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Encyclopedia > Brutalist architecture

Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. The early style was inspired largely by the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, and in particular his Unité d'Habitation (1952) and the 1953 Secretariat Building in Chandigarh, India. Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Unite dHabitation, Marseille The Unité dHabitation (French, literally, Housing Unit) is the name of a modernist residential housing design principle developed by Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris), which formed the basis of numerous housing developments designed by Le Corbusier throughout Europe with this name. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ...


The term Brutalist Architecture originates from the French béton brut, or "raw concrete", a term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material. In 1954, the English architects Alison and Peter Smithson coined the term, but it gained currency when the British architectural critic Reyner Banham used it in the title of his 1954 book, "New Brutalism", to identify the emerging style.[1] Attempts have been made to refine the style but buildings and other structures are largely considered ugly and cold in the twenty-first century. Béton brut (French: raw concrete), is concrete left unfinished or roughly-finished after pouring and left exposed visually in architecture. ... English architects Alison Smithson (1928-1993) and Peter Smithson (18 September 1923-3 March 2003) together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the Brutalist style. ... Reyner Banham (1922-1988) was a prolific Anglo-American architectural critic and writer best known for his 1960 theoretical treatise Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, and his 1971 book Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies in which he categorized the Angelean experience into four ecological models...


Brutalist buildings usually are formed with striking repetitive angular geometries, and often revealing the textures of the wooden forms used to shape the material, which is normally rough, unadorned poured concrete. Not all Brutalist buildings are formed from concrete. Instead, a building may achieve its Brutalist quality through a rough, blocky appearance, and the expression of its structural materials, forms, and services on its exterior. Many of Alison and Peter Smithson's private houses are built from brick. Brutalist building materials may include brick, glass, steel, rough-hewn stone, and gabion (also known as trapion). This article is about the construction material. ... English architects Alison Smithson (1928-1993) and Peter Smithson (18 September 1923-3 March 2003) together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the Brutalist style. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ...


Brutalism as an architectural style also was associated with a social utopian ideology, which tended to be supported by its designers, especially Alison and Peter Smithson, near the height of the style. The failure of positive communities to form early on in some Brutalist structures, possibly due to the larger processes of urban decay that set in after World War II (especially in the United Kingdom), led to the combined unpopularity of both the ideology and the architectural style. See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... English architects Alison Smithson (1928-1993) and Peter Smithson (18 September 1923-3 March 2003) together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the Brutalist style. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Style

Boston City Hall, part of Government Center, Boston, Massachusetts(Gerhardt Kallmann and N. Michael McKinnell, 1969)
Boston City Hall, part of Government Center, Boston, Massachusetts
(Gerhardt Kallmann and N. Michael McKinnell, 1969)

Brutalism is related to and similar to (and often confused with) the modernist, minimalist, and internationalist styles of architecture. All of these styles make heavy use of repetition and regularity in their features, but Brutalist designs also often incorporate striking, blatant irregularities as well. Boston City Hall, Boston, Massachusetts Source: Library of Congress Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey Origin: National Park Service URL: http://memory. ... Boston City Hall, Boston, Massachusetts Source: Library of Congress Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey Origin: National Park Service URL: http://memory. ... Boston City Hall during the 2004 rally for the New England Patriots. ... Government Center circa 2000 Government Center is a city square and plaza in Boston, Massachusetts, bounded by Cambridge, Court, Congress, and Sudbury Streets. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1927) The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, Germany (1930) The International style was a major architectural trend of the 1920s and 1930s. ... Look up Repetition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another common theme in Brutalist designs is the exposition of the building's functions—ranging from their structure and services to their human use—in the exterior of the building. In other words, the Brutalist style is "the celebration of concrete." In the Boston City Hall (illustration left), designed in 1962, strikingly different and projected portions of the building indicate the special nature of the rooms behind those walls, such as the mayor's office or the city council chambers. From another perspective of this theme, the design of the Hunstanton School included placing the facility's water tank, normally a hidden service feature, in a prominently placed and visible tower. Boston City Hall during the 2004 rally for the New England Patriots. ... Smithdon High School (formerly known as Hunstanton Secondary Modern School) is a comprehensive school in Hunstanton, Norfolk. ...


Critics argue that this abstract nature of Brutalism makes the style unfriendly and uncommunicative, instead of being integrating and protective, as its proponents intended. For example, the location of the entrance of a Brutalist structure is rarely obvious to the visitor.


Brutalism also is criticised as disregarding the social, historic, and architectural environment of its surroundings, making the introduction of such structures in existing developed areas appear very stark, out of place, and alien.


History

Park Hill (detail), Sheffield. Lynn, Smith 1961
Park Hill (detail), Sheffield. Lynn, Smith 1961

Brutalism gained large momentum in Great Britain during the middle twentieth century, as economically depressed (and World War II-ravaged) communities sought inexpensive construction and design methods for low-cost housing, shopping centres, and government buildings. Nonetheless, many architects chose the Brutalist style even when they had large budgets, as they appreciated the 'honesty', the sculptural qualities, and perhaps, the uncompromising, anti-bourgeois, nature of the style. It has been suggested that the style was based subconsciously on the austere German gun turrets left littered along beaches after World War II. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1670 KB) Summary Close-up of exterior of flats at Park Hill, Sheffield. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1670 KB) Summary Close-up of exterior of flats at Park Hill, Sheffield. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Combined with the socially progressive intentions behind Brutalist "streets in the sky" housings such as Corbusier's Unité, Brutalism was promoted as a positive option for forward-moving, modern urban housing. In practice, however, many of the buildings built in this style lacked many of the community-serving features of Corbusier's vision, and instead, developed into claustrophobic, crime-ridden tenements. Robin Hood Gardens is a particularly notorious example. Some such buildings took decades to develop into positive communities. The rough coolness of concrete lost its appeal under a damp and gray northern sky, and its fortress-like material touted as vandal-proof soon proved vulnerable to spray-can graffiti. This article is about Progressivism. ... Robin Hood Gardens Robin Hood Gardens is a housing complex in Poplar, London designed in the late 1960s by architects Alison and Peter Smithson and completed in 1972. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ...


Campus Brutalism

Ryerson University Library in downtown Toronto Canada.

In the late 1960s, many campuses in North America were undergoing expansions and, as a result, there are a significant number of Brutalist buildings at U.S. and Canadian universities. These include the very early Yale Art and Architecture Building (1958) by Paul Rudolph; the campus of the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dartmouth, Massachusetts (Paul Rudolph,); numerous buildings such as the Geisel Library at UCSD; Belson Hall/Finley Hall at St. John's University School of Law; the Albert C. Jacobs Life Sciences Center at Trinity College; the Math and Computer Science Building at the University of Waterloo, Wesley W. Posvar Hall, a classroom and administrative building for the University of Pittsburgh; Lovett College at Rice University (1968); the Health Sciences Center at Stony Brook University; the Stratton Student Center of MIT (1964) by Eduardo Catalano; The Humanities Building at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Founder's Memorial Library at Northern Illinois University; The Law Tower of the Law School of Boston University; Funger Hall at The George Washington University, The Charles Odegaard Library of the University of Washington, Seattle: Uris Hall (1972), at Cornell University, by Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, who also designed several buildings in that manner for the University of Texas, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library (1971), as well as the Regenstein Library at the University of Chicago; and several of the early-1960s buildings at Ithaca College, including Friends Hall, Muller Faculty Center, and the East and West Tower residence halls. Southern Illinois University in Carbondale Illinois is home of the Faner building (1974) Design was such that it is said to be riot proof. This design element was created due to riots which occurred on the campus during the era. The campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago (1965) is primarily brutalistic in its buildings, including University Hall, Richard J. Daley Library and Student Center East. There is also a fair number of buildings at the University of Memphis from the late 1960s to early 1970s that use a combination of brick and brutalist-style architecture. One example was the former U of M "University Center" from 1971, which has since been demolished due to structural problems. Mission College, a JC in Santa Clara, California, was originally built on a Brutalistic masterplan, though only the main hub was executed in the intended idiom. Excellent examples outside of the U.S. include McLennan Library, Burnside Hall and the Stephen Leacock building at McGill University in Montreal, the South Building at University of Toronto at Mississauga, Robarts Library at the University of Toronto, significant parts of York University in Toronto, Rand Afrikaans University (1967) in Johannesburg, South Africa and Churchill College, Cambridge (1962-8) and Dunelm House, University of Durham (1965), both in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 945 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 945 pixel, file size: 120 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Ryerson University is a public university located in downtown Toronto, Canada. ... The Yale Art and Architecture Building as seen from the rooftop of an adjacent building The Yale Art and Architecture Building is one of the best known examples of Brutalist Architecture in the United States. ... Paul Rudolph (October 23, 1918 Elkton, Kentucky – August 8, 1997 New York City), American architect and Dean of the Architecture Department at Yale University. ... The University of Massachusetts Dartmouth is a multi-college university, part of the state wide university system of the University of Massachusetts, located in North Dartmouth, Massachusetts, not to be confused with Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. ... UCSDs distinctive Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and featured in UCSDs logo. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD) is a public, coeducational university located in La Jolla, California. ... St. ... Trinity College is a private liberal arts college in Hartford, Connecticut. ... The University of Waterloo (also referred to as UW, UWaterloo, or Waterloo) is a medium-sized research-intensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ... William W. Posvar Hall at the University of Pitttsburgh Wesley W. Posvar Hall is a classroom and administrative building located on the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Edgar Odell Lovett College is the seventh of the nine residential colleges at Rice University in Houston, Texas. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNYSB), also known as Stony Brook University (SBU) is a public research university located in Stony Brook, New York (on the north side of Long Island, about 55 miles east of Manhattan, New York). ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Floralis generica, a big moving sculpture by Eduardo Catalano intended to be an icon of Buenos Aires Eduardo Catalano is an Argentinian architect who practiced architecture from the mid 1900s until 1995. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Northern Illinois University is a public university located in DeKalb, Illinois. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ... Charles E. Odegaard (Born on January 10, 1911 in Chicago Heights, Illinois. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a major public research university in the Seattle metropolitan area. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... The architectural firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John Merrill. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ... Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum in Austin, Texas. ... The Joseph M. Regenstein Library is the main library of the University of Chicago, named after industrialist and philanthropist Joseph Regenstein. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Ithaca College is a private institution of higher education located on the South Hill of Ithaca, New York. ... This article is about the University of Illinois at Chicago. ... University Hall is a 8,457-seat multi-purpose arena in Charlottesville, Virginia. ... The University of Memphis is a public American research university located in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, and is the flagship public research university of the Tennessee Board of Regents system. ... Mission College community college located in Santa Clara, California. ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... UTM Campus - South Building The University of Toronto at Mississauga (UTM), known as Erindale College until 2002, is a campus of the University of Toronto, with an enrollment of approximately 8,500 students. ... The southeast corner of Robarts Library Rear corner of Robarts Library Looking up the side of the Library Lightvector painting of Robarts Library, showing the ambient sky vector blue and the ambient vector of electric lights in yellow. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... York University (French: Université York), located in Toronto, Ontario, is Canadas third-largest university and has produced several of the countrys top leaders in the fields of law, politics, business, space sciences, and fine arts. ... Rand Afrikaans University (RAU) was founded as an Afrikaans language university in 1967 with just over 700 registered students. ... College name Churchill College Motto Forward Named after Sir Winston Churchill Established 1960 Location Storey’s Way Admittance Men and women Master Sir David Wallace Undergraduates 440 Graduates 210 Sister college Trinity College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Churchill College Main Entrance Churchill College is one of the constituent... The Durham Students Union is a body, set up as the Durham Colleges Students’ Representative Council in 1899 and renamed in 1969, with the intention of representing and providing welfare and services for the students of the University of Durham in Durham, England. ... Durham University is a university in England. ...

The Math and Computer Science Building at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
The Math and Computer Science Building at the University of Waterloo in Canada.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 318 KB) The Waterloo math building, nicknamed the MC. Taken by User:CryptoDerk on September, 21, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 318 KB) The Waterloo math building, nicknamed the MC. Taken by User:CryptoDerk on September, 21, 2004. ... The University of Waterloo (also referred to as UW, UWaterloo, or Waterloo) is a medium-sized research-intensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ...

Criticism and reception

Brutalism has some severe critics, one of the most famous being Charles, Prince of Wales, whose speeches and writings on architecture have excoriated Brutalism, calling many of the structures "piles of concrete". "You have, ladies and gentlemen, to give this much to the Luftwaffe", he said in 1984, addressing the Royal Institute of British Architects, "when it knocked down our buildings, it didn't replace them with anything more offensive than rubble." Much of the criticism comes not only from the designs of the buildings, but also from the fact that concrete facades don't age well in a damp, cloudy maritime climate such as that of northwestern Europe, becoming streaked with water stains and sometimes, even with moss and lichens. “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects in the United Kingdom. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ...


At the University of Oregon campus, outrage and vocal distaste for Brutalism led, in part, to the hiring of Christopher Alexander and the initiation of The Oregon Experiment in the late 1970s. This led to the development of Alexander's A Pattern Language and A Timeless Way of Building. The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... Christopher Alexander (born October 4, 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is an architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. ... The Oregon Experiment is a 1975 book by Christopher Alexander and collaborators Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, and Denny Abrams. ... A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction is a 1977 book on architecture. ... The Timeless Way of Building is a book that ties life and architecture together, written by Christopher Alexander. ...


The current Fodor's guide to London mentions the former Home Office building at 50 Queen Anne's Gate as "hulking."[cite this quote] Because the style is essentially that of poured concrete, it tends to be inexpensive to build and maintain, but very difficult to modify. In the case of Trellick Tower, however, the design ultimately has proved very popular with both tenants and owner-occupant residents. In time, many Brutalist structures do become appreciated as landmarks by their communities for their uniqueness and eye-catching appearance. Fodors (pronounced ) is the worlds largest publisher of English language travel and tourism information, and the first relatively professional producer of travel guidebooks. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... 50 Queen Annes Gate 50 Queen Annes Gate is an office block in Westminster, London, overlooking St Jamess Park, which was the main location for the UK Home Office department betweeen 1978 and 2004. ... The Trellick Tower, seen from Golborne Road. ...


In recent years, the bad memories of under-served Brutalist community structures have led to their demolition in communities eager to make way for newer, more traditionally-oriented community structures. Despite a nascent modernist appreciation movement, and the identified success that some of this style's offspring have had, many others have been or are, slated to be demolished. For other uses, see Demolition (disambiguation). ...


The architecture column of Private Eye, "Nooks and Corners", began life as "Nooks and Corners of the New Barbarism", with "new Barbarism" clearly intended as a reference to "new Brutalism".[citation needed] The column sometimes is skeptical about modern architecture in general, but over the course of some four decades, has been uniformly, vehemently, critical of Brutalism, especially in government-sponsored projects.[citation needed] Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio...


Resurgence

Although the Brutalist movement was largely dead by the mid-1980s, having largely given way to Structural Expressionism and Deconstructivism, it has experienced an updating of sorts in recent years. Many of the rougher aspects of the style have been softened in newer buildings, with concrete facades often being sandblasted to create a stone-like surface, covered in stucco, or composed of patterned, pre-cast elements. Many modernist architects such as Steven Ehrlich, Ricardo Legorreta, and Gin Wong have been doing just that in many of their recent projects. The firm of Victor Gruen and Associates has revamped the style for the many courthouse buildings it has been contracted to design. Architects from Latin America have been reviving the style on a smaller scale in recent years. Brutalism has recently experienced a major revival in Israel, due to the perceived sense of strength and security the style creates. With the development of LiTraCon—a form of translucent concrete—a new Brutalist movement may be on the horizon. Structural Expressionism is a style of modernist architecture in which the core structural elements of the building are expressed in the buildings appearance. ... Libeskinds Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes. ... Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Ricardo Legorreta Vilchis is a Mexican architect. ... Victor Gruen was an Austrian-born commercial architect who emigrated to the United States. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... LiTraCon (light transmitting concrete) is a translucent concrete product. ...


Even in Britain, where the style was most prevalent, and later most reviled, a number of buildings recently (as of 2006) have appeared in an updated Brutalist style, including deRijke Marsh Morgan's 1 Centaur Street in Lambeth, London, and Elder & Cannon's The Icon in Glasgow in Scotland. The 2005 Stirling Prize shortlist contained a number of buildings (most notably Zaha Hadid's BMW factory and the eventual winner, Enric Miralles' Scottish Parliament Building) featuring significant amounts of exposed concrete, something that would have been regarded as aesthetically unacceptable when the prize was inaugurated nine years previously. There also has been a reappraisal of first-generation Brutalist architecture and a growing appreciation that dislike of the buildings often stems from poor maintenance and social problems resulting from poor management, rather than the designs. In 2005 the British television channel Channel 4, ran a documentary, I Love Carbuncles which placed the U.K.'s Brutalist legacy in a more positive light. Some Brutalist buildings have been granted listed status as historic and others, such as Gillespie, Kidd and Coia's St. Peter's Seminary, named by Prospect magazine's survey of architects as Scotland's greatest post-war building, have been the subject of conservation campaigns. The Twentieth Century Society (headed, ironically, by Gavin Stamp, also known as "Nooks & Corners" columnist 'Piloti') has campaigned against the demolition of buildings such as the Tricorn Centre and Trinity Centre Multi-Storey Car Park. Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... 30 St Mary Axe (London, England). ... Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Maggies Centre, Kirkcaldy Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Miralles Santa Caterina Market Enric Miralles (1955 - July 3, 2000) was a Catalan architect. ... The new Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood designed by the Catalan architect Enric Miralles and opened in October 2004. ... This article is about the British television station. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ... Gillespie, Kidd & Coia were a Scottish architectural firm famous for their application of modernism in churches and universities, as well as at St Peters Seminary in Cardross. ... Main chapel at St Peters Seminary St. ... Not to be confused with Prospect (magazine), which specialises in current affairs Prospect is a quarterly architecture magazine published is Scotland and North West England. ... The Tricorn Centre was a famed Brutalist shopping centre, apartment complex, nightclub and car park complex in Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom; designed by Owen Luder it was home to the one of the first Virgin Megastores. ... Trinity Centre Multi-Storey Car Park is an iconic concrete structure in Gateshead. ...


Figures

Architects associated with the Brutalist style include Ernő Goldfinger, husband-and-wife pairing Alison and Peter Smithson, and, to a lesser extent perhaps, Sir Denys Lasdun. Outside of Britain, Louis Kahn's government buildings in Asia and John Andrews's government and institutional structures in Australia exhibit the creative height of the style. Paul Rudolph is another noted Brutalist, as is Ralph Rapson both from the United States. Marcel Breuer was known for his "soft" approach to the style, often using curves rather than corners. More recent Modernists such as I.M. Pei and Tadao Ando also have designed notable Brutalist works. In South America, the style is evident in the works of Pritzker Architecture Prize-winning Brazilian architects Oscar Niemeyer (1998) and Paulo Mendes da Rocha (2006). ErnÅ‘ Goldfinger (November 11, 1902 - November 15, 1987) was a Hungarian born architect and designer of furniture, and a key member of the architectural Modern Movement after he had moved to the United Kingdom. ... English architects Alison Smithson (1928-1993) and Peter Smithson (18 September 1923-3 March 2003) together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the Brutalist style. ... Sir Denys Lasdun (8 September 1914-11 January 2001) was an eminent English architect of the 20th century, particularly associated with the Modernist design of the Royal National Theatre on Londons South Bank of the River Thames. ... Salk Institute, La Jolla, California Louis Isadore Kahn (February 20, 1901/1902 – March 17, 1974) was a world-renowned architect who practiced in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Rev. ... Paul Rudolph (October 23, 1918 Elkton, Kentucky – August 8, 1997 New York City), American architect and Dean of the Architecture Department at Yale University. ... Ralph Rapson (born September 13, 1914) is a modernist architect born in Alma, Michigan. ... Marcel Breuer Marcel Lajos Breuer (May 21, 1902 Pécs, Hungary – July 1, 1981 New York City), architect and furniture designer, was an influential modernist. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (貝聿銘 pinyin Bèi Yùmíng) is a Chinese American architect born in Suzhou, China on April 26, 1917. ... The famous Church of the Light in Ibaraki-shi, Osaka, Japan The Westin Awaji Island designed by Ando Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Art, Kobe, Japan Image:Ando. ... The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually to honor a living architect by the Hyatt Foundation, run by the Pritzker family. ... Oscar Niemeyer Oscar Niemeyer Soares Filho (born December 15, 1907) is a Brazilian architect who is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. ... Paulo Mendes da Rocha (1928 - ) is a Brazilian architect. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Romy Golan, Historian of the Immediate Future: Reyner Banham - Book Review, The Art Bulletin, June 2003. Accessed online at FindArticles 23 October 2006.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Golan 2003, p.3.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flickr: Brutalist Architecture - béton (concrete) brut (424 words)
Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the Modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Brutalist buildings are usually formed with striking blockish, geometric, and repetitive shapes, and often revealing the textures of the wooden forms used to shape the material, which is normally rough, unadorned poured concrete.
In other words, Brutalist style is "the celebration of concrete." In the Boston City Hall (illustration left), strikingly different and projected portions of the building indicate the special nature of the rooms behind those walls, such as the mayor's office or the city council chambers.
Brutalist architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1919 words)
Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Brutalist buildings are usually formed with striking blockish, geometric, and repetitive shapes, and often revealing the textures of the wooden forms used to shape the material, which is normally rough, unadorned poured concrete.
Brutalism as an architectural style was also associated with a social utopian ideology which tended to be supported by its designers, especially Alison and Peter Smithson, near the height of the style.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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