexuals, Roma people, Jehovah's Witnesses, Sinti, religious prisoners, criminals, and prisoners of war (POWs) [1]. Up to 1942 the majority of the political prisoners consisted of communists, later the proportion of other political prisoners increased considerably. Among the prisoners were also writers, doctors, artists, former nobility, and an Italian Princess. They came from countries as varied as Russia, Poland, France, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Spanish Republic, Latvia and Italy. Most of the political prisoners from the occupied countries were people of the resistance. A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ...


From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities. The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone) was the area of eastern Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. It became East Germany. ...

Contents

History

Buchenwald (German: “beech forest”) was notchosen as the name for the camp because of the close ties of the location to Goethe, who was being idealized as “the embodiment of the German Spirit” (Verkörperung des deutschen Geistes). The Goethe Eiche (Goethe’s Oak) stood inside the camp’s perimeter,[2][3] and the stump of the tree is preserved as part of the memorial at KZ Buchenwald. Similarly, the camp could not be named for another town nearby (Hottelstedt) because of administrative considerations (it would have resulted in a lower pay grade for the camp’s Schutzstaffel (SS) guards).[citation needed] For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Bodies of the Buchenwald concentration camp prisoners, April 1945 Buchenwald concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (the Etter Mountain) near the Etterburg (the Etter Keep) located near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, in July 1937. ... SS redirects here. ...


Between July 1937 and April 1945, some 250,000 people were incarcerated in Buchenwald by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs. One estimate places the number of deaths in Buchenwald at 56,000 (discussed further below). Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, refers to the German Empire in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the control of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP), or Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as chancellor and head of state. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


During an American bombing raid on 24 August 1944 that was directed at a nearby armament factory, several bombs, including incendiaries, also fell on the camp, resulting in heavy casualties amongst the inmates.


Death toll at Buchenwald

Causes of death

Bodies of the Buchenwald prisoners, April 1945
Bodies of the Buchenwald prisoners, April 1945

Although Buchenwald technically was not an extermination camp, it was a site of an extraordinary number of deaths. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2238x1466, 1332 KB) â—„ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 â–º Buchenwald 16 avril 1945 Liberation of the Nazi camp of Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2238x1466, 1332 KB) â—„ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 â–º Buchenwald 16 avril 1945 Liberation of the Nazi camp of Buchenwald. ... Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ...


A primary cause of the deaths was illness due to harsh camp conditions, and hunger was also prevalent. Malnourished and suffering from disease, many were literally "worked to death", as inmates had only the choice between slave labour or inevitable execution. Many inmates died as a result of human experimentations or fell victim to arbitrary acts perpetrated by the SS guards, and yet other prisoners were simply murdered—the two primary methods of execution were shooting and hanging. At one point, the ashes of dead prisoners would be returned to their families in a sheet metal box—postage due, to be paid by the family. This practice was eventually stopped as more and more prisoners died.[citation needed] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, these experiments...


Summary executions of Soviet POWs were also carried out at Buchenwald. At least 1,000 Soviet POWs were selected in 1941-1942 by a task force of three Dresden Gestapo officers and sent to the camp for immediate liquidation by a gunshot to the back of the neck, the infamous Genickschuss, using a purpose-built facility. This article is about the city in Germany. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


The camp was also a site of large-scale trials for vaccines against epidemic typhus in 1942 and 1943 . In all 729 inmates were used as test subjects, with 280 of them dying as a result. Because of their long association in cramped quarters in Block 46, the typhus killed more people and infections lasted longer than would have been the case had healthy adults been infected with the disease. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Typhus. ...


Number of deaths

US Senator Alben Barkley looks on after Buchenwald's liberation. Barkley later became Vice President of the United States under Harry S. Truman.

The SS left behind accounts of the number of prisoners and people coming to and leaving the camp, categorizing those leaving them by release, transfer, or death. These accounts are one of the sources of estimates for the number of deaths in Buchenwald. According to SS documents, 33,462 died in Buchenwald. These documents were not, however, necessarily accurate: Among those executed before 1944 many were listed as “transferred to the Gestapo.” Furthermore, from 1941 forward Soviet POWs were executed in mass killings. Arriving prisoners selected for execution were not entered into the camp register and therefore were not among the 33,462 dead listed in SS documents.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877–April 30, 1956) was a Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the thirty_fifth Vice President of the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


One former Buchenwald prisoner, Armin Walter, calculated the number of executions by shooting in the back of the head. His job at Buchenwald was to set up and care for a radio installation at the facility where people were executed and counted the numbers, which arrived by telex, and hid the information. He says that 8,483 Soviet prisoners of war were shot in this manner.[5]


According to the same source, the total number of deaths at Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545.[6] This number is the sum of: The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

  • Deaths according to material left behind by SS: 33,462[7].
  • Executions by shooting: 8,483.
  • Executions by hanging (estimate): 1,100.
  • Deaths during evacuation transports: 13,500[8].

This total (56,545) corresponds to a death rate of 24 percent assuming that the number of persons passing through the camp according to documents left by the SS, 238,380 prisoners, is accurate.[9]


Liberation

The camp was partially evacuated by the Nazis on 8 April 1945. In the days before the arrival of the American army, thousands of the prisoners were forced to join the evacuation marches. After that, Communist inmates stormed the watchtowers, killed the remaining guards, and took control using arms they had collected since 1942 (one machine gun and 91 rifles).


A squad of troops belonging to the US 9th Armored Infantry Battalion, US 6th Armored Division, US Third Army arrived at Buchenwald on 11 April 1945 under the leadership of Captain Frederic Keffer. The squad entered the outer perimeter of the camp and reported its location to its higher ups, but did not investigate in great detail, moving on to complete other missions. On the same day, elements of the US 83rd Infantry Division overran Langenstein, one of a number of smaller camps comprising the Buchenwald complex. There the division liberated over 1,000 prisoners, compelled the mayor of Langenstein to send food and water to the camp, and sped medical supplies forward from the 20th Field Hospital.[10] Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 6th Armored Division. ... Distinctive Unit Insignia // The Third United States Army was first activated as a formation during the First World War on November 7, 1918, at Chaumont, France, when the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces issued General Order 198 organizing the Third Army and announcing its headquarters staff. ... The 83rd Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. World War I Activated: September 1917. ...


People

First commandant

Buchenwald’s first commandant was Karl Otto Koch, who ran the camp from 1937 to 1941 . His second wife, Ilse Koch, became notorious as Die Hexe von Buchenwald (“the witch of Buchenwald”) for her cruelty and brutality. Koch had a zoo built by the prisoners in the camp for the amusement of his children, with a bear pit (Bärenzwinger) facing the Appellplatz, the dreaded assembly square where prisoners were forced to stand motionless and silent for many hours (three times each day) while the meticulous "roll-calls" were conducted. Karl Otto Koch Karl Otto Koch (August 2, 1897 – April 5, 1945), a colonel in the German Schutzstaffel (SS), was the first commandant of the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald (from 1937 to 1941), and later at Lublin (Majdanek camp). ... Ilse Koch, born Ilse Köhler (September 22, 1906 – September 1, 1967), was the wife of Karl Koch, the commandant of the concentration camps Buchenwald from 1937 to 1941 and Majdanek from 1941 to 1943. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... Bear pit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Appellplatz (also spelled as Appelplatz) means the place for roll call in the German language, used in English in its Holocaust context. ...


Koch was eventually himself imprisoned at Buchenwald by the Nazi authorities for corruption, embezzlement, black market dealings, and his exploitation of camp workers for personal gain. He was tried and executed by the Nazis at Buchenwald in April 1945, while Ilse was sentenced to four years after the war. Her sentence was reduced to two years and she was set free. Later, she was arrested again and sentenced to life imprisonment by the post-war German authorities; she committed suicide in a Bavarian prison cell in September 1967. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


Female prisoners and overseers

The number of women held in Buchenwald was somewhere between 69 and 1,000. The first female inmates were twenty political prisoners who were accompanied by a female SS guard (Aufseherin); these women were brought to Buchenwald from Ravensbrück to serve in the camp’s brothel in 1941 . Later the SS fired the SS woman on duty in the brothel for corruption, and her position was taken over by “brothel mothers” as ordered by SS chief Heinrich Himmler. Of the 55,000 guards who served in Nazi concentration camps, about 3,600 were women. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a notorious womens concentration camp during in World War II, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel). ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... Himmler redirects here. ...

Dead German female guard from the Ohrdruf Concentration Camp. She was either killed by the U.S. troops or by the prisoners
Dead German female guard from the Ohrdruf Concentration Camp. She was either killed by the U.S. troops or by the prisoners

The majority of women prisoners, however, arrived in 1944 and 1945 from other camps, mainly Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, and Bergen Belsen. Most of these women were Jewish, and only one barrack was set aside for them; this was overseen by the female Blockführerin, Franziska Hoengesberg, who came from Essen when it was evacuated. All the women prisoners were later shipped out to one of Buchenwald’s many female satellite camps in Sömmerda, Buttelstedt, Mühlhausen, Gotha, Gelsenkirchen, Essen, Lippstadt, Weimar, Magdeburg, and Penig, to name a few. No female guards were permanently stationed at Buchenwald. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 740 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 940 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 740 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 940 pixel, file size: 474 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a notorious womens concentration camp during in World War II, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel). ... This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ... Sömmerda is a small town near Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany on the Unstrut river. ... Buttelstedt is a town in the Weimarer Land district, in Thuringia, Germany. ... Mühlhausen is a city in the federal state Thuringia, Germany. ... Gotha is a town in Thuringia, in Germany. ... , Gelsenkirchen-Buer looking south towards downtown Gelsenkirchen, 1955. ... Essen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Lippstadt is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the German city. ... Penig is a town in the district of Mittweida, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ...


When the Buchenwald camp was evacuated, the SS sent the male prisoners to other camps, and the five-hundred remaining women (including one of the secret annex members who lived with Anne Frank, “Mrs. van Daan”—her real name was Auguste van Pels)—were taken by train and on foot to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and ghetto in Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Many, including van Pels, died sometime between April 1945 and May 1945. Because the female prisoner population at Buchenwald was comparatively small, the SS only trained female overseers at the camp and “assigned” them to one of the female subcamps. Twenty-two known female guards have personnel files at the camp, but it is unlikely that any of them stayed at Buchenwald for longer than a few days. Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March 1945) was a German-born Jewish girl from the city of Frankfurt, who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family, the Van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer in Amsterdam during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War... Auguste van Pels, July 1941 Auguste van Pels (September 29, 1900 - May 8, 1945) was a German-Jewish refugee who hid with Anne Frank during the Nazi Occupation of the Netherlands, and who subsequently died in one of the many Nazi concentration camps. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13...


Ilse Koch served as head supervisor (Oberaufseherin) of 22 other female guards and hundreds of women prisoners in the main camp. Eventually, more than 530 women served as guards in the vast Buchenwald system of subcamps and external commands across Germany. Only twenty-two women served/trained in Buchenwald, compared to over 15,500 men. Ilse Koch, born Ilse Köhler (September 22, 1906 – September 1, 1967), was the wife of Karl Koch, the commandant of the concentration camps Buchenwald from 1937 to 1941 and Majdanek from 1941 to 1943. ...


Allied airmen

Although it was highly unusual for German authorities to send Western Allied prisoners of war (POWs) to concentration camps, Buchenwald held a group of 168 aviators for about six months.[11] These POWs were from the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They all arrived at Buchenwald on 20 April 1944[12] (according to one source, on August 20, 1944[13]). The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ...


All these airmen were in planes which had crashed in occupied France. Two explanations are given for them being sent to a concentration camp: first, that they had managed to make contact with the French Resistance, some were disguised as civilians, and they were carrying false papers when caught; they were therefore categorized by the Germans as spies, which meant their rights under the Geneva Convention were not respected. The second explanation is that they had been categorised as terrorflieger (“terror aviators”). The aviators were initially held in Gestapo prisons and headquarters in France. In April or August 1944, they and other Gestapo prisoners were packed into boxcars and sent to Buchenwald. The journey took five days, during which they received very little food or water. One aviator recalled their arrival at Buchenwald: For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Terror bombing is a strategy of deliberately bombing and/or strafing civilian targets in order to break the morale of the enemy, make its civilian population panic, bend the enemys political leadership to the attackers will, or to punish an enemy. ... For other uses, see Boxcar (disambiguation). ...

As we got close to the camp and saw what was inside...a terrible, terrible fear and horror entered our hearts. We thought, what is this? Where are we going? Why are we here? And as you got closer to the camp and started to enter the camp and saw these human skeletons walking around—old men, young men, boys, just skin and bone, we thought, what are we getting into?[14]

They were subjected to the same treatment and abuse as other Buchenwald prisoners until October 1944, when a change in policy saw the aviators dispatched to Stalag Luft III, a regular prisoner-of-war camp (POW) camp; nevertheless, two airmen died at Buchenwald.[15] Those classed as terrorflieger had been scheduled for execution after October 24; their rescue was effected by Luftwaffe officers who visited Buchenwald and, on their return to Berlin, demanded the airmen’s release.[16] model of a Stalag Luft III compound Stalag Luft III (Stammlager Luft, or Permanent Camp for Airmen #3) was a German Air Force prisoner-of-war camp during World War II that housed captured air force personnel. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ...


Norwegian students

The camp was also the main imprisonment for a number of Norwegian university students from 1943 until the end of the war. The students, being Norwegian, got better treatment than most, but had to resist Nazi schooling for months. They became remembered for resisting forced labor in a minefield, as the Nazis wished to use them as cannon fodder. An incident connected to this is remembered as the Strike at Burkheim. The Norwegian students in Buchenwald lived in a warmer, stone-construction house and had their own clothes.[17] Cannon Fodder is an expression used to denote the treatment of armed forces as a worthless commodity to be expended. ...


Addendum: Specific people associated with Buchenwald

Well-known Nazi personnel

Karl Otto Koch Karl Otto Koch (August 2, 1897 – April 5, 1945), a colonel in the German Schutzstaffel (SS), was the first commandant of the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald (from 1937 to 1941), and later at Lublin (Majdanek camp). ... Hans Aumeier (August 20, 1906 - December 22, 1947) was an official in Nazi Germany and a member of the SS with the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer. ... Gerhard Rose was an expert on tropical medicine who was tried for war crimes at the end of World War II. Roses studed at the University of Breslau and the University of Berlin. ... Waldemar Hoven Waldemar Hoven (February 10, 1903 – June 2, 1948) was chief Doctor for the Buchenwald Concentration Camp, where he was responsible for euthanizing prisoners with injections of either phenol or gasoline. ... Hermann Hackmann SS Hauptsturmführer Hermann Heinrich Hackmann (b. ...

Well-known inmates

Buchenwald inmates
Buchenwald inmates
Buchenwald memorial
Buchenwald memorial

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1468x2222, 1494 KB) Buchenwald 16 avril 1945 Liberation of the Nazi camp of Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1468x2222, 1494 KB) Buchenwald 16 avril 1945 Liberation of the Nazi camp of Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Roy Allen (1918 - 1991), was an American bomber pilot from Philadelphia during World War II. On June 14, 1944, pilot Roy Allen and the crew of his B-17 Flying Fortress embarked on a mission over Nazi-occupied France that was supposed to be a milk run. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... Jean Améry (October 31, 1912 - October 17, 1978) was an Austrian of Jewish descent, noted for having written At the Minds Limits, one of the central texts on the Nazi death camps. ... Robert Antelme (1917 Sartène, Corsica - 1990) was a French writer. ... (Yaakov Avigdor) Polish rabbi and author. ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Drohobych (Ukrainian: , German: , Polish: , Russian: ) is a city located at the confluence of the Tysmenytsia river and Seret, a tributary of the latter, in the Lviv Oblast (province), in western Ukraine. ... Italic textItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textConrad W. Baars, M.D., (1919–1981) was a Catholic psychiatrist. ... Bruno Bettelheim (August 28, 1903 - March 13, 1990) was an Austrian-born American writer and child psychologist. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... The Confessing Church (German: Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian resistance movement in Nazi Germany. ... This article appears to contradict itself. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Christopher Burney (1917-1980) was an upper-class Englishman who served in the Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War II. The Germans locked him up, firstly in Fresnes prison, for fifteen months of solitary confinement, then in Buchenwald. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... Robert Clary Robert Clary (born March 1, 1926 as Robert Max Widerman) was a French actor of Jewish descent. ... Hogan’s Heroes was a satirical American television situation comedy that ran from September 17, 1965, to July 4, 1971, on the CBS network for 168 episodes. ... René Cogny (April 25, 1904 – September 20, 1968) was a French Général de division, World War II veteran and later commander of the French forces in Tonkin, North Vietnam during the First Indochina War and notably the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. ... Seweryn Franciszek CzetwertyÅ„ski-ÅšwiatopeÅ‚k (b. ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... Marcel Dassault, born Marcel Bloch, (Paris, 22 January 1892 - Neuilly-sur-Seine, 17 April 1986) was a French aircraft industrialist. ... Laure Diebold, sometimes written Laure Diebolt (January 10, 1915 - October 17, 1965) was a high-profile female member of the French Resistance during World War II. She was also the private secretary of Jean Moulin before being arrested then deported from 1943 to 1945 to the nazi camp of Auschwitz... The Ordre de la Libération (Order of the Liberation) is a French Order (decoration) awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during the Second World War. ... Albin Grau was an artist, architect and occultist, and the producer and production designer for F.W. Murnaus Nosferatu. ... This article is about the 1922 silent film. ... Maurice Halbwachs (pronounced: ; Rheims, 11 March 1877 - Buchenwald 16 March 1945) was a French philosopher and sociologist known for developing the concept of collective memory. ... Curt Herzstark was born in July 26, 1902 in Vienna, and died October 27, 1988 in Nendeln, Liechtenstein. ... Curta mechanical calculator on display at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. ... Paul-Emile Janson (May 30, 1872 - 1944), Belgian Liberal politician and statesman. ... Léon Jouhaux (1 July 1879 – 28 April 1954) was a French trade union leader who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Fleur-de-lys, the symbol of the ZHP ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego (Polish Scouting and Guiding Association, ZHP) is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement. ... 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Photo Gallery

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Below is the list of subcamps of the Buchenwald concentration camp complex. ... are marked with pink, while major concentration camps of are marked with blue. ... U.S. Generals Dwight Eisenhower, Omar Bradley and George Patton inspects the camp after liberation Ohrdruf forced labor camp was a Nazi concentration camp located near Weimar. ... List of Polish Martyrology sites lists the sites, where Poles were detained, imprisoned, forced to slave labor and exterminated. ... John H. Noble was a survivor of the Soviet Gulag who wrote about his experiences in two books after being allowed to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The History of Buchenwald Memorial
  2. ^ Farmer, Sarah (Winter, 1995), "Symbols that Face Two Ways: Commemorating the Victims of Nazism and Stalinism at Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen", Representations (no. 49): 100–1, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0734-6018%28199524%290%3A49%3C97%3ASTFTWC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I> 
  3. ^ As Vladimir Nabokov in Pnin (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004) puts it, “in the beautifully wooded Grosser Ettersburg, as the region is resoundingly called. It is an hour’s stroll from Weimar, where walked Goethe, Herder, Schiller, Wieland, the inimitable Kotzebue and others. ‘Aber warum – but why –’ Dr. Hagen, the gentlest of souls alive, would wail, ‘why had one to put that horrid camp so near!’ for indeed, it was near – only five miles from the cultural heart of Germany – ‘that nation of universities’ [...]” (p. 100).
  4. ^ Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 64, lines 12–23. (German).
  5. ^ Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 203, lines 18–38. (German)
  6. ^ Podcast with one of 2,000 Danish policemen in Buchenwald. Episode 6 is about statistics for the number of deaths at Buchenwald.
  7. ^ Includes male deaths in satellite camps.
  8. ^ Bartel (p. 87, line 17–18) reports that somewhere between 12,000 and 15,000 prisoners died on evacuation transports in March and April 1945.
  9. ^ Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 87, line 8. (German)
  10. ^ [U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum article on the US 83rd Infantry Division Third Army Headquarters sent elements of the US 80th Infantry Division to take control of the camp on the morning of 12 April 1945. After the departure of Allied troops, the Soviet occupation forces used the camp’s infrastructure for interning prisoners from 1945 to 1950, renaming it Special Camp 2.

    Soviet Special Camp 2

    Picture taken in winter of area where prisoner barracks once were; most of the camp was demolished in 1950
    Picture taken in winter of area where prisoner barracks once were; most of the camp was demolished in 1950

    After liberation, between 1945 and 10 February 1950, the camp was administered by the Soviet Union and served as a Special Camp No. 2 of the NKVD. Initially used for housing German war criminals, with time it was converted into a standard detention site for political prisoners and opponents of Soviet rule.[citation needed] This page is about the novelist. ... Pnin is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov published in 1957. ... A herder is a worker who lives a semi-nomadic life, caring for various domestic animals, especially in places where these animals wander unfenced pasture lands. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Wieland is a Germanic name, meaning, from wela battle and, nand brave. Weyland, a smith in Germanic mythology as a first name: Wieland Wagner, grandson of Richard Wagner as a second name: Christoph Martin Wieland, a German poet Heinrich Otto Wieland a German chemist Rainer Wieland, a German politician see... Kotzebue may refer to: August von Kotzebue, dramatist Otto von Kotzebue, navigator Kotzebue, Alaska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The 80th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. Prisoners of Ebensee, one of the sub-camps of Mauthausen-Gusen, upon liberation by 80th Division World War I Activated: September 1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x768, 446 KB) Summary This image, taken in winter, displays the area where the prisoner huts were. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x768, 446 KB) Summary This image, taken in winter, displays the area where the prisoner huts were. ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


    Between 1945 and 1950, 28,455 prisoners, including 1,000 women, were held by the Soviet Union at Buchenwald.[citation needed] Prisoners comprised political prisoners, Nazi perpetrators, and former members of the Hitler Youth, as well as large numbers of people imprisoned due to identity confusion and arbitrary arrests. The Soviets would not allow mail or visits to prisoners and did not attempt to determine the guilt of any individual prisoner. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ...


    On 16 January 1950, the camp was passed to the civilian authorities of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its 2,415 prisoners.[citation needed] In October 1950, it was decreed that the camp would be demolished. The main gate, the crematorium, the hospital block, and two guard towers escaped demolition. All prisoner barracks and other buildings were razed. Foundations of some still exist and many others have been rebuilt. According to the Buchenwald Memorial website, “the combination of obliteration and preservation was dictated by a specific concept for interpreting the history of Buchenwald Concentration Camp.”[citation needed] “East Germany” redirects here. ...


    The first monument to victims was erected days after the initial liberation. Intended to be completely temporary, it was built by prisoners and was made of wood. A second monument to commemorate the dead was erected in 1958 by the GDR near the mass graves. Inside the camp, there is a living monument in the place of the first monument that is kept at skin temperature year round.<ref>Young, James E.: ''At Memory's Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture'', New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, p. 105</li> <li id="cite_note-10">'''[[#cite_ref-10|^]]''' [http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/fact_sheets/pow Veterans Affairs Canada, 2006: “Prisoners of War in the Second World War”] Accessed 16 May 16 2007</li> <li id="cite_note-11">'''[[#cite_ref-11|^]]''' [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=1575 National Museum of the USAF: “Allied Victims of the Holocaust”] Accessed 16 May 2007.</li> <li id="cite_note-12">'''[[#cite_ref-12|^]]''' Eyewitness accounts of Art Kinnis, president of KLB (Konzentrationslager Buchenwald), and 2nd Lt. Joseph Moser, one of the surviving pilots, at http://buchenwaldflyboy.wordpress.com.</li> <li id="cite_note-13">'''[[#cite_ref-13|^]]''' From ''The Lucky Ones: Allied Airmen and Buchenwald'' (1994 film, directed by Michael Allder), cited by [http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/fact_sheets/pow Veterans Affairs Canada, 2006: “Prisoners of War in the Second World War”] Accessed 16 May 16 2007</li> <li id="cite_note-14">'''[[#cite_ref-14|^]]''' National Museum of the USAF, ''Ibid''.</li> <li id="cite_note-15">'''[[#cite_ref-15|^]]''' Eyewitness accounts of Art Kinnis, president of KLB (Konzentrationslager Buchenwald), and 2nd Lt. Joseph Moser, one of the surviving pilots, at http://buchenwaldflyboy.wordpress.com.</li> <li id="cite_note-16">'''[[#cite_ref-16|^]]''' Redlich, Carl Aage: ''19. September'', 1945. p. 55</li></ol></ref>dsaf dsf dasdfdasdffas

References and sources

  • Apitz, Bruno: Nackt unter Wölfen (“Naked among the wolves”), a fictional account of the last days of Buchenwald before the US-American liberation; based on a true story. Available as a book in German or as a movie in German with English subtitles. Book ino: Aufbau Taschenbuchverlag, 1998, ISBN 3-7466-1420-1. Translations into English and other languages exist, but are out of print.
  • Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960 (German)
  • von Flocken, Jan and Klonovsky, Michael: Stalins Lager in Deutschland 1945-1950. Dokumentation, Zeugenberichte, Berlin: Ullstein, 1991. ISBN 3-550-07488-3
  • James, Brian: “The Dream that Wouldn’t Die”, an account of John H. Noble’s experiences in Buchenwald under Soviet Rule and the Soviet camp system in the 1950s, in You Magazine delivered with the (Mail on Sunday/Daily Mail), August 1992. The article includes a reference to 3,000 Westerners as Soviet prisoners in 1954.
  • Knigge, Volkhard und Ritscher, Bodo: Totenbuch. Speziallager Buchenwald 1945-1950, Weimar: Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau Dora, 2003
  • Kogon, Eugen: The Theory and Practice of Hell: the German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them. New York: Farrar Strauss, 1950. Republished 2006.
  • Noble, John H.: I was a Slave in Russia: An American Tells his Story. See John H. Noble
  • Ritscher, Bodo: Das sowjetische Speziallager Nr. 2 1945-1950. Katalog zur ständigen historischen Ausstellung, Göttingen: Wallstein, 1999
  • Gunther Sturm Mark Von Santill; Life & Crime of the Beast Gozon ed. Frascati 2007
  • Matthew Koch History of a Victim - Etta Sapon Bulceci ed. Rome 2007
  • The History of Buchenwald Memorial

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John H. Noble was a survivor of the Soviet Gulag who wrote about his experiences in two books after being allowed to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States. ... This article is about the album. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper, currently published in a tabloid format. ... John H. Noble was a survivor of the Soviet Gulag who wrote about his experiences in two books after being allowed to leave the Soviet Union and return to his native United States. ...

External links

  • My Story from a Buchenwald Holocaust survivor
  • Buchenwald Concentration Camp at scrapbookpages.com
  • Official Memorial Site homepage
  • Information at jewishgen.org
  • Google maps satellite image camp at top; see also memorial site lower down
  • Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Volume I, pp. 508-511
  • Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Volume II, pp. 69-70
  • Third Reich Ruins page of historic and present day photos
  • Buchenwald Revisted at holocaustresearchproject.net
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses at Buchenwald
  • “Sir John Noble and Dresden: An American Survivor of Post-war Buchenwald”
  • Processing DE: Notes from Berlin Poet Barrett Watten's notes upon visiting Buchenwald, June, 2007
  • Gelsenkirchen subcamp of Concentration Camp Buchenwald
  • Podcast interview of one of the 2,000 Danish policemen interned at Buchenwald
Barrett Watten, American poet (b. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
sociology - Concentration camp (3509 words)
Camps for prisoners of war are usually considered separately from this category, although informally (and in some other languages) they may also be called concentration camps.
Although large numbers of prisoners were concentrated there in horrific conditions from 1863 to 1865, and perhaps a quarter of them died, the prisoners were combatants and the camp is generally classified as a POW camp.
The term concentration camp was coined at this time to signify the "concentration" of a large number of people in one place, and was used to describe both the camps in South Africa and those established by the Spanish to support a similar anti-insurgency campaign in Cuba at roughly the same time (see below).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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