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Encyclopedia > Bucharest
Bucureşti
Bucharest
The Palace of the Parliament
Flag of Bucureşti
Flag
Coat of arms of Bucureşti
Coat of arms
Nickname: Little Paris, Paris of the East
Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right)
Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red)
Coordinates: 44°26′7″N 26°6′10″E / 44.43528, 26.10278
Country Romania
County Municipality of Bucharest
Founded 1459 (first official record)
Government
 - Mayor Sorin Oprescu (Independent)
Area
 - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)
 - Metro 238 km² (91.9 sq mi)
Elevation 60 - 90 m (197–295 ft)
Population (2007-July-11[1])
 - City 1,931,838
 - Density 8,510/km² (22,040.8/sq mi)
 - Metro 2,600,000
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal Code 0xxxxx
Area code(s) +40 x1
Car Plates B
Website: www.pmb.ro

Bucharest (Romanian: Bucureşti /bu.kuˈreʃtʲ/ ) is the capital city, industrial, and commercial centre of Romania. It is Romania's largest city. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′N, 26°06′E, and lies on the banks of the Dâmboviţa River. It was originally known as Dâmboviţa citadel. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coat of arms The Coat of arms of Bucharest was created during the rule of Domnitor Alexander John Cuza, changed under the Communist regime, and used again, with minor alterations, since 1994. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Romanias administration is relatively centralised and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified. ... Sorin Mircea Oprescu (born November 7, 1951 in Bucharest) is a Romanian Social Democratic (PSD) politician and doctor. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Standard Romanian license plate as seen in 2007 The standard Romanian License plate consists of a blue vertical strip (the European strip) on the left side of the plate displaying the 12 stars of the European Union and the country code of Romania (RO), always followed on a white surface... Image File history File links Ro-BucureÅŸti. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... The DâmboviÅ£a River (spelt DîmboviÅ£a in pre-1993 Romanian orthography) is a river in Romania that has its source in the FăgăraÅŸ mountains and flows southward to traverse Bucharest and to meet ArgeÅŸ River 258 kilometres from its source. ...


By European standards, Bucharest is not an old city, its existence first being referred to by scholars as late as 1459.[2] Since then it has gone through a variety of changes, becoming the state capital of Romania in 1862 and steadily consolidating its position as the centre of the Romanian mass media, culture and arts. Its eclectic architecture is a mix of historical, interbellum, Communist-era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of the "Paris of the East" or "Little Paris" (Micul Paris).[3] Although many buildings and districts in the historic centre were damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceauşescu's program of systematization, many survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom.[4] Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... The skyline of many cities became dominated by standardized apartment blocks, like this row in Bucharest Systematization in Romania refers to a program of urban planning carried out under Nicolae CeauÅŸescus communist regime. ...


According to January 2006 official estimates, Bucharest proper has a population of 1,930,390.[5] The urban area extends beyond the limits of Bucharest proper and has a population of 2.1 million people.[6] Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of 2.6 million people.[6] Bucharest is the 6th largest city in the European Union by population within city limits.[5] Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economically, the city is the most prosperous in Romania[7] and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern Europe. As the most developed city in Romania, Bucharest also has a broad range of educational facilities. Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ...


The city proper is administratively known as the Municipality of Bucharest (Municipiul Bucureşti), and has the same administrative level as a county, being further subdivided into six sectors. Administrative map of Romania. ... The six sectors The Municipality of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare in Romanian), each of which has their own mayor and council, and has responsibility over local affairs, such as secondary streets, parks, schools and the cleaning services. ...

Contents

Etymology

Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur who was either a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman or a shepherd according to different legends. The name of Bucur (from "bucurie" meaning "joy") is of Thracian-Geto-Dacian origin.[8] In Albanian, a language which has historical connections with the Thracian languages, "bukur' signifies 'beautiful'. Bucur is a figure of Romanian history. ...


The official city name in full is The Municipality of Bucharest (Romanian: Municipiul Bucureşti). Bucharest has been known in Latin as Bucaresta, in Hungarian and German as Bukarest and in French, Italian and Spanish as Bucarest in Dutch as Boekarest. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


A native or resident of Bucharest is called Bucharester (Romanian: Bucureştean).


History

Main article: History of Bucharest
The remains of Curtea Veche, the royal court in Bucharest during the Middle Ages
The remains of Curtea Veche, the royal court in Bucharest during the Middle Ages
Bucharest in 1837
Bucharest in 1837
Back view of the CEC Palace and the royal guard

Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements of the Antiquity and until its consolidation as capital of Romania late in the 19th century. The coat of arms of Bucharest in 1868 The history of Bucharest covers the time from the early settlements on the localitys territory (and that of the surrounding area in Ilfov County) until its modern existence as a city, capital of Wallachia, and present-day capital of Romania. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 991 KB) Curtea Veche Source: Taken in Bucureşti, 3 mai 2005 by Bogdan Giuşcă File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest History of Bucharest Curtea Veche ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 991 KB) Curtea Veche Source: Taken in Bucureşti, 3 mai 2005 by Bogdan Giuşcă File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest History of Bucharest Curtea Veche ... Curtea Veche Curtea Veche (Old Royal Court) is located in centre of the city of Bucharest, Romania. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


First mentioned as "the Citadel of Bucureşti" in 1459, it became a residence of the Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler. The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was built by Mircea Ciobanul, and during following rules, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the court, competing with Târgovişte for the status of capital after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power, the Ottoman Empire. This article is about a type of fortification. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Vlad Tepes redirects here. ... Curtea Veche Curtea Veche (Old Royal Court) is located in centre of the city of Bucharest, Romania. ... Mircea V Ciobanul (Mircea the Shepherd) (d. ... Location of TârgoviÅŸte Coordinates: , Country Romania County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Iulian Furcoiu (Social Democratic Party) Population (2002)  - Total 89,429 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Website: http://www. ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Burned down by the Ottomans and briefly discarded by princes at the start of the 17th century, Bucharest was restored and continued to grow in size and prosperity. Its centre was around the street "Uliţa Mare", which starting 1589 was known as Lipscani. Before the 1700s, it became the most important trade centre of Wallachia and became a permanent location for the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu). Lipscani rooftops; looking north on Str. ... Constantin Brâncoveanu Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 - August 26, 1714) was prince of Wallachia between 1689 and 1710. ...


Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813-1814, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centered 1848 Wallachian revolution, and an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). Additionally, on March 23, 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings of Bucharest, destroying a third of the city. The social divide between rich and poor was described at the time by Ferdinand Lassalle as making the city "a savage hotchpotch". The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The National Assembly of Wallachia in 1837 Regulamentul Organic (Romanian name, translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, Russian: Oрганический регламент, Organichesky reglament)[1] was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1831–1832 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia (the two Danubian Principalities... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... People in Bucharest during the 1848 events, carrying the Romanian tricolor The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising in the principality of Wallachia. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (April 11, 1825 — August 31, 1864) was a German jurist and socialist political activist. ...


In 1861, when Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital; in 1881, it became the political center of the newly-proclaimed Kingdom of Romania. During the second half of the 19th century, due to its new status, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "The Paris of the East" (or "Little Paris", Micul Paris), with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées or Fifth Avenue. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Calea Victoriei in 1935. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... Street sign at Fifth Avenue and East 57th street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in New York City. ...


Between December 6, 1916 and November 1918, it was occupied by German forces, the legitimate capital being moved to Iaşi. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. As the capital of an Axis country, Bucharest suffered heavy losses during World War II, due to Allied bombings, and, on August 23, 1944, saw the the royal coup which brought Romania into the anti-German camp, suffering a short but destructive period of Luftwaffe bombings in reprisal. On November 8, 1945, the king's birthday, the Soviet-backed Petru Groza government suppressed pro-monarchist rallies. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The bombing of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) in World War II comprised operations by the Allies and Axis Powers at separate intervals in 1944. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... The German Luftwaffe was one of the most powerful, doctrinally advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II started in Europe in September 1939. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... CCCP redirects here. ... Petru Groza (December 7, 1884 - January 7, 1958) was a Romanian politician, best know as Prime Minister of the first Communist Party-dominated governments under Soviet occupation during the early stages of the Communist regime in Romania. ... The King of Romania was the title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947 when Romania was proclaimed a republic. ...


During Nicolae Ceauşescu's leadership (1965-1989), most of the historic part of the city was destroyed and replaced with Communist-style buildings, particularly high-rise apartment blocks. The best example of this is the development called Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre), including the Palace of the Parliament, where an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceauşescu's megalomaniac constructions. In 1977, a strong 7.4 on the Richter-scale earthquake claimed 1,500 lives and destroyed many old buildings. Nevertheless, some historic neighbourhoods did survive to this day. Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... PiaÅ£a Unirii, as seen from above. ... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... Bucharest - Ienei Church - 1977 The 1977 Bucharest Earthquake occurred on Friday, 4 March 1977, 21:20 local time and was felt throughout the Balkans. ...


The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with mass anti-Ceauşescu protests in Timişoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the post-revolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests continued in 1990 (the Golaniad), which were violently stopped by the miners of Valea Jiului (the Mineriad). Several other Mineriads followed, the results of which included a government change. Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ... An anti-communist rally in the University Square of Bucharest, 1990 The Golaniad (Romanian: Golaniada) was a protest in Romania in the University Square, Bucharest. ... The Jiu Valley is the a region of South-Western Romania, in Hunedoara county where the Jiu river is flowing. ... A Mineriad (Mineriada in Romanian) is the parody term used to name any of the successive violent interventions of miners in Bucharest. ...


After the year 2000, due to the advent of Romania's economic boom, the city has modernised and is currently undergoing a period of urban renewal. Various residential and commercial developments are underway, particularly in the northern districts, while Bucharest's historic centre is currently undergoing significant restoration. In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. ...

Treaties signed in Bucharest
Treaty of May 28, 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War
Treaty of March 3, 1886, at the end of the Serbo-Bulgarian War
Treaty of August 10, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan War
Treaty of August 4, 1916, the treaty of alliance between Romania and the Entente
Treaty of May 6, 1918, the treaty between Romania and the Central Powers

is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Serbia Strength >35,000 facing the Serbs at the beggining of the battle of Slivnitsa: 60,000+ towards the end of the war 60,000 Casualties 5000 killed, wounded and missing 7000 killed, wounded and missing The Serbo-Bulgarian War (Bulgarian: , Srabsko-balgarska voyna... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Red: Central Powers at their zenith. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Romania
Kilometre Zero Monument
Kilometre Zero Monument
Bucharest seen from Spot satellite
Bucharest seen from Spot satellite

Topographic map of Romania. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Kilometre Zero monument in Bucharest The Kilometre Zero monument (Romanian: Kilometrul zero) located in central Bucharest, Romania in front of Saint Georges Church was created by Constantin Baraski in 1938. ...

General Information

Bucharest is situated on the banks of the Dâmboviţa River, which flows into the Argeş River, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes – the most important of which are Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei and Lake Colentina – stretch across the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of the Dâmboviţa. In addition, in the centre of the capital there is a small artificial lake – Lake Cişmigiu – surrounded by the Cişmigiu Gardens. The Cişmigiu Gardens have a rich history, being frequented by famous poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are currently the main recreational facility in the city centre. The DâmboviÅ£a River (spelt DîmboviÅ£a in pre-1993 Romanian orthography) is a river in Romania that has its source in the FăgăraÅŸ mountains and flows southward to traverse Bucharest and to meet ArgeÅŸ River 258 kilometres from its source. ... ArgeÅŸ is a river of Southern Romania, which rises from the FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, in the Carpathians and flows into the Danube. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Colentina River is a tributary of the DâmboviÅ£a river in Romania. ... The CiÅŸmigiu Gardens are a public park near the center of Bucharest, Romania, the oldest and largest park (17 hectares) of the city center. ...


Besides Cişmigiu, Bucharest contains several other large parks and gardens, including Herăstrău Park and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău is a large public park located in the north of the city, and the site of the Village Museum, while the Bucharest's botanical garden is the largest in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants, many of them exotic; it was once a pleasure park for the royal family.[9] Herăstrău is a large park in the northern side of Bucharest, Romania, around the Herăstrău Lake. ... The Botanical Garden of Bucharest, now named after its founder, Dimitrie Brândză, is located in the Cotroceni neighbourhood of Bucharest, Romania. ... A house in the Village Museum The Village Museum is an open-air ethnographic museum in Bucharest, Romania, showcasing traditional Romanian village life. ...


Bucharest is situated in the south eastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei forest, which, after it was cleared, gave way to a fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to have seven hills, in the tradition of the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Spirei, Văcăreşti and Sf. Gheorghe Nou. The Romanian Plain (also: Wallachian Plain; Romanian: Câmpia Română) is located in Romania, bordered by the Danube in the east, south and west and by the Getic Plateau in the north. ... Codrii Vlăsiei was the forest that once covered parts of Southern Romania, including the territory of todays Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Dealul Mitropoliei (Romanian for Metropolitanate Hill), also called Dealul Patriarhiei or Patriarchate Hill, is a small hill in Bucharest, Romania and an important historic, cultural, architectural, religious and touristic point in the national capital. ... Radu Negru (probably in the 13th century) (Radu [the] Black) also known as Radu Vodă (Voivode Radu), Radu Negru, or Negru Vodă, was a mythical early ruler of Wallachia. ... House in Cotroceni neighbourhood. ... Dealul Spirii (Spirii Hill) is a hill in Bucharest, Romania, upon which, currently, the Palace of the Parliament is located. ... VăcăreÅŸti is a neighbourhood in south-eastern Bucharest, located near DâmboviÅ£a River and the VăcăreÅŸti Lake. ...

The Cişmigiu Gardens

The city has a total area of 226 square kilometres (87 sq mi). The altitude varies from 55.8 metres (183.1 ft) at the Dâmboviţa bridge in Căţelu, south-eastern Bucharest and 91.5 m (300.2 ft) at the Militari church. The city has a relatively round shape, with the centre situated approximately in the cross-way of the main north-south/east-west axes at the University Square. The milestone for Romanian's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St. George Square (Piaţa Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from about 10 to 12 km (6.25–7.5 mi). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 470 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 470 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The CiÅŸmigiu Gardens are a public park near the center of Bucharest, Romania, the oldest and largest park (17 hectares) of the city center. ... University Square is located in the downtown Bucharest, near the Bucharest University. ... Kilometre Zero of French national highways, located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre Dame cathedral, and considered the official center of the city of Paris. ...


Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989, new suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov county. Further urban consolidation is expected to take place when the Bucharest metropolitan area is formed in 2006, which will incorporate various communes and cities of Ilfov and surrounding counties. Ilfov is the county that surrounds Bucharest, the capital of Romania. ...


Road and rail distances between Bucharest and the other cities

  • Arad (555 km and 604 km)
  • Bacău (285 km and 301 km)
  • Baia Mare (560 km and 624 km)
  • Braşov (161 km and 166 km)
  • Buzău (110 km and 128 km)
  • Cluj-Napoca (426 km and 497 km)
  • Constanţa (225 km and 225 km)
  • Craiova (234 km and 209 km)
  • Galaţi (250 km)
     
  • Giurgiu (64 km and 85 km)
  • Iaşi (406 km and 406 km)
  • Oradea (580 km and 650 km)
  • Ploieşti (60 km and 59 km)
  • Piteşti (108 km and 108 km)
  • Sibiu (277 km and 315 km)
  • Suceava (450 km 447 km)
  • Timişoara (538 km and 533 km)
  • Tulcea (277 km and 334 km)
  • Călăraşi (110 km and 120 km)

Arad may refer to: the following places in the Transylvania Arad, Romania, the main city of Arad County. ... County Bacău County Status County capital Mayor Romeo Stavarache, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 41 km² Population (2002) 175,500 181,144 - National Institute of statistics, July 1, 2004 Density 5133 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County MaramureÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Cristian Anghel, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Area 233. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... Buzău () is a city in the Buzău County, Wallachia, Romania, situated near the right bank of the Buzău river, between the Carpathian Mountains and the fertile lowlands of south Moldavia and east Wallachia. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... County Dolj County Status County capital Mayor Antonie Solomon, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 81. ... County Status County capital Mayor Dumitru Nicolae, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 246. ... County Giurgiu County Status County capital Mayor Lucian Iliescu, National Liberal Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 73,586 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Location of Oradea Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Petru Filip (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 111. ... County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 58. ... County ArgeÅŸ County Status County capital Mayor Tudor Pendiuc, Social Democratic Party, since 1992 Population (2002) 168,458 171,498 - National Institute of statistics, July 1, 2004 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Location of Sibiu within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country Sibiu County Founded 1191 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Klaus Johannis Area  - Total 121 km² (46. ... Location of Suceava Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor Ion Lungu (National Liberal Party) Area  - County capital 52 km²  (20. ... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ... County Tulcea County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Hogea, Democratic Party , since 2004 Population (2002) 91,875 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... CălăraÅŸi, the capital of Calarasi County is situated in SE of Romania(44. ...

Road distances between Bucharest and the other european cities

This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... ChiÅŸinău coat-of-arms ChiÅŸinău (pronounced ki-shi-now, IPA /kiʃinəǔ/) is the capital and the largest city of Moldova. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... This is about the Italian city of Milan. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Wien is the German language name for Vienna, the city and federal state in Austria. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...

Climate

Bucharest has a continental climate, characterised by hot dry summers and cold winters. Due to its position on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, even though some of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Winter temperatures are often below 0 °C (32 °F), even though they rarely drop below −10 °C (14 °F). In summer, the average temperature is approximately 23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August), despite the fact that temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C (95 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and often violent storms. During spring and autumn, temperatures vary between 18 °C (64 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... The Romanian Plain (also: Wallachian Plain; Romanian: Câmpia Română) is located in Romania, bordered by the Danube in the east, south and west and by the Getic Plateau in the north. ... Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ...

Weather averages for Bucharest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2 (36) 3 (37) 10 (50) 16 (61) 22 (72) 26 (79) 27 (81) 27 (81) 23 (73) 17 (63) 8 (46) 3 (37) 16 (61)
Average low °C (°F) -5 (23) -3 (27) 0 (32) 5 (41) 10 (50) 14 (57) 15 (59) 15 (59) 11 (52) 6 (43) 0 (32) -2 (28) 5 (41)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40 (1.6) 36 (1.4) 38 (1.5) 46 (1.8) 70 (2.8) 77 (3) 64 (2.5) 58 (2.3) 42 (1.7) 32 (1.3) 49 (1.9) 43 (1.7) 595 (23.4)
Source: weatherbase.com[10]

Law and government

Administration

See also: Bucharest metropolitan area
The Bucharest City Hall
The Bucharest City Hall
The six administrative sectors of Bucharest
The six administrative sectors of Bucharest
The Hero's monument seen from above
The Hero's monument seen from above

Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipality that is not part of a county. Its population, however, is larger than that of any Romanian county, and hence the power of the Bucharest General City Hall (Primăria Generală), which is the city's local government body, is about the same as, if not greater than, that of Romanian county councils. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 821 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Wikipedia talk:Romanian Wikipedians notice board General Council of Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 821 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Wikipedia talk:Romanian Wikipedians notice board General Council of Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (649 × 649 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/png) Do not change this image. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (649 × 649 pixel, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/png) Do not change this image. ... The six sectors The Municipality of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare in Romanian), each of which has their own mayor and council, and has responsibility over local affairs, such as secondary streets, parks, schools and the cleaning services. ... Administrative map of Romania. ...


The city government is headed by a General Mayor (Primar General), currently (as of 2008) Sorin Oprescu. Decisions are approved and discussed by the General Council (Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councillors. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of which has their own 27-seat sectorial council, town hall and mayor. The powers of local government over a certain area are therefore shared by the Bucharest City Hall and the local sectorial councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule is that the main City Hall is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water system, the transport system and the main boulevards, while sectorial town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets, parks, schools and cleaning services. This is a list of mayors of Bucharest. ... Sorin Mircea Oprescu (born November 7, 1951 in Bucharest) is a Romanian Social Democratic (PSD) politician and doctor. ... The General Council of Bucharest (Consiliul General al Municipiului BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is the legislative body of the Municipality of Bucharest, and is made up of 55 councillors elected every four years. ... The six sectors The Municipality of Bucharest (the capital of Romania) is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare in Romanian), each of which has their own mayor and council, and has responsibility over local affairs, such as secondary streets, parks, schools and the cleaning services. ...


The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration an area of the city center. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into districts without any form of administration (cartiere):

  • Sector 1 with population in 2007 of 228,629 including:Dorobanţi, Băneasa, Aviaţiei, Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău Park, Bucureştii Noi, Dămăroaia, Strǎuleşti, Griviţa, 1 Mai, Băneasa Forest, Pajura, Domenii and a small part of Giuleşti - the part with Giuleşti Stadium
  • Sector 2 with population in 2007 of 359,107 including:Pantelimon, Colentina, Iancului, Tei, Floreasca, Moşilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Plumbuita, Ştefan cel Mare, Baicului
  • Sector 3 with population in 2007 of 394,812 including:Vitan, Dudeşti, Titan, Centrul Civic, Dristor, Lipscani, Muncii, Unirii
  • Sector 4 with population in 2007 of 301,172 including:Berceni, Olteniţei, Giurgiului, Văcăreşti, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului
  • Sector 5 with population in 2007 of 287,480 including:Rahova, Ferentari, Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii
  • Sector 6 with population in 2007 of 360,638 including:Giuleşti, Crângaşi, Drumul Taberei, Militari, Grozǎveşti (also known as Regie), Ghencea

Like all other local councils in Romania, the Bucharest sectorial councils, the city's General Council and the mayors are elected every four years by the population. Additionally, Bucharest has a prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party. The prefect's role is to represent the national government at local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at local level. The current prefect of Bucharest (as of 2007) is Călin Deaconescu. Sector 1 is a sector in Bucharest. ... DorobanÅ£i is a district in Sector 1, Bucharest. ... Băneasa is a district (cartier) in the north side of Bucharest, near the lake with the same name (0. ... Pipera is a region situated in the north of Bucharest, Romania. ... Herăstrău is a large park in the northern side of Bucharest, Romania, around the Herăstrău Lake. ... GriviÅ£a (pronounced Grivitza) Railway Yards were and still are an important landmark within the manufacturing landscape of Bucharest. ... GiuleÅŸti (pronounced /ʤju. ... The GiuleÅŸti stadium is a football stadium in Bucharest, Romania, being the home stadium of FC Rapid BucureÅŸti. ... Sector 2 (Sectorul 2 in Romanian) is a sector in Bucharest. ... Pantelimon is a neighborhood located in the north-eastern part of Bucharest, Romania, in Sector 2. ... Colentina is one of the main neighborhoods in Bucharests 2nd district located on the north-east of the city [Bucharest, Romania]]. Colentina can be called the greenest part of Bucharest due to the large surface covered by recreation areas created along the Colentina river (Tei,Plumbuita,Fundeni) and the... Tei is a neighborhood in Bucharest - Sector 2. ... Obor is the name of a market and the surrounding district of Bucharest, the capital of Romania. ... Sector 3 (Sectorul 3 in Romanian) is a sector in Bucharest. ... Vitan is a neighbourhood in southeastern Bucharest, Romania, along the DâmboviÅ£a River, located between Titan, Centru Civic, OlteniÅ£ei and Berceni. ... DudeÅŸti is a neighbourhood in south-eastern Bucharest, along the Calea DudeÅŸti. ... Titan is a portion of Bucharest, a neighborhood, located in its Eastern part. ... PiaÅ£a Unirii, as seen from above. ... Dristor is a neighborhood located in the southeastern part of Bucharest. ... Lipscani rooftops; looking north on Str. ... Sector 4 is a sector in Bucharest. ... Berceni is a district (quarter, cartier in Romanian) of Bucharest. ... VăcăreÅŸti is a neighbourhood in south-eastern Bucharest, located near DâmboviÅ£a River and the VăcăreÅŸti Lake. ... Sector 5 (Sectorul 5 in Romanian) is a sector in Bucharest. ... Rahova is a neighbourhood of southwest Bucharest, situated in the 5th district (sector), west of DâmboviÅ£a River. ... Ferentari is a neighbourhood in the 5th district (sector) of Bucharest, Romania. ... House in Cotroceni neighbourhood. ... Sector 6 (Sectorul 6 in Romanian) is a sector in Bucharest. ... GiuleÅŸti (pronounced /ʤju. ... CrângaÅŸi is one of the smallest neighbourhoods in the 6th district (sector) of Bucharest, Romania, placed in the west side of the city. ... Pestera Scarisoara ... The General Council of Bucharest (Consiliul General al Municipiului BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is the legislative body of the Municipality of Bucharest, and is made up of 55 councillors elected every four years. ...


The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov county, forms the Bucharest development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The Bucharest development region is not, however, an administrative entity. Categories: Counties of Romania | Stub | Ilfov | Bucharest ... The Bucharest development region is a development region in Romania, encompassing the national capital, Bucharest, as well as the surrounding Ilfov county. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ...


Justice system

Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian counties. Each of the six sectors has their own local tribunal, while appeals from these tribunals' verdicts, and more serious cases, are directed to the Bucharest Court of Appeals, the city's municipal court. Bucharest is also home to Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as well as other national courts such as the Constitutional Court of Romania and the National Military Tribunal. The High Court of Cassation and Justice (Romanian: Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie) is Romanias supreme Court of justice. ...


Bucharest has its own municipal police force, the Bucharest Police (Poliţia Bucureşti), which is responsible for policing of crime within the whole city, and operates a number of special divisions. The Bucharest Police are headquartered on Ştefan cel Mare Blvd in the city centre, and has a number of precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector City Hall also has under its administration a Community Police force (Poliţia Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest also houses the General Inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the National Police. PoliÅ£ia Comunitară is the generic name for the local police in Romania - on city or commune level. ... Jandarmeria Română is the military branch of the Romanian police force. ... The Romanian Police (Romanian: , IPA: ) is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania. ...


Crime

Main article: Crime in Bucharest
The Palace of Justice in Bucharest
The Palace of Justice in Bucharest

Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other East-European capital cities, with the number of total offences declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004.[11] In particular, levels of violent crime remain very low, with 24 murders and 1069 other violent offences taking place in 2004.[11] Although there have been a number of recent police crackdowns on organised crime gangs, such as the Cămătaru clan, organised crime generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs mainly on the city's public transport network. Additionally, confidence tricks are sometimes common, especially in regards to tourists, even though the frequency of these tricks has declined in recent years. Levels of crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly in Ferentari, a socially-disadvantaged area mainly inhabited by people of Roma ethnicity. Bucharests crime rate is quite low in comparison to other European capital cities, with the number of total offences declining by 51% between 2000 and 2004. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Eighteenth century engraving showing a pickpocket in action. ... Scam and Confidence Man redirect here. ... Ferentari is a neighbourhood in the 5th district (sector) of Bucharest, Romania. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religion Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ...


Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest in the 1990s, their numbers have declined significantly in recent years, currently lying at or below the average of major European capital cities[12]. The same is true for beggars and homeless people, many of them from the Roma minority. However, there are still an estimated 1,000 street children in the city,[12] many of whom engage in petty crime and begging. There has also been speculation that the street children are recruited by professional underground networks for criminal purposes. From 2000 onwards, Bucharest has seen an increase in illegal road races which occur mainly at night in the city's outskirts or on industrial sites. Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... Bag lady redirects here. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religion Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ...


A significant problem in the city remains institutional corruption, which is seen as the most important justice-and-law related problem in the city. World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ...


Demographics

Historical population of Bucharest
Year Population
1789 30,030
1831 60,587
1859 122,000
1900 282,000
1918 383,000
1930 639,000
January 25, 1948 census 1,041,807[13]
February 21, 1956 census 1,177,661[13]
March 15, 1966 census 1,366,684[13]
January 5, 1977 census 1,807,239[13]
July 1, 1990 estimate 2,127,194[5]
January 7, 1992 census 2,067,545[13]
March 18, 2002 census 1,926,334[13]
July 1, 2005 estimate 1,924,959[5]
January 1, 2006 estimate 1,930,390[5]
July 11, 2007 estimate 2,088,500[14]

The city's population, according to the 2002 census, is 1,926,334 inhabitants,[13] or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. Additionally, there are about 50,000 people who commute to the city every day, mainly from the surrounding Ilfov county. About 89. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Categories: Counties of Romania | Stub | Ilfov | Bucharest ...


Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first in the late 19th century, when the city grew in importance and size, and the second during the Communist period, when a massive urbanisation campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to Ceauşescu's ban on abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant. Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... Rural migration is the migration of people from rural areas into cities. ... Population growth is changing of the amount of population over time. ...


Approximately 97% of the population of Bucharest are ethnic Romanians, with the second largest ethnic group being the Roma, which make up 1.4% of the population. Other significant ethnic groups are Hungarians (0.3%), Jews (0.1%), Turks (0,1%) and Germans (0,1%). Some other inhabitants of Bucharest are of Greek, Armenian, Lipovan and Italian descent. The Greeks and the Armenians used to play significant roles in the life of the city at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. One the predominantly Greek neighbourhoods Vitan - where a Jewish population also lived; the latter was more present in Văcăreşti and areas around Unirii Square. Languages Romanian language Religions Predominantly Romanian Orthodox, but also including Romanian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Atheist. ... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religion Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Contents // Categories: Stub | Minorities of Romania | Moldova | Armenia ... Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cherkeza in 2004. ... Vitan is a neighbourhood in southeastern Bucharest, Romania, along the DâmboviÅ£a River, located between Titan, Centru Civic, OlteniÅ£ei and Berceni. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... VăcăreÅŸti is a neighbourhood in south-eastern Bucharest, located near DâmboviÅ£a River and the VăcăreÅŸti Lake. ... The park in the middle of the square and the Unirea Shopping Center in the background Aerial view of PiaÅ£a Unirii. ...


In terms of religion, 96.1% of the population are Romanian Orthodox, 1.2% are Roman Catholic, 0.5% are Muslim and 0.4% are Eastern Rite-Catholic. Despite this, only 24% of the population, of any religion, attend a place of worship once a week or more.[15] The life expectancy of residents of Bucharest in 2003-2005 was 74.14 years, around 2 years higher than the Romanian average. Female life expectancy was 77.41 years, in comparison to 70.57 years for males.[16] The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholicism in Romania. ... Tatars (yellow) in Northern Dobruja (1903) Islam in Romania is represented by only 0. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is a Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Bucharest
Charles de Gaulle Plaza seen from the Herăstrău Park
BRD Tower in Victoria square

Bucharest is the most economically-developed and industrialised city in Romania, producing around 21% of the country's GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while only accounting for 9% of the country's population.[17] Almost one third of national taxes is paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies. In 2005, at purchasing power parity, Bucharest had a per-capita GDP of €16,760, or 74.8% that of the European Union average and more than twice the Romanian average.[18] The city's strong economic growth has revitalised infrastructure and led to the development of many shopping malls and modern residential towers and high-rise office buildings. In September 2005, Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.6%, significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of 5.7%.[19] Charles de Gaulle Plaza seen from the Herăstrău Park BRD Tower in Victoriei square Bucharest is the most economically-developed and industrialised city in Romania, producing around 21% of the countrys GDP and about one-quarter of its industrial production, while only accounting for 9% of the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the person. ... Herăstrău is a large park in the northern side of Bucharest, Romania, around the Herăstrău Lake. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 1200 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... BRD - Groupe Société Générale is a Romanian bank owned by the french Société Générale financial group. ... BRD Tower is an class A office building in Bucharest. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


Bucharest's economy is mainly centred on industry and services, with services particularly growing in importance in the last ten years. The city serves as the headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies.[20] An important source for growth since 2000 has been the city's property and construction boom, which has resulted in a significant growth in the construction sector. Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for information technology and communications and is home to several software companies operating offshore delivery centers. Bucharest contains Romania's largest stock exchange, the Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange, Rasdaq. The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... The Bucharest Stock Exchange (Bursa de Valori BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is a stock exchange in Bucharest, capital of Romania. ... Rasdaq was the name of the company that operated RASDAQ Market, one of the two Romanian exchanges at the time. ...


The city has a number of international supermarket chains such as Carrefour, Cora and METRO. At the moment, the city is undergoing a retail boom, with a large number of supermarkets, and hypermarkets, constructed every year. For more information, see supermarkets in Romania. The biggest modern shopping centres in Bucharest are Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania, City Mall, Jolie Ville Galleria and Unirea Shopping Center. However, there are also a large number of traditional markets; the one at Obor covers about a dozen city blocks, and numerous large stores that are not officially part of the market effectively add up to a market district almost twice that size. Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... For other uses, see Carrefour (disambiguation). ... Cora is a retail group based in France which owns several supermarket and hypermarket chains internationally. ... METRO AG Logo METRO AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Germany. ... The Romanian supermarket industry is a highly successful market in the retail area. ... The Bucharest Mall is a modern shopping mall located in Bucharest, Romania. ... The Plaza Romania is Romanias largest shopping centre. ... Jolie Ville Galleria is a luxury shopping centre in Bucharest, Romania. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Obor is the name of a market and the surrounding district of Bucharest, the capital of Romania. ...


In Bucharest the average salary is £1000 a month which is higher than that of Spain. Also as Romania is experiencing a real construction boom the average price for a central one bedroom flat is around £650 which puts the price of rent on par with Paris.[21] This article is about the capital of France. ...


Romania is most importantly feeling the benefits of the new wealth due to the economic boom that it has seen for the recent years.[21]


Transport

Bucharest Metro - Titan Station
Bucharest Metro - Titan Station
Bucharest public bus
Bucharest public bus

Public Transport Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2146 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metro Titan metro station Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2146 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metro Titan metro station Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Bucharest Metro (Metroul BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is an underground urban railway network that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 752 KB) Public bus in Bucharest, Romania (Mercedes Citaro type) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Mercedes-Benz O530 Citaro Transport in Bucharest Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 752 KB) Public bus in Bucharest, Romania (Mercedes Citaro type) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Mercedes-Benz O530 Citaro Transport in Bucharest Metadata This... A Bucharest Metro trainset Bucharest boasts the largest transport network in Romania, and one of the largest in Europe. ... A Bucharest Metro trainset Bucharest boasts the largest transport network in Romania, and one of the largest in Europe. ...


Bucharest's extensive public transport system is the largest in Romania and the third largest in Europe[citation needed]. It is made up of the Bucharest Metro, as well as a surface transport system run by RATB (Regia Autonomă de Transport Bucureşti), which consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses and light rail. In addition, there is a private minibus system. The metro and the surface transport system — used to be run by two separate state-owned corporations but have been merged in early 2007 to form the Bucharest Metropolitan Transport Board. As of 2007, there is a limit of 10,000 taxicab licences [22], down from 25,000 in the 1990s, and the even higher demand is supplied by taxis registered in Ilfov county. The Bucharest Metro (Metroul BucureÅŸti in Romanian) is an underground urban railway network that serves the capital of Romania, Bucharest. ... Regia Autonomă de Transport Bucureşti is a public surface transit operator in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Marshrutka (Russian: ; short for маршрутное такси (routed taxicab)) is a CIS minibus taxi. ...


Air


The city is served by two airports: Henri Coandă International Airport (formerly Otopeni) and Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (formerly Băneasa). Henri Coandă is the largest airport in Romania with 5 million passengers in 2007 and the main hub for the national operator TAROM. Delta Air Lines serves Bucharest directly from JFK. It is also connected to several international airports by a wide range of international airlines. The smaller Aurel Vlaicu International Airport is used for charter flights and low-cost carriers. Henri Coandă International Airport (Romanian: Aeroportul InternaÅ£ional Henri Coandă) (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP) is the busiest airport in Romania, as well as one of the two airports serving Bucharest. ... The Băneasa Terminal Terminal seen from the runway Bucharest Aurel Vlaicu Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) (largely known as Băneasa Airport or Bucharest City Airport) is located in Băneasa district, Bucharest, Romania. ... TAROM is the flag carrier airline of Romania. ... Delta Air Lines, Inc. ... The Băneasa Terminal Terminal seen from the runway Bucharest Aurel Vlaicu Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) (largely known as Băneasa Airport or Bucharest City Airport) is located in Băneasa district, Bucharest, Romania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Railways


Bucharest is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord, or North Station, which provides connections to all major cities in Romania as well as international destinations such as Belgrade, Budapest, Sofia, Vienna, Prague, Moscow, Istanbul, Chisinau, and many others European capital and city. The city also has five other railway stations run by CFR, most important are Basarab (in proximity of North Station), Obor, Baneasa, Progresu, which are in the process of being integrated in a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov county.From the Bucharest depart 7 main line. Logo of CFR CÇŽlÇŽtori Map of Romanias railway system The CFR headquarters in Bucharest, Romania Căile Ferate Române (Romanian Railways, abbreviated as CFR) is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania. ... View of tracks entering Bucharests Gara de Nord from the pedestrian bridge, October 2006 Gara de Nord Gara de Nord (North Station in English) is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... Chişinău. ... Categories: Counties of Romania | Stub | Ilfov | Bucharest ...


Infrastructure


The city's municipal road network is centred around a series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in recent years. Every day, there are more than one million vehicles travelling within the city.[23] This has resulted in wear and potholes appearing on many Bucharest roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. In recent years, there has been a comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure and according to the general development plan, nearly 2000 roads are expected to be repaired by 2008.[24] The city of Los Angeles is famous for its large potholes. ...


Roads


Bucharest is also a major intersection of Romania's national road network. It is the origin of most of the country's national roads and motorway, which link the city to all of Romania's major cities as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine. Romania's two motorway currently in operation, the A1 to Pitesti and the A2, in Romanian "Autostrada Soarelui" (the sun motorway) to Dobrogea region and Constanta both start from Bucharest. The planned A3 and A4 freeways will also radiate from the Voluntari region in the city's northern outskirts. Romanias Road Network Public roads in Romania are ranked according to importance and traffic as follows: motorways (autostradă - pl. ... The A1 freeway (Autostrada A1 in Romanian) is a 113-kilometre motorway linking Bucharest, the capital of Romania, with Piteşti, a city in Argeş county, Romania. ... The construction of the A2 romanian highway between Bucharest and Constanţa began in the communist era during Nicolae Ceauşescus regime. ...


Water


Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as Constanţa and Brăila acting as the country's main ports. However, the Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi) long, is currently in construction and is around 60% completed. When finished, the canal will link Bucharest to the Danube River and, via the Danube-Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. This corridor is expected to be a significant component of the city's transport infrastructure and increase sea traffic by a large margin. County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Sever Cibu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 33. ... The Danube-Bucharest Canal is a 73 kilometers-long canal project that is supposed to link Bucharest, Romania to the Danube via ArgeÅŸ River. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... The Danube-Black Sea Canal is a canal in Romania which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube to Agigea (southern arm) and Năvodari (northern arm) on the Black Sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Romania
University Square with the statue of Mihai Viteazu in the foreground

Bucharest has a diverse and growing cultural scene, with cultural life exhibited in a number of various fields, including the visual arts, performing arts and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene is much more eclectic, without a defined style, and instead incorporates various elements of Romanian and international culture. Bucharest has an eclectic mixture of elements from traditionally Romanian buildings to buildings that are influenced by French architects. It is because of this French influence that Bucharest was once called "the Paris of the East" or "Little Paris." The culture of Romania is rich and varied. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 333 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1000 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... University Square is located in the downtown Bucharest, near the Bucharest University. ... Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul) (1558 - August 9, 1601), Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601), of Transylvania (1599-1600), and of Moldavia (1600), one of the greatest Romanias national heroes, who united for the first time the three Romanian principalities under his rule. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Nightlife is the collective term for any entertainment that is available and more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


Landmarks

The CEC Palace
The National Museum of Contemporary Art, Bucharest, Romania.

Bucharest has a number of landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu. Currently the largest building in Europe and the second-largest in the world, the Palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies and Senate), as well as the National Museum of Contemporary Art. It is also often used as a convention centre. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ronline and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ronline and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... The Memorial of Rebirth (Memorialul RenaÅŸterii in Romanian) is a memorial in Bucharest, Romania that commemorates the struggles and victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,456 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 988 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: de:Bukarest, Arc de Triumf. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: de:Bukarest, Arc de Triumf. ... Arcul de Triumf is a triumphal arch located in the northern part of Bucharest, on the Kiseleff Road. ... Image File history File links National_Museum_of_Contemporary_Art_Bucharest_1. ... Image File history File links National_Museum_of_Contemporary_Art_Bucharest_1. ... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... Type Lower house Houses Camera DeputaÅ£ilor President Bogdan Olteanu, National Liberal Party since 2006 Members 332 Political groups Social Democratic Party: 103 National Liberal Party: 56 Democratic Party: 71 Great Romania Party: 26 Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania: 22 Conservative Party: 15 National minorities: 18 Independents: 20 Last... Coat of Arms of The Senate of Romania The Senate of Romania (Romanian: Senat) is the upper house in Romanias bicameral parliament. ...


Another well-known landmark of Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch), built in 1935 and modeled after the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylized marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked a great deal of controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as "the toothpick and the olive", ("măslina-n scobitoare"), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons.[25] Arcul de Triumf is a triumphal arch located in the northern part of Bucharest, on the Kiseleff Road. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Memorial of Rebirth (Memorialul RenaÅŸterii in Romanian) is a memorial in Bucharest, Romania that commemorates the struggles and victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the...


The Romanian Athaeneum building is considered to be a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 is on the list of the Label of European Heritage sights.[26] The Romanian Athenaeum (Romanian Ateneu Român, definite article form Ateneul Român) in the center of Bucharest, Romania. ...


Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art, Museum of Natural History "Grigore Antipa", Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul Ţăranului Român), National History Museum, and the Military Museum.


Visual arts

The National Museum of Art

In terms of visual arts, the city contains a number of museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is located in the former royal palace and features extensive collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by renowned sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi, as well as a prominent international collection assembled by the former Romanian royal family. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The National Museum of Art of Romania The National Museum of Art of Romania (Romanian: Muzeul NaÅ£ional de Artă al României) is located in the former royal palace in Revolution Square, central Bucharest, Romania, completed in 1937. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The National Museum of Art of Romania, located in the former royal palace in the center of Bucharest, Romania, features notable collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, as well as the international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family. ... Constantin BrâncuÅŸi Constantin BrâncuÅŸi, or Brancusi, (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, pronounced ), was an internationally renowned Romanian sculptor, born in HobiÅ£a, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, whose sculptures blend simplicity and sophistication that led the way for modernist sculptors. ...


Other, smaller museums, contain more specialised collections of works. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of Armenian-Romanian art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian contains works by many well-known Romanian artists as well as international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro and Pablo Picasso. The Zambaccian Museum in Bucharest, Romania is a museum in the former home of Krikor H. Zambaccian (1889 - 1962), an Armenian businessman and art collector. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Matisse redirects here. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Picasso redirects here. ...


The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, Ştefan Golescu, Nicolae Bălcescu and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes many works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady as well as a number of European and Oriental furniture pieces. The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of a number of well-known Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady. Gheorghe Tattarescu Gheorghe Tattarescu (1818 - 1894) is a Romanian painter, pioneer of neoclassicism in his countrys modern painting. ... General Gheorghe Magheru (1802, Bârzeiul de Gilort in Gorj—1880) was a Wallachian Romanian revolutionary and soldier, and political ally of Nicolae Bălcescu. ... Åžtefan Golescu (1809 - 1874) was a Romanian politician that served as a Prime Minister of Romania between 26 November 1867 and 12 May 1868. ... Nicolae Bălcescu Nicolae Bălcescu (1819-1852) was a Romanian historian, writer, and revolutionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Theodor Palladys Self-potrait Theodor Pallady (April 11, 1871, IaÅŸi—August 16, 1956, Bucharest) was a Romanian painter. ... The Museum of Art Collections is a branch of the National Museum of Art of Romania and is situated in Bucharest. ...


Despite the extensive classical art galleries and museums in the city, there is also a contemporary arts scene that has become increasingly prominent in recent times. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains a widespread collection of Romanian and international contemporary art, in a number of expressive forms. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters specifically to multimedia and experimental art. There is also a range of smaller, private art galleries throughout the city centre. The National Museum of Contemporary Art (Muzeul Naţional de Artă Contemporană in Romanian) is a contemporary art museum in Bucharest, Romania. ... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul...


Performing arts

Performing arts are one of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest, and the city has a number of world-renowned facilities and institutions. The most prominent is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the "George Enescu" Philharmonic. Bucharest is also home to the Romanian National Opera, as well as the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which has gained increasing prominence in recent years due partly to the fact that it features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. There is also a large number of smaller theatres throughout the city that cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the Constantin Tănase Revue Theatre. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Bucharest National Theatre The Bucharest National Theatre (Romanian: ) was founded in 1852, its first director being Costache Caragiale. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... Ateneul Român The Romanian Athenaeum (Romanian Ateneu Român, definite article form Ateneul Român) in the center of Bucharest, Romania. ... George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... The Romanian National Opera is the national opera of Romania, situated in a historical building in Bucharest. ... Bucharest National Theatre The Bucharest National Theatre (Romanian: ) was founded in 1852, its first director being Costache Caragiale. ... Teatrul Evreiesc de Stat (TES, the State Jewish Theater) in Bucharest, Romania is a theater specializing in Jewish-related plays. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Music and nightlife

Tower Center International
Tower Center International
Bucharest skyline at night
Bucharest skyline at night

Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. The city's music scene is quite eclectic. Many Romanian rock bands of the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the 1990s there has been growth in the boy band and hip hop genres. The eclectic pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgenţă's raucous updating of traditional Romanian music. While many discos play manele, a Turkish-influenced type of music that is particularly popular in Bucharest's working class districts, the city has an increasing jazz and blues scene, and, to an extent, eurodance/trance and heavy metal/punk. The city's nightlife, particularly its club scene grew significantly in the 1990s, and continues to increase. The city does not have a central nightlife strip, with many entertainment venues dispersed throughout the city centre, with a cluster in the historical centre. One of the city's best known clubs is the Lăptăria Enache and the La Motoare, located above (on the rooftop of) the National Theatre, as well as[citation needed] Fire Club and Club A. Most clubs and bars are located around the center of the city, from the Piaţa Unirii to Piaţa Romană. Also, a large concentration of rock clubs can be found in the Lipscani area, the old part of the city, in the vicinity of Piata Unirii. Another popular venue, especially among students from the Politehnica University campus, is Club Maxx, located on Splaiul Independentei No. 290. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2770 × 1853 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2770 × 1853 pixel, file size: 2. ... Tower Center International is an class A office building in Bucharest. ... Eclecticism in Music - The term eclecticism is used to describe the combination in a single work of elements from different historical styles. ... IRIS is a Romanian hard rock band. ... Holograf is a popular and critically-acclaimed modern rock music band from Romania. ... A boy band (American English) or boyband (British English) is a style of somewhat to mostly prefabricated pop group featuring about between three and six young male singer/dancers, but normally five. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Taxi are a Romanian pop-rock band. ... Spitalul de Urgenţă, literally Emergency Hospital, is a Romanian pop band, integrating elements of traditional Romanian music into a sometimes hard-edged rock sound, although also incorporating influences as diverse as Turkish traditional music, European classical music, and cartoon soundtrack music. ... For the Young Love song, see Discotech (song). ... Manele (singular: manea) is a music style from the Balkans, mainly derived from Turkish, Greek, Arab or Serbian love songs. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... This article is about a music style. ... Trance is a style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Lăptăria Enache (literally Enache Milkbar; also sometimes known as Lăptăria lui Enache, Enaches Milkbar) is one of the leading bars in Bucharest, Romania. ... The park in the middle of the square and the Unirea Shopping Center in the background Aerial view of PiaÅ£a Unirii. ... The ASE building, as seen from PiaÅ£a Romană Magheru Boulevard, just south of PiaÅ£a Romană PiaÅ£a Romană (meaning Roman Square in Romanian) is a major traffic intersection in Sector 1, central Bucharest. ... Lipscani rooftops; looking north on Str. ...


The city also hosts some of the best electronic/house music clubs in Europe such as Bamboo and Krystal Club. During the summer, Zoom Beach Club is an outdoor club on the shore of a lake and has two separate dance floors. The Office is one of the most exclusive clubs in Bucharest and has a long tradition in clubbing. One of the best cocktail clubs is Deja Vu situated on Balcescu Boulevard Near the Italian church. Other clubs are: Gaia, Fratelli, Glamour, Tipsy, Cotton Club, Pat, Studio Martin and Embryo.


Traditional culture

Bucharest's culture has, especially since the early 1990s, become more modern and worldly in comparison to other Romanian cities. Traditional Romanian culture, however, continues to have an influence in domains such as theatre and music. Additionally, Bucharest has two internationally-renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the open-air Village Museum. The Village Museum, in Herăstrău Park, contains 272 authentic buildings and peasant farms from all over Romania. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of the Year in 1996, and displays a rich collection of textiles (especially costumes), icons, ceramics, and other artifacts of Romanian peasant life. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 508 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 508 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Museum of Romanian History is a museum in Bucharest, Romania, which contains Romanian historical artifacts from prehistoric times up to modern times. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... The Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Romanian: Muzeul Ţăranului Român) is a museum in Bucharest, Romania, with a beautifully displayed collection of textiles (especially costumes), icons, ceramics, and other artifacts of Romanian peasant life. ... A house in the Village Museum The Village Museum is an open-air ethnographic museum in Bucharest, Romania, showcasing traditional Romanian village life. ... Herăstrău is a large park in the northern side of Bucharest, Romania, around the Herăstrău Lake. ...


The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times and the modern era. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ...


Cultural events and festivals

Unirii Boulevard during the White Night of Bucharest Festival

There are a number of cultural festivals in Bucharest throughout the year, in various domains, even though most festivals take place in the summer months of June, July and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world. The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Classical Music Festival at various locations throughout the city in September every year. Additionally, the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise a number of events throughout the year showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts. Image File history File links George_Enescu_Festival. ... Image File history File links George_Enescu_Festival. ... George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ...


In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, several Chinese cultural events have taken place. The first officially-organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of February 2005 which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was organised by the Bucharest City Hall.[27] In 2005, Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed at various points across the city. Lunar New Year may refer to the beginning of the year in several cultures calendars: Chinese New Year Korean New Year Islamic New Year Tết (Vietnamese New Year) Thai New Year (Songkran) Categories: | ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Cow Human Touch, CowParade Warsaw 2005 CowParade is an international public art exhibit that has been featured in major cities all over the world. ...


Since 2005 Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale, the Bucharest Biennale. The current (2006) issue (curated by Zsolt Pétranyi) will go on until the end of June, the next edition will be in 2008. The name Biennale is Italian and means every other year, describing an event that happens every 2 years. ... The Bucharest Biennale is a contemporary art festival held every two years in Bucharest, Romania. ...


The 2000s also saw an increasing visibility of Bucharest gay culture, with the opening of the Queen's Club, the first LGBT club in the city, in 2001, and the launch of the annual Bucharest GayFest in 2004. The city's first gay pride parade was held as part of the 2005 GayFest. See labrys, black triangle. ... LGBT (also GLBT) is an acronym referring collectively to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual people. ... GayFest is the annual gay pride festival of Bucharest, Romania, which first took place in 2004 and now occurs in May-June of each year, lasting for nearly a week. ... 2004 Gay Pride Parade in São Paulo, Brazil. ...


Architecture

The Alba Iulia circle
The Alba Iulia circle

Bucharest's architecture is highly eclectic due to the many influences on the city throughout its history. The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical and art nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the beginning of the 20th century and a remarkable collection of modern buildings from the 30s and 40s. Very present as well the mostly-utilitarian Communist-era architecture. The city is lately invaded by contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings, mainly constructed after 2000. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


Historical architecture

The Creţulescu Palace
The Creţulescu Palace
Cercul Militar Naţional
Bucharest was known as "the little Paris"
Trough the city
Trough the city

Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern times was destroyed by the Communists and replaced by high-rise apartment blocks. Still, some historical precincts remain, the most notable of which is the Lipscani area. This precinct contains buildings such as Manuc's Inn and the ruins of the Curtea Veche (the Old Court of the King), and during the Middle Ages was the heart of Bucharest's commercial world. From the 1970s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair. In 2005, the Lipscani area was entirely pedestrianised and is currently undergoing restoration. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2134 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2134 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ateneul Român The Romanian Athenaeum (Romanian Ateneu Român, definite article form Ateneul Român) in the center of Bucharest, Romania. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 797 pixels, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 797 pixels, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Romanian: Muzeul Ţăranului Român) is a museum in Bucharest, Romania, with a beautifully displayed collection of textiles (especially costumes), icons, ceramics, and other artifacts of Romanian peasant life. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 599 KB) Cretzulescu palace - Bucharest File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 599 KB) Cretzulescu palace - Bucharest File links The following pages link to this file: Bucharest Categories: GFDL images ... CreÅ£ulescu Palace CreÅ£ulescu Palace (Palatul CreÅ£ulescu in Romanian) is a historic building near the CiÅŸmigiu Gardens in Bucharest, Romania. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Lipscani rooftops; looking north on Str. ... Manucs Inn as seen from outside, looking north from the plaza Manucs Inn (Romanian: Hanul lui Manuc) is the oldest operating hotel building in Bucharest, Romania; it also houses a restaurant, several bars, a cake shop, and (facing the street) several stores; its massive, multiply balconied courtyard hosts... Curtea Veche Curtea Veche (Old Royal Court) is located in centre of the city of Bucharest, Romania. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The city centre has also retained architecture from the late 19th century and early 20th century, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest architecture. During this time, the city grew significantly in size and sought to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time belongs to a remarkably strong Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia Creanga and Marcel Iancu, which managed to literally change the face of the city. Two notable buildings from this time are the Creţulescu Palace, currently housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education, and the Cotroceni Palace, the current residence of the Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de Nord, the main railway station, and the National Bank of Romania's headquarters, date from these times. In the 2000s, a wide variety of historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly the high-income northern suburbs, there are many turn-of-the-century villas, most of which were restored after 2000. Interbellum redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Marcel Janco/Iancu/Ianco (May 24, 1895, Bucharest - April 21, 1984, Tel Aviv) was a Jewish-Romanian artist, painter and architect. ... CreÅ£ulescu Palace CreÅ£ulescu Palace (Palatul CreÅ£ulescu in Romanian) is a historic building near the CiÅŸmigiu Gardens in Bucharest, Romania. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Cotroceni Palace is a palace of Bucharest which is the residence of the President of Romania. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... View of tracks entering Bucharests Gara de Nord from the pedestrian bridge, October 2006 Gara de Nord Gara de Nord (North Station in English) is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania. ... Categories: Romania-related stubs | Romanian economy | Central banks ... Fin de siècle is French for End of the Century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ...


Communist architecture

Titan, Bucharest Most of the apartment buildings were built in the 1970s and 1980s
Titan, Bucharest Most of the apartment buildings were built in the 1970s and 1980s
Militari, Bucharest, apartment buildings from the Communist era.
Militari, Bucharest, apartment buildings from the Communist era.
Unirii Boulevard

A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical architecture with "more efficient" high density apartment blocks - one-fifth of the city was demolished only for constructing the third largest building in the world: Casa Poporului - Palace of the Parliament. In Nicolae Ceauşescu's project of systematization many new buildings were built in previously-historical areas, which were razed and then built upon from scratch. One of the best examples of this type of architecture is Centrul Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture. Communist-era architecture can also be found in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's population. Titan is a portion of Bucharest, a neighborhood, located in its Eastern part. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... CeauÅŸima (Ceaushima) is a vernacular word construction sarcastically linking CeauÅŸescu to Hiroshima. ... The Palace of the Parliament Another view of the building Night view The building seen from a neighbouring high-rise. ... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... The skyline of many cities became dominated by standardized apartment blocks, like this row in Bucharest Systematization in Romania refers to a program of urban planning carried out under Nicolae CeauÅŸescus communist regime. ... CeauÅŸima (Ceaushima) is a vernacular word construction sarcastically linking CeauÅŸescu to Hiroshima. ... PiaÅ£a Unirii, as seen from above. ... -1... Travertine Travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park A carving in travertine Travertine is a sedimentary rock. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ...


Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings have been refurbished, modernised and used for other purposes. Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of several agro-alimentary complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant circular halls, which were most often known as hunger circuses due to the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during the Ceauşescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although most were left unfinished at the time of the Revolution. Modern shopping malls like Bucharest Mall, Plaza Romania and City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures of former hunger circuses. Another example is the modernisation and conversion of a large utilitarian construction in Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel. This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre became prime real estate due to their location. In recent years, many Communist-era apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve the city's urban appearance. Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the... Part of Nicolae CeauÅŸescus program of systematization during his period as ruler of Romania was the construction of a series of buildings now universally known in Romania as hunger circuses or circuses of hunger (in Romanian, circurile foamei or circuri ale foamei). These large domed buildings were, in... A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. ... The Bucharest Mall is a modern shopping mall located in Bucharest, Romania. ... The Plaza Romania is Romanias largest shopping centre. ... City Mall is a shopping mall located in Eroii Revolutiei square, Bucharest, Romania. ... PiaÅ£a Unirii, as seen from above. ... Marriott International, Inc. ...


Contemporary architecture

The headquarters of the Romanian Architects Association, built on the ruins of the Direcţia V Securitate
Bucharest Financial Plaza

The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after the fall of Communism, and particularly after 2000, when the city went through a period of urban renewal – and architectural revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic boom. Buildings from this time are mostly made out of glass and steel, and often have more than fifteen storeys. Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters, the Bucharest World Trade Center and the Chamber of Commerce, which lies on the banks of the Dâmboviţa. As of 2005, there is a significant number of office buildings in construction, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city. Additionally, there has been a trend in recent years to add modern wings and façades to historic buildings, the most prominent example of which is the Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, various new residential developments are currently underway, many of which consist of modern high-rise buildings with a glass exterior, surrounded by American-style residential communities. These developments are increasingly prominent in the northern suburbs of the city, which are less densely-populated and are home to middle- and upper-class Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bucharest Financial Plaza is an class A office building in Bucharest. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The Bucharest Mall is a modern shopping mall located in Bucharest, Romania. ... The World Trade Center, Bucharest The Bucharest World Trade Center is a business centre in Bucharest, Romania. ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ... The Dâmboviţa River (spelt Dîmboviţa in pre-1993 Romanian orthography) is a river in Romania that has its source in the Făgăraş mountains and flows southward to traverse Bucharest and to meet Argeş River 258 kilometres from its source. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


Gallery

Media

Casa Presei Libere, the headquarters of various Bucharest media outlets
Casa Presei Libere, the headquarters of various Bucharest media outlets

Bucharest is the most important centre for Romanian mass media, since it is the headquarters of all the national television networks as well as national newspapers and radio stations. The largest daily newspapers in Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei, Jurnalul Naţional, Cotidianul, România Liberă, Adevărul, Gardianul and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid newspapers Libertatea and Ziarul are very popular for commuters. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 836 KB) Taken from Herăstrău. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 836 KB) Taken from Herăstrău. ... Casa Presei Libere, as seen from Herăstrău Casa Presei Libere is a building in northern Bucharest, Romania. ... Logo of Evenimentul Zilei Evenimentul Zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. ... Jurnalul NaÅ£ional is a Romanian newspaper, part of a media group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular TV station Antena 1. ... Cotidianul is a Romanian newspaper, published Monday to Saturday in Berliner format. ... România Liberă is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. ... Adevărul (The Truth) is a Romanian broadsheet newspaper, based in Bucharest. ... Gardianul (The Guardian) is a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ... Gândul (The Thought) is a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... Libertatea (The Liberty in Romanian) is a Romanian tabloid newspaper published in Bucharest. ... Ziarul is a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ...


A significant number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei Libere (The House of the Free Press) a landmark of northern Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist-era official newspaper Scînteia. Casa Presei Libere is not the only Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and communications industry. Palatul Telefoanelor ("the telephone palace") was the first major modernist building on Calea Victoriei in the city's center, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio looms over a park a block away from the Opera. Casa Presei Libere, as seen from Herăstrău Casa Presei Libere is a building in northern Bucharest, Romania. ... Scînteia (The Spark; a new spelling of the name in Romanian would be Scânteia) was the name of two newspapers edited by Communist groups at different intervals in Romanian history. ... Palatul Telefoanelor Palatul Telefoanelor (the Telephone Palace) is a building in Bucharest, Romania. ... Casa Radio is an unfinished building in Bucharest, near Cotroceni, on the shore of the DâmboviÅ£a River. ...


English-language media became available in Bucharest in the 1990s, and has become increasingly prominent since 2000. There are two daily English-language newspapers, Bucharest Daily News and Nine O' Clock, as well as numerous other magazines. A number of publications in other languages are also available, such as the Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó. Bucharest Daily News is an English-language newspaper operating out of the Romanian capital city, Bucharest. ... Nine O Clock is a Romanian newspaper, with the feature that makes it stand out in the crowd being that it is in the English language. ... Új Magyar Szó (New Hungarian Word)is a Hungarian-language Romanian broadsheet newspaper, based in Bucharest. ...


Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly Şapte Seri ("Seven Evenings") and B24FUN lists entertainments of all sorts. The city is also home to the intellectual journal Dilema and the satire magazine Academia Caţavencu, as well as the usual array of commercial magazines one would find in any European capital. Observator Cultural (Cultural Observer in English) is a newspaper based in Bucharest, Romania, which covers the citys cultural and arts scene. ... Åžapte Seri (Seven Evenings) is a free leaflet-sized weekly magazine about goings-on in Bucharest, Romania. ... Dilema is a prominent Romanian weekly journal of criticism and opinion. ... December 2004 first page of the Academia CaÅ£avencu Academia CaÅ£avencu (CaÅ£avencu Academy) is a Romanian satirical magazine founded in 1991, famous for its investigations. ...


Bucharest was the host city of the fourth edition of the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2006. The singing girl, who is featured in all Junior Eurovision Song Contest logos. ...


Sports

Football (soccer) is the most widely-followed sport in Bucharest, with the city having various club teams that are known throughout Europe. Four football teams of Bucharest participate in Liga 1 (League 1), formerly Divizia A, the top division in the Romanian football league: Soccer redirects here. ... Liga I is the name of the top division of the Romanian football league system. ...

Club Founded Stadium Notes
FC Sportul Studenţesc 1916 Regie Stadium
  • Oldest established local team
  • Playing in the 2nd League from 2006 to present
FC Rapid 1923 Giuleşti Stadium
  • The first Romanian team in a European cup final (Mitropa Cup, 1940, was not played because of WWII)
  • The only team to win 6 times in a row the Romanian Cup (1936-1942)
  • Won the Romanian Championship 3 times, the Romanian Cup 13 times, and the Romanian SuperCup 4 times.
Progresul Bucuresti 1944 Cotroceni Stadium
FC Steaua 1947 Ghencea Stadium
FC Dinamo 1948 Dinamo Stadium
The National Stadium, Bucharest (Dinamo vs Manchester)
The National Stadium, Bucharest (Dinamo vs Manchester)

The Lia Manoliu Stadium is the largest stadium in Romania (capacity: 60,120). Also there are sport centers, like Dinamo Sports Park and the National Sports Center. Stadionul Regie is a multi-use stadium in Bucharest, Romania. ... Liga II is the name of the Romanian soccer leagues second division. ... Fotbal Club Rapid Bucureşti is a football club of Bucharest, Romania. ... The Giuleşti stadium is a football stadium in Bucharest, Romania, being the home stadium of FC Rapid Bucureşti. ... The Mitropa Cup was one of the first really international major European football cups for club sides. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The Romanian Cup is a football competition, held annually except for 1944–47 and 1957 since 1934. ... FC Progresul Bucureşti is a Romanian football club playing in Liga II. Despite having long resided in the shadow of the three big Bucharest teams (Steaua, Dinamo and Rapid), the club has recently achieved some good results, having thrice finished runners up in the top league (in 1996, 97... Cotroceni Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Bucharest, Romania. ... Liga II is the name of the Romanian soccer leagues second division. ... Current season This article is about the football club. ... Bold tex FORZA STEAUA LUPTA PENTRU A INVINGE ... UEFA Champions League, which replaced the European Champions Cup, is a seasonal club football competition organised by UEFA since 1992 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... The European Super Cup (UEFA Super Cup) is at stake in an annual football game between the reigning champions of the UEFA Cup(formally UEFA Cup Winners Cup) and the Champions League. ... F.C. Dinamo Bucureşti is one of the most famous Romanian football clubs in the country. ... Dinamo Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Bucharest, Romania. ... UEFA Champions League, which replaced the European Champions Cup, is a seasonal club football competition organised by UEFA since 1992 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... UEFA Champions League, which replaced the European Champions Cup, is a seasonal club football competition organised by UEFA since 1992 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 773 KB) Summary Description: The National Stadium in Bucharest, taken at a football match between Dinamo Bucharest and Manchester United on 11 August 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 773 KB) Summary Description: The National Stadium in Bucharest, taken at a football match between Dinamo Bucharest and Manchester United on 11 August 2004. ... Left|The Lia Manoliu Stadium, Bucharest The Lia Manoliu Stadium (Stadionul Lia Manoliu in Romanian) is a multi-use stadium in Bucharest, Romania. ... Left|The Lia Manoliu Stadium, Bucharest The Lia Manoliu Stadium (Stadionul Lia Manoliu in Romanian) is a multi-use stadium in Bucharest, Romania. ...


There are also a number of sport clubs for ice hockey, rugby union, basketball, handball, water polo and volleyball. The majority of Romanian track and field athletes, boxers, and a great number of gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in Bucharest. The Athletics and many Gymnastics National Championships are held in Bucharest, one main reason being the city's extensive sporting infrastructure. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Water polo is a team water sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


Every autumn, Bucharest hosts BCR Open Romania international tennis tournament, which is included in the ATP Tour. Also, the Romanian Davis Cup Team usually plays its matches in Bucharest, either outdoors at the BNR Arena or indoor at the Sala Polivalentă. Ice hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol hall, which holds 8,000 spectators. Banca Comercială Română (Romanian Commercial Bank) is the largest Romanian bank. ... The BCR Open Romania is an ATP tennis tournament taking place September every year in Bucharest, Romania. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ... Sala Polivalentă is a multi-purpose hall in Bucharest, Romania, located in Tineretului Park. ...


For the 2007 season, Bucharest will host a round of the FIA GT Championship at the new Bucharest Ring, on May 20. It is now known as the Bucharest City Challenge[28] The 2007 FIA GT Championship season was the 11th season of FIA GT Championship. ... The FIA GT Championship is a sports car motorsport series organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisations (SRO) at the behest of the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile (FIA). ... The Bucharest Ring (Romanian: Bucharestring) is a street race track in the Romanian capital city of Bucharest. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Portrayal in film and fiction

  • The American novel The Historian by Elizabeth Kostova focuses on Romanian history and the story of Dracula, following one of the main characters who travels to Bucharest and Romania during the 1930s.
  • The British writer Olivia Manning set part of her Fortunes of War novel series in Bucharest during World War II.
  • The American-produced Romanian-language documentary Children Underground (2001) [29] portrays the lives of homeless children in Bucharest.
  • The James Bond video game "Agent Under Fire" features two driving levels through the city of Bucharest.
  • The Romanian-language film Filantropica ("Philanthropy", 2002) [30] gives a satiric portrayal of the city and of many strata of its life.
  • The English-language film The Wild Dogs (2002) [31] gives a more uniformly bleak portrait of the city.
  • The English-dubbed film Entre chiens et loups (2002) [32] features various parts of the city, suburbs & night-spots as a backdrop to a French action movie.
  • Wesley Snipes starred in 7 Seconds (2005), an action flick filmed entirely on location in Bucharest.[33] The film features the city's varied architecture.
  • Historic Communist Bucharest was depicted in Jack Chick's first comic book, "Operation Bucharest", first published in 1974. It is loosely based on a Baptist Ministry called "Couriers For Christ" based there.
  • The film adaptation of the novel Blood and Chocolate was set in Bucharest.
  • The French film 'Ils' (2006) was set in Bucharest, based on real events.[34]
  • The 1991 vampire film Subspecies, which was produced by Full Moon Features, was the first American film to be filmed in Bucharest.[35]
  • An episode of MacGyver ("Humanity"; Season 6, airdate September 24, 1990) took place in Bucharest.
  • Blood and Chocolate a film based on the book by Annette Curtis Clause starring Hugo Dancy and is set in Bucharest.

This article is about the 2005 novel by Elizabeth Kostova. ... Olivia Manning (March 2, 1911 – July 23, 1980) was a British novelist. ... Fortunes of War - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Children Underground is a 2001 documentary film directed by Edet Belzberg. ... Agent Under Fire is a first-person shooter video game based on the James Bond licence. ... Filantropica (alternate spellings Philantropica, Philantropy, Philantropique) is a Romanian comedy made in 2002 by director Nae Caranfil. ... Wesley Trent Snipes (born July 31, 1962) is an American actor, film producer, martial artist. ... Jimmy Akins rendition of Jack Chick. ... This article is about the film. ... Poster art for original Subspecies film Subspecies is a series of Full Moon Pictures horror films that was released in the 1990s. ... Full Moon Features is a motion picture production and distribution company headed by B-movie veteran Charles Band. ... MacGyver is an American adventure television series, produced in the United States and Canada, about the laid-back, extremely resourceful secret agent MacGyver, played by Richard Dean Anderson. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Sister cities

Bucharest has 14 sister cities, including Istanbul, Budapest, London, Moscow, Sofia and the 8 below: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Country City Date
Flag of Canada Canada Montreal [citation needed]
Flag of the People's Republic of China China Beijing 2005
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus Nicosia 2004
Flag of Greece Greece Athens 1993
Flag of Jordan Jordan Amman 1999
Flag of Moldova Republic of Moldova Chişinău
Flag of Turkey Turkey Ankara
Flag of the United States United States Atlanta 1994
Flag of Syria Syria Damascus

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km² (46. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

See also

Bucharest portal

This is a list of native Bucharesters Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Adolf Albin (1848 - 1920) Mircea Albulescu (b. ... A list of prominent buildings in Bucharest, Romania, organized alphabetically within each category. ... Coat of arms The Coat of arms of Bucharest was created during the rule of Domnitor Alexander John Cuza, changed under the Communist regime, and used again, with minor alterations, since 1994. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Population of Romania as of July 11, 2007
  2. ^ Bucharest Travel Guide, Fodors
  3. ^ Bucharest, the small Paris of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site.
  4. ^ Bucica, 2000, p.6.
  5. ^ a b c d e (Romanian) INS, Government of Romania. "Populatia Romaniei scade de la an la an". Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  6. ^ a b (English) XIX Meeting of METREX Network, Nürnberg, 15-18 June 2005. "Bucharest: Few expectations for urban development", page 29 (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  7. ^ PriceWaterhouseCoopers Global Regional Attractiveness Report Romania
  8. ^ http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/List%C4%83_de_cuvinte_dacice
  9. ^ Botanical Garden, onlinegallery.ro. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  10. ^ Weatherbase data for Bucharest.
  11. ^ a b Bucharest Crime Statistics 2000-2004, Bucharest Directorate-General of Police
  12. ^ a b Worldwide Street Children statisticsPDF (20.5 KiB), Hilton Foundation/Council of Europe
  13. ^ a b c d e f g (English) INS, Government of Romania. "Population at the 1948, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and 2002 censuses by municipalities and towns" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  14. ^ http://www.insse.ro/RPL2002INS/vol5/tables/t02.pdf
  15. ^ Open Society Institute's Survey into Religiosity in Romania (Microsoft Word document)
  16. ^ (Romanian) Populaţia şi fenomene demografice pe sectoare administrative ale Municipiului Bucureşti (Population and demographic phenomena by administrative sectors of the Municipality of Bucharest)
  17. ^ Joint Inclusion Memorandum of Romania
  18. ^ GDP per inhabitant in 2005 ranged from 24% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 303% in Inner London (Eurostat, 12 February 2008)
  19. ^ Major economic indicators of Romania in the period 1 January 2005-30 October 2005, National Institute of Statistics of Romania, 9 December 2005 (Romanian)
  20. ^ Toti bucurestenii vor avea dosar fiscal din 2006, Averea, 15 December 2005
  21. ^ a b A new star in the East - Telegraph
  22. ^ Saptamana Financiara | Anchete | Atacul clonelor in taximetria bucuresteana
  23. ^ Governing programme of Adriean Videanu, General Mayor of Bucharest
  24. ^ Rehabilitation of Urban Roads, Phase II, from the site of the General Mayor of Bucharest, Adriean Videanu
  25. ^ „Memorialul Renasterii“, ce oribilitate! ("The Monument of Rebirth - how horrible!"), Săptămâna Financiară, August 2005 (Romanian)
  26. ^ Romanian Athenaeum awarded Label of European Heritage, Romania's Permanent Delegation to NATO
  27. ^ Chinese New Year's Eve celebrated in Bucharest, Bucharest Daily News, 7 February 2005
  28. ^ http://www.fiagt.com/newsitem.php?key=1129/
  29. ^ Children Underground (2001)
  30. ^ Filantropica (2002)
  31. ^ The Wild Dogs (2002)
  32. ^ Entre chiens et loups (2002)
  33. ^ 7 Seconds (2005) (V)
  34. ^ Ils (2006)
  35. ^ Ted Nicolaou (writer/director). (1991). Behind the scenes: Making of Subspecies [DVD]. Full Moon Features.

is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Fodors (pronounced ) is the worlds largest publisher of English language travel and tourism information, and the first relatively professional producer of travel guidebooks. ... The National Institute of Statistics (Romanian: ) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society. ... The Government of Romania (Romanian: Guvernul României) is the executive branch of Romania. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The National Institute of Statistics (Romanian: ) is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national statistics, in fields such as geography, the economy, demographics and society. ... The Government of Romania (Romanian: Guvernul României) is the executive branch of Romania. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Averea (The Wealth in Romanian) is a Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adriean Videanu is the current mayor of Bucharest, Romania. ... Bucharest Daily News is an English-language newspaper operating out of the Romanian capital city, Bucharest. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ted Nicolaou is an American film director, screenwriter and producer. ... Full Moon Features is a motion picture production and distribution company headed by B-movie veteran Charles Band. ...

References

  • Webcam Live in Bucharest
  • Modern history of Bucharest, City Hall of Bucharest
  • Public transport in Bucharest, InYourPocket Bucharest, 2005
  • Şerban Cantacuzino, Două Oraşe Distincte. Revista Secolul XX 4/6 (1997): 11–40
  • Ernie Schoffham, Luminiţa MacHedon, Şerban Cantacuzino, Romanian Modernism: The Architecture of Bucharest, 1920-1940
  • Romania: Arts & Architecture, Romanian Tourist Office
  • Tatiana Murzin, Romanian Education, 2005
  • Romanian Education Portal, Site for the Ministry of Education containing lists of all educational establishments.
  • Overview of Bucharest, Fodor's Travel Guide
  • Bucharest, the small Paris of the East, on the Museums from Romania web site.
  • Bucica, Cristina. Legitimating Power in Capital Cities: Bucharest - Continuity Through Radical Change?PDF (39.0 KiB), 2000.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links

Find more about Bucharest on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Bucharest is at coordinates 44°25′00″N 26°06′00″E / 44.4167, 26.1 (Bucharest)Coordinates: 44°25′00″N 26°06′00″E / 44.4167, 26.1 (Bucharest)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Official sites

  • Bucharest: Official administration site
  • The Bucharest Prefecture
  • RATB (Public Transport Company) official website
  • Metrorex (Underground Transport Company) official website
  • Bucharest Airport Henri Coanda
  • Bucharest Airport Aurel Vlaicu
  • (National Railway Company) official website
  • (Railway Passenger Transport) official website
  • (Romania Bus Passenger) official website
  • City of Bucharest

City guides

  • Bucharest travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Bucharest Interactive map

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Other

  • Bucharest between the World Wars: A modernity with fringes, exhibition by the Centre of Excellence in Image Studies (CESI), of the University of Bucharest.
  • Bucureştii - un oraş fară istorie ... ??!! / Bucurestiul - inainte de ... ("Bucharest - a city without history ... ??!! / Bucharest - before ..."). Extensive collection of historical photos and drawings.
  • Article on Building in Bucharest: The city where anything goes, From 'The Diplomat - Bucharest' magazine
  • A red's white elephant 2005 National Review article by Anthony Daniels
  • [1] Views from Bucharest
  • Bucharest trolleybus


Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ...

Coat of arms of Bucharest Sectors of Bucharest Coat of arms of Bucharest
Sector 1 | Sector 2 | Sector 3 | Sector 4 | Sector 5 | Sector 6

Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Carpe diem: Bucharest (1652 words)
The population of Bucharest was of a quarter of the one of Paris.
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Bucharest - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6787 words)
Bucharest is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei forest, which, after it was cleared, gave way to a fertile flatland.
The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov county, forms the Bucharest development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development.
Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first in the late 19th century, when the city grew in importance and size, and the second during the Communist period, when a massive urbanisation campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas to the capital.
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