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Encyclopedia > Brythonic languages
Brythonic
Brittonic
Geographic
distribution:
England and Wales and France
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Brythonic
Subdivisions:
Pictish (possibly)

The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. The name Brythonic is derived from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. The Brythonic branch is also referred to as P-Celtic because the Brythonic reflex of the Proto-Indo-European phoneme *kw is p as opposed to the Goidelic c. Such nomenclature usually implies an acceptance of the P-Celtic hypothesis rather than the Insular Celtic hypothesis (for a discussion, see Celtic languages). Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Breton, Cornish and Welsh. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language centred in Cumbria, and spoken from southern lowland Scotland south as far as Greater Manchester, i. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Breton, Cornish and Welsh. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of the most of the island of Great Britain, and their culture and language, the Brythonic languages. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of the most of the island of Great Britain, and their culture and language, the Brythonic languages. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ...


The major Brythonic languages are Welsh and Breton, both of which survive as community languages today. The Cornish language died out at the end of the eighteenth century, but attempts at reviving it started in the 20th century and are ongoing. Also notable are the extinct language Cumbric, and possibly the extinct Pictish (although the late Kenneth H. Jackson argued during the 1950s, from some of the few remaining examples of Pictish, that Pictish was a non-Indo-European language, the majority of modern scholars of Pictish do not agree). Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language centred in Cumbria, and spoken from southern lowland Scotland south as far as Greater Manchester, i. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson was a linguist and phonologist and a translator who specialized in the Brythonic languages. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ...

Contents


Classification

The family tree of the Brythonic languages is as follows:

The Pictish Strathpeffer eagle stone, Highland, Scotland. ... Ivernic is an extinct Brythonic language that was spoken in Ireland, particularly in Munster. ... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Southwestern Brythonic is one of two dialects into which the Brythonic language split following the Battle of Deorham in 577 CE; the other being Western Brythonic, which later evolved into Welsh and Cumbric. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ...

History and origins

The modern Brythonic languages all derive from a common ancestral language termed British, Common Brythonic, Old Brythonic or Proto-Brythonic, which is thought to have developed from Proto-Celtic, which was introduced to Great Britain from the middle second millennium BC (Hawkes, 1973). Brythonic languages were then spoken at least in the whole of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, presumably also including the Isle of Man. The theory has been advanced (notably by R. F. O'Rahilly) that Ireland was populated by speakers of Brythonic before being displaced by speakers of a Q-Celtic language (possibly from the Quarietii tribe of southern France), although the linguists Dillon and Chadwick reject this theory as being implausible. Proto-Celtic, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... The River Clyde, looking eastwards upstream, as it passes beneath the Kingston Bridge in Central Glasgow. ...


During the period of the Roman occupation of Great Britain (AD 43 to c. 410), Common Brythonic borrowed a large stock of Latin words, both for concepts unfamiliar in the pre-urban society of Celtic Great Britain, such as urbanisation and tactics of warfare, and for rather more mundane words which displaced native terms (most notably, the word for "fish" in all the Brythonic languages derives from the Latin piscis rather the native *ēskos). Approximately eight hundred of these Latin loan-words have survived in the three modern Brythonic languages. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


It is probable that during this period Common Brythonic was differentiated into at least two major dialect groups - Southwestern and Western (in addition we may posit additional dialects spoken in what is now England which have left little or no evidence). Between the end of the Roman occupation and the mid sixth century the two dialects began to diverge into recognisably separate languages, the Western into Cumbric and Welsh and the Southwestern into Cornish and its closely related sister language Breton, which was carried from the south of Great Britain to continental Armorica by refugees fleeing the Saxon invaders. The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton, the extinct Cumbric and perhaps the hypothetical Ivernic. ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ...


The Brythonic languages spoken in Scotland, the Isle of Man and England began to be displaced in the 5th century through the influence of Irish, Norse and Germanic invaders. The displacement of the languages of Brythonic descent was probably complete in all of this territory (except Cornwall) by the 11th century (date of extinction in various parts of the territory is debated). Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England. ...


Remnants in England and Scotland

The principal legacy left behind in those territories from which the Brythonic languages were displaced is that of toponyms. Many of the place-names in England and to a lesser extent Scotland are derived (sometimes indirectly) from the Brythonic names, including London, Penicuik, Perth, York, Dorchester, Dover and Colchester. Several place-name elements are thought to be wholly or partly Brythonic in origin, particularly bre-, bal-, and -dun for hills, carr for a high rocky place, coomb for a small deep valley. Others reflect the presence of Brythons, such as Dumbarton - from the Scottish Gaelic Dùn Breatann meaning "Fort of the Britons". London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom, and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... Penicuik is a burgh in Midlothian, Scotland, lying on the west bank of the River North Esk. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... OS Grid Reference: SY690906 Lat/Lon: Population: 16,171 (2001 Census) Dwellings: 7,386 (2001 Census) Formal status: County town Administration County: Dorset Region: South West Nation: England Post Office and Telephone Post town: Dorchester Postcode: DT1 Dialling Code: 01305 Dorchester Dorchester is a market town in southern central Dorset... Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A carr is a north European wetland, a fen overgrown with trees. ... Coomb may refer to: Coomb, a rare Celtic Brythonic survival word; meaning a small deep dry valley, easily defended. ... Dumbarton (Dùn Breatainn in Scottish Gaelic) is a burgh in Scotland, lying on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Until recently it was believed that the areas settled by the Anglo-Saxons were uninhabited at the time or that the Britons had fled before their arrival. However, genetic studies show that the British were not pushed out to the Celtic fringes – many tribes remained in what was to become England.[1] These findings strengthen the research of Steven Bassett of the University of Birmingham; his work during the 1990s suggests that much of the West Midlands was only very lightly colonised with Anglian and Saxon settlements. The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... The University of Birmingham is an English university in the city of Birmingham. ... The West Midlands is a geographical term describing the western half of central England, known as the Midlands. ...


It is generally accepted that linguistic effects on English were lexically rather poor aside from toponyms, consisting of a few domestic words, which may include hubbub, peat, bucket, crock, noggin, gob (c.f. Gaelic gob), nook; and the dialectal term for a badger, i.e. brock (c.f. Welsh broch, and Gaelic Broc). Arguably, the use of periphrastic constructions in the English verb (which is more widespread than in the other Germanic languages) is traceable to Brythonic influence. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A bucket with a handle (grip) and spout. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...


Some researchers argue that English syntax reflects more extensive Brythonic influences. For instance, in English tag questions, the form of the tag depends on the verb form in the main statement (aren't I?, isn't he?, won't we? etc). The German nicht wahr? and the French n'est ce pas?, by contrast, are fixed forms which can be used with almost any main statement. It has been claimed that the English system has been borrowed from Brythonic, since Welsh tag questions vary in almost exactly the same way. This view is far from being generally accepted, though, since it is equally possible that the Welsh construction is borrowed from English. Tag questions are a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the tag). Examples: Hand me that thing, could you? Go to the store, will you? Tag questions are common in politeness. ...


Far more notable, but less well known, are the many Brythonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. Like English, periphrastic constructions have come to the fore, but to a much greater degree. Some important borrowings into Gaidhlig include Beinn meaning mountain, and anglicised "Ben", probably from the Brythonic pen meaning "Head". Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


References

  1. ^ Capelli, Cristian, Nicola Redhead, Julia K. Abernethy, Fiona Gratrix, James F. Wilson, Torolf Moen, Tor Hervig, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf, Peter A. Underhill, Paul Bradshaw, Alom Shaha, Mark G. Thomas, Neal Bradman, and David B. Goldstein (2003). "A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles". Current Biology 13 (11): 979-984. Retrieved on 2005-12-09.
  • The Celtic Roots of English edited by Markku Filppula, Juhani Klemola and Heli Pitkänen, by Joensuu University.

2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Ethnologue report for Brythonic languages

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brythonic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (927 words)
Brythonic languages were then spoken at least in the whole of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, presumably also including the Isle of Man.
The Brythonic languages spoken in Scotland, the Isle of Man and England began to be displaced in the 5th century through the influence of Irish, Norse and Germanic invaders.
The displacement of the languages of Brythonic descent was probably complete in all of this territory (except Cornwall) by the 11th century (date of extinction in various parts of the territory is debated).
Celtic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1060 words)
The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic", a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Today, Celtic languages are now limited to a few areas in the British Isles, eastern Canada, Patagonia, scattered groups in the United States and Australia, and on the peninsula of Brittany in France.
Within the Indo-European family, the Celtic languages have sometimes been placed with the Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic communities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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