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Encyclopedia > Brussels
Brussels
Bruxelles (French)
Brussel (Dutch)
The Grand Place / Grote Markt
The Grand Place / Grote Markt
Coat of arms of Brussels
Coat of arms
Nickname: Europe's capital, Comic City [1]
Location of Brussels in Belgium and the EU
Coordinates: 50°50′48″N 4°21′9″E / 50.84667, 4.3525
Country Belgium
Founded 979
Founded (Region) June 18, 1989
Government
 - Municipality Mayor Freddy Thielemans
Area
 - Region 161.0 km² (62.2 sq mi)
 - Municipality 32.6 km² (12.6 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Region 1,067,162
 - Density 6,601/km² (16,391/sq mi)
 - Metro 1,350,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website:
www.brussels.irisnet.be (region)
www.brucity.be (municipality)

Brussels (French: Bruxelles, pronounced [bʁysɛl]; Dutch: Brussel, pronounced [ˈbrɵsəɫ]) is the largest city in Belgium, and the administrative heart of the European Union (EU). The City of Brussels in the Brussels-Capital Region is the country's capital.[2] Brussels has grown from a 10th century fortress town founded by Charlemagne's grandson into a city of over one million inhabitants[3][4]. The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Brussels is: the capital of Belgium, and a metonym to refer to the European Union institutions, such as the European Commission whose headquarters is in Brussels, Belgium the name of two places in the United States: Brussels, Illinois Brussels, Wisconsin the name of a community in Ontario, Canada, see Brussels... A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... This is a list of the mayors of the City of Brussels. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ...


Brussels is also capital of the Brussels-Capital Region, of Flanders and of the French Community of Belgium. It is not, however, the capital of the Walloon Region (Wallonia), whose capital is Namur. The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The French Community area of Belgium The French Community of Belgium (French: , Dutch: , German: ) is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. ... National motto: Walon todi ! (Walloon forever!) Official languages French, German Capital Namur Minister-President Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe Area  - Total 16,844 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 3,358,560 inhabitants 199. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Namur (Nameûr in Walloon, Namen in Dutch) is a city and municipality, capital of the province of Namur and of the region of Wallonia in southern Belgium. ...


Depending on the context, the word Brussels may mean the largest municipality of the Brussels-Capital Region officially called the City of Brussels (ca. 140,000 inhabitants), the Brussels-Capital Region (1,067,162 inhabitants as of 1 February 2008) or, the metropolitan area of Brussels (ca. 1,350,000 inhabitants[5]). The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into 19 municipalities: Seven municipalities have only one official name which are usable in Dutch and French although the name is Ducth; the other twelve officially have both a Dutch and a French name. ... Flag of The City of Brussels The City of Brussels (French: Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles, Dutch: Stad Brussel) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Brussels is often considered the de facto capital of the European Union, and hosts key EU institutions such as the Commission, Parliament and the Council. Hence, many other pan-European organisations are also headquartered in the city. NATO is also based in Brussels. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Brussels comes from the old Dutch Bruocsella, which means marsh (bruoc) and home (sella) or "home in the marsh".


History

Middle Ages

The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.[6] The Senne (French) or Zenne (Dutch) is a small river that flows through Brussels. ...


The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, because Duke Charles transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel in Brussels, located on what would be called Saint Gaugericus Island. The Holy Roman Emperor Otto II gave the duchy of Lower Lotharingia to Charles, the banished son of King Louis IV of France in 977, who would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Charles of Lotharingia (953-993) was the son of King Louis IV of France and Gerberga. ... Map of Brussels in 1837. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... Otto II and Theophano. ... Lower Lotharingia was a duchy created out of the former Carolingian Kingdom of Lotharingia. ... Charles of Lotharingia (953-993) was the son of King Louis IV of France and Gerberga. ... Louis IV dOutremer: King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty. ...

1555 map of the city
1555 map of the city

The county of Brussels was attributed to Lambert I of Leuven, count of Leuven around 1000. In 1047, his son Lambert II of Leuven founded the Saint Gudula chapter. Lambert I of Leuven (born in Leuven, Belgium c950, died in Florennes, Belgium Sept 9, 1015) was the first Count of Leuven. ... Counts of Leuven and Brussels: Lambert I of Leuven (+ September 12, 1015). ...


Because of its location on the shores of the Senne on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, and Cologne, Brussels grew quite quickly; it became a commercial centre that rapidly extended towards the upper town (St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral, Coudenberg, Zavel area...), where there was a smaller risk of floods. As it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time (1183/1184). In the 11th century, the city got its first walls.[7] The Senne (French) or Zenne (Dutch) is a small river that flows through Brussels. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... St. ... The palace and gardens of Coudenberg in 1659 Coudenberg (older Dutch for cold hill) is a small hill in Brussels where the Palace of Coudenberg was built. ... Coat of arms of Dukes of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. ...


After the construction of the first walls of Brussels in the early 13th century, Brussels grew significantly. In order to let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the "small ring", a series of roadways in downtown Brussels bounding the historic city centre, follows its former course. Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of Raška Stefan Dušan is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The small ring of Brussels (French: , Dutch: ) is series of roadways in downtown Brussels surrounding the historic city centre. ...


In the fifteenth century, by means of the wedding of heiress Margaret III of Flanders with Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, a new Duke of Brabant emerged from the House of Valois (namely Antoine, their son), with another line of descent from the Habsburgs (Maximilian of Austria, later Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, married Mary of Burgundy, who was born in Brussels). Margaret of Dampierre (1350-1405) was countess of Flanders and twice Duchess of Burgundy. ... Philip II, Duke of Burgundy Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, known as the Bold (Philippe II de Bourgogne, le Hardi in French) (January 15, 1342, Pontoise – April 27, 1404, Halle), was the fourth son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne (Judith), daughter of the king and... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Antoine of Burgundy (August 1384 – October 25, 1415, in the battle of Agincourt), was Duke of Brabant and Limburg and Margrave of Antwerp. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Mary of Burgundy. ...


Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


Renaissance

Grand Place after the 1695 bombardment by the French army
Grand Place after the 1695 bombardment by the French army

Charles V, heir of the Low Countries since 1506, though (as he was only 6 years old) governed by his aunt Margaret of Austria until 1515, was declared King of Spain, in 1516, in the Cathedral of Saint Gudule in Brussels. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The Archduchess Margaretha of Austria (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530) was a Habsburg princess, the daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy. ...


Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Charles V became the new archduke of the Austrian Empire and thus the Holy Roman Emperor of the Empire "on which the sun does not set". It was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had greatly expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant, but it was destroyed by fire in 1731. All that remains is an archaeological site. Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... // The Spanish-Portuguese empire in the period of personal union under the Habsburgs (1581-1640) Red/Pink - Spanish Empire Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire The phrase The Empire on which the sun never sets (Spanish: ) was first used to describe the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, and originates with... The palace and gardens of Coudenberg in 1659 Coudenberg (older Dutch for cold hill) is a small hill in Brussels where the Palace of Coudenberg was built. ...


In 1695, French troops sent by King Louis XIV bombarded Brussels with artillery. Together with the resulting fire, it was most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels. The Grand Place was destroyed, along with 4000 buildings, a third of those in the city. The reconstruction of the city centre, effected during subsequent years, profoundly changed the appearance of the city and left numerous traces still visible today. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ...


Revolution

Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Wappers (1834)
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Wappers (1834)

In 1830, the Belgian revolution took place in Brussels after a performance of Auber's opera La Muette de Portici at De Munt or La Monnaie theatre. On July 21, 1831, Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, ascended the throne, undertaking the destruction of the city walls and the construction of many buildings. Following independence, the city underwent many more changes. The Senne had become a serious health hazard, and from 1867 to 1871 its entire urban area was completely covered over. This allowed urban renewal and the construction of modern buildings and boulevards which are characteristic of downtown Brussels today. Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels File links The following pages link to this file: Belgian Revolution Egide Charles Gustave Wappers Categories: Public domain art ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (1834), Wappers most famous painting, now in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels Egide Charles Gustave, Baron Wappers (August 23, 1803 - December 6, 1874), Belgian painter, was born at Antwerp. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... Daniel François Esprit Auber (January 29, 1782 - May 13, 1871), French composer, the son of a Paris print-seller, was born in Caen in Normandy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Façade of De Munt / La Monnaie Logo of De Munt or La Monnaie The Koninklijke Muntschouwburg in short: De Munt (in Dutch), or Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in short: La Monnaie (in French) is a theatre in Brussels, Belgium. ... Façade of De Munt / La Monnaie Logo of De Munt or La Monnaie The Koninklijke Muntschouwburg in short: De Munt (in Dutch), or Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in short: La Monnaie (in French) is a theatre in Brussels, Belgium. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I of the Belgians (Leopold George Christian Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, later of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (b. ... Health can be defined negatively, as the absence of illness, functionally as the ability to cope with everyday activities, or positively, as fitness and well-being (Blaxter 1990). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Construction of the covering and tunnels. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ...


Modern history

The city has hosted various fairs and conferences, including the fifth Solvay Conference in 1927 and two world fairs: the 1935 world fair and the Expo '58. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. ... The Atomium. ...


Beginning on May 10, 1940, Brussels was bombed by the German army; however, most of the war damage to the city took place in 1944–1945. The North-South Junction was built, completed in 1952. The first Brussels premetro was finished in 1969, and the first line of the Brussels Metro was opened in 1976. The Heysel Stadium disaster took place in Brussels on May 29, 1985. The Brussels Capital Region was founded on June 18, 1989. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The North-South Junction is a railway link through the centre of Brussels, Belgium, that connects the major national and international railway stations in the city. ... Map of the Brussels metro system A station in the Brussels Metro Brussels, Belgium, has a metro network with three lines of metro (two of which share a common section), two lines of premetro (underground sections used by otherwise open-air tramway lines and designed so as to be convertible... The Heysel Stadium disaster occurred due to football hooliganism in which a retaining wall of the Heysel Stadium in Brussels collapsed on May 29, 1985 during a football match between Liverpool F.C. from England and Juventus F.C. from Italy. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

The Grand Place is the main market square in Brussels. It is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. The construction of the Brussels Town Hall in the middle was initiated in 1402.
The Grand Place is the main market square in Brussels. It is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. The construction of the Brussels Town Hall in the middle was initiated in 1402.

A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Town Hall of Brussels The Town Hall (French: Hôtel de Ville, Dutch: Stadhuis) of Brussels, Belgium, stands on that citys famous Grand Place. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ...

Geography

Climate

Weather averages for Brussels
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 5 (41) 6 (43) 10 (50) 14 (57) 18 (64) 20 (68) 23 (73) 23 (73) 19 (66) 14 (57) 9 (48) 6 (43)
Average low °C (°F) 1 (34) 2 (36) 4 (39) 6 (43) 9 (48) 12 (54) 14 (57) 14 (57) 12 (54) 8 (46) 5 (41) 3 (37)
Precipitation cm (inches) 5.77 (2.3) 5.2 (2) 5.11 (2) 3.88 (1.5) 4.42 (1.7) 5.52 (2.2) 6.23 (2.5) 5.61 (2.2) 5.02 (2) 5.31 (2.1) 5.6 (2.2) 6.22 (2.4)
Source: MSN Weather [8] 2007-10-04

Political centre

Capital of Belgium

Although some believe, wrongly, that the capital of Belgium is the entire Brussels-Capital Region, article 194 of the Belgian Constitution lays down that the capital of Belgium is the City of Brussels municipality.[9] Arguments that article 194's use of lower case for "ville de Bruxelles" and "stad Brussel" makes a subtle difference and means that greater Brussels being represented as the capital cannot be legally defended. The Royal Palace of Belgium The Royal Palace of Brussels (Dutch: Koninklijk Paleis van Brussel, French: Palais Royal de Bruxelles), sometimes known instead as the Royal Palace of Belgium is the official palace of the King of the Belgians in the centre of the nations capital Brussels. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... This is the translation in English of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Belgium as provided by the Parliament. ...


However, although the City of Brussels is the official capital, the funds allowed by the federation and region for the representative role of the capital are divided among the 19 municipalities, and some national institutions are sited in the other 18 municipalities. Thus, while de jure only the City of Brussels is entitled to the title of capital city of Belgium, de facto the entire Region plays this role.


City of Brussels

Main article: City of Brussels
Brussels-Capital Region
 
City of Brussels

The City of Brussels is one of the municipalities of the Brussels-Capital Region (the largest) and is the official capital of Belgium. The City of Brussels (Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles in French, Stad Brussel in Dutch) is one of the municipalities (the largest one) of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The_City_of_Brussels. ... The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into 19 municipalities: Seven municipalities have only one official name which are usable in Dutch and French although the name is Ducth; the other twelve officially have both a Dutch and a French name. ...


Somewhat in the way that the City of London is different from London, the City of Brussels is different from Brussels. However, the expansion of the City of Brussels was frozen at a later stage than the City of London. As a result, in addition to the old centre of Brussels, the towns of Haren, Laeken and Neder-Over-Heembeek, as well as Avenue Louise/Louizalaan (a main shopping street, similar in design to the Parisian Champs Elysées) and the Bois de la Cambre/Terkamerenbos (the largest park in Brussels) are included within the limits of the City. Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Haren is the name of several places Haren, (province of Groningen, Netherlands) Haren (province of North Brabant, Netherlands) Haren (part of Brussels, Belgium) Haren (Germany) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Laeken (French: Laeken, Dutch: Laken) is a residential suburb in north-east Brussels, Belgium. ... Avenue Louise (in Dutch: Louizalaan) is one of the most important thoroughfares of Brussels. ... Avenue des Champs-Élysées from Place de la Concorde, seen from above the obelisk The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  audio? literally the Elysian fields) is a broad avenue in the French capital Paris. ...


Flanders and the French community

The Brussels-Capital Region is one of the three federated regions of Belgium, alongside Wallonia and the Flemish Region. Geographically and linguistically, it is a (bilingual) enclave in the (unilingual) Flemish Region. Regions are one component of Belgium's complex institutions, the three communities being the other component: the Brussels inhabitants must deal with either the French (speaking) community or the Flemish Community for matters such as culture and education. Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The French Community area of Belgium The French Community of Belgium (French: , Dutch: , German: ) is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ...


Brussels is also the capital of both the French Community of Belgium (Communauté française de Belgique in French) and of Flanders (Vlaanderen); all Flemish capital institutions are established here: Flemish Parliament, Flemish government and its administration. The French Community area of Belgium The French Community of Belgium (French: , Dutch: , German: ) is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... // Definitions Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen, French: Flandre or Flandres) has two main designations: a historical region (the County of Flanders), and an administrative region of Belgium (the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community). ...


International centre

Brussels has become a significant centre for international institutions, notably those of the European Union. The city also plays host to the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is based in the city along with 1000 other international organisations and 2000 international corporations. Brussels is third in the number of international conferences it hosts[10] also becoming one of the largest convention centres in the world.[5] The presence of the EU and the other international bodies has led to there being more ambassadors and journalists in Brussels than Washington D.C..[11] International schools have also been established to serve this presence.[5] This article is about the military alliance. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


European Union

Brussels is considered as the de facto capital of the European Union due to its history of hosting the EU's institutions, even though the EU has not declared any official capital city. The city plays host to the official seats of the European Commission (in the Berlaymont building) and the Council of the European Union (in the Justus Lipsius building facing it).[12][13] Furthermore three quarters of the work of the European Parliament takes place in the city at its Brussels hemicycle (its official seat is Strasbourg).[14] The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Not to be confused with capitol. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... The Justus Lipsius building is the headquarters of the Council of the European Union in Brussels. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


Brussels began to host institutions in 1957, with the executives of the EEC and Euratom which were originally shared with Luxembourg but quickly met in Brussels for practical reasons. In 1965 Brussels gained the right to host the merged Commission and Council, with some concessions to Luxembourg, and over the following years the Parliament established an increasing presence in Brussels, although was required to maintain its presence in Strasbourg by the treaties.[12][13] Between 2002 and 2004, the European Council also fixed its seat in the city.[15] The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The Old town, seen from the ground Luxembourg City, population 82,268 (2002), is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ...


Today the presence has increased considerably with the Commission alone occupying 865,000m² within the "European Quarter" in the east of the city. The concentration and density has caused concern that the presence of the institutions has caused a "ghetto effect" in that part of the city.[16] However the presence has contributed significantly to the importance of Brussels as an international centre.[11] For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ...


Culture

Architecture

The Atomium in Heysel Park
The Atomium in Heysel Park

The architecture in Brussels is diverse, and spans from the mediaeval constructions on the Grand Place to the postmodern buildings of the EU institutions. The Atomium (before renovation) Built for the 1958 Brussels Worlds Fair (Expo 58), the 103-metre (335-foot) tall Atomium monument represents a unit cell of an iron crystal (body-centred cubic), magnified 165 billion times, with vertical body diagonal, with tubes along the 12 edges of the cube... The Heysel Exhibition Park is the place in the north of the centre of Brussels, Belgium, where the Worlds Fair of 1935 and 1958 (the Expo 58) took place. ... A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ...


Main attractions include the Grand Place, since 1988 a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with the Gothic town hall in the old centre, the St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral and the Laken Castle with its large greenhouses. Another famous landmark is the Royal Palace. A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... St. ... The Royal Palace of Belgium The Royal Palace of Brussels (Dutch: Koninklijk Paleis van Brussel, French: Palais Royal de Bruxelles), sometimes known instead as the Royal Palace of Belgium is the official palace of the King of the Belgians in the centre of the nations capital Brussels. ...


The Atomium is a symbolic 103-metre (338 ft) metre tall structure that was built for the 1958 World’s Fair. It consists of nine steel spheres connected by tubes, and forms a model of an iron crystal (specifically, a unit cell. The architect A. Waterkeyn devoted the building to science. Next to the Atomium is the Mini-Europe park with 1:25 scale maquettes of famous buildings from across Europe. The Atomium (before renovation) Built for the 1958 Brussels Worlds Fair (Expo 58), the 103-metre (335-foot) tall Atomium monument represents a unit cell of an iron crystal (body-centred cubic), magnified 165 billion times, with vertical body diagonal, with tubes along the 12 edges of the cube... The Atomium. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Mini-Europe is a part of Heysel in Brussels, Belgium that contains replicas of famous buildings from countries in the European Union, presented at a scale of 1 to 25. ... Adobe Ceramic maquette model of a tower. ...


The Manneken Pis, a bronze fountain of a small peeing boy is a famous tourist attraction and symbol of the city. Manneken Pis of Brussels in the nude Manneken Pis (little man piss in English), is a Brussels landmark. ...


Other landmarks include the Cinquantenaire park with its triumphal arch and nearby museums, the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels Stock Exchange, the Palace of Justice and the buildings of EU institutions in the European Quarter. The Cinquantenaire Arch in winter Cinquantenaire is a park in Brussels, Belgium. ... Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels The Basilica of the Sacred Heart or Koekelberg Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-Coeur or Basilique de Koekelberg, Dutch: Basiliek van het Heilig Hart or Basiliek van Koekelberg) is the fifth largest church in the world, and is located in Brussels, Belgium. ... Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium The Brussels Stock Exchange (BSE) was founded in Brussels, Belgium by Napoleonic decree in 1801. ... The Law Courts of Brussels The Law Courts of Brussels (Dutch: Justitiepaleis van Brussel, French: Palais de Justice de Bruxelles) is the most important Court building in Belgium and is a notable landmark of Brussels. ... The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ...


Cultural facilities include the Brussels Theatre and the La Monnaie Theatre and opera house. There is a wide array of museums, from the Royal Museum of Fine Art to the Museum of the Army and the Comic Museum. Brussels also has a lively music scene, with everything from opera houses and concert halls to music bars and techno clubs. Façade of De Munt / La Monnaie Logo of De Munt or La Monnaie The Koninklijke Muntschouwburg in short: De Munt (in Dutch), or Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in short: La Monnaie (in French) is a theatre in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (French: Les Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique; Dutch: Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België), is one of the most famous museums in Belgium. ...

Cinquantenaire triumphal arch
Cinquantenaire triumphal arch

The city centre is notable for its Flemish town houses. Also particularly striking are the buildings in the Art Nouveau style by the Brussels architect Victor Horta. In the heyday of Art Nouveau new Brussels suburbs were developed, and much buildings are in this style. The architecture of the quarter Schaerbeek, Etterbeek Ixelles, and Saint-Gilles is particularly worth seeing. Another example of Brussels Art Nouveau is the Stoclet Palace, by the Viennese architect Josef Hoffmann. The modern buildings of Espace Leopold complete the picture. The Cinquantenaire Arch in winter Cinquantenaire is a park in Brussels, Belgium. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Maison and Atelier Horta, designed in 1898, now houses the Horta Museum, dedicated to his work. ... Schaerbeek within the Brussels-Capital Region Schaerbeek (French, in fact old Dutch) or Schaarbeek (Dutch) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... Etterbeek within the Brussels-Capital Region Etterbeek is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Flemish Community Region Brussels-Capital Region Arrondissement Brussels Coordinates , , Area 6. ... Saint Giles (Latin Ægidius) was a 7th-8th century Christian hermit saint. ... Josef Hoffmann (December 15, 1870 - May 7, 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods. ...


The city has always had a great artist scene. The famous Belgian surrealist René Magritte, for example, studied in Brussels. The city is also a capital of the comic strip; some treasured Belgian characters are Lucky Luke, Tintin, Cubitus, Gaston Lagaffe and Marsupilami. Throughout the city walls are painted with large motifs of comic book characters, and the interiors of some Metro stations are designed by artists. The Belgian Comics Museum combines two artistic leitmotifs of Brussels, being a museum devoted to Belgian comic strips, housed in the former Waucquez department store, designed by Victor Horta in the Art Nouveau style. The Treachery of Images (La trahison des images) (1928–1929) René François Ghislain Magritte (November 21, 1898 – August 15, 1967) was a Belgian surrealist artist. ... This article is about the comic book and TV series. ... Look up Tintin, tintin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cubitus is a fictional dog character from an eponymous Belgian comic book series by cartoonist Dupa. ... Gaston Lagaffe is a comic strip originally created in 1957 by the Belgian cartoonist André Franquin in the comic strip magazine, Spirou, and named after its main character. ... Marsupilami is a fictional comic book animal created by André Franquin in 1952. ... Maison and Atelier Horta, designed in 1898, now houses the Horta Museum, dedicated to his work. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ...


The King Baudouin Stadium is a concert and competition facility with a 50,000 seat capacity, the largest in Belgium. The site was formerly occupied by the Heysel Stadium, which in 1985 saw one of the worst disasters in European football, when 39 deaths and over 400 serious injuries were suffered after English hooligans fell on Italian football fans, sparking a mass panic. The Heysel Stadium was a sports ground in north-west Brussels, Belgium. ... King Baudouin Stadium (Heysel Stadium) The Heysel Stadium was a sports ground in north-west Brussels, Belgium. ... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ...


Arts

Brussels contains over 40 museums,[17] including the Museum of Modern Art[18], and the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium. The museum has an extensive collection of various painters, such as the Flemish painters like Brueghel, Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens. The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium (French: Les Musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique; Dutch: Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België), is one of the most famous museums in Belgium. ... The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Deposition by Roger van der Weyden (c. ... A typical painting attributed to Campin Robert Campin (1378–April 26, 1444) is sometimes considered the first great master of Flemish painting. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... Jacob Jordaens, Self-Portrait with Parents, Brothers, and Sisters (c. ...


Gastronomy

Brussels is known for its local waffle type.
Brussels is known for its local waffle type.

Brussels is known for its local waffle, its chocolate, its french fries and its numerous types of beers . The Brussels sprout was first cultivated in Brussels, hence its name. This article is about the food item. ... This article is about the food item. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... -1... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... The Brussels (or brussels or brussel) sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group) of the Brassicaceae family, is a cultivar group of Wild Cabbage cultivated for its small (typically 2. ...


The gastronomic offer includes approximately 1,800 restaurants, and a number of high quality bars. The Belgian cuisine is known among connoisseurs as one of the best in Europe. In addition to the traditional restaurants, there is a large number of cafés, bistros and the usual range of international fast food chains. The cafés are similar to bars, and offer beer and light dishes, coffee houses in the usual sense are the Salons de Thé. Also widespread are brasseries, which usually offer a large number of beers and typical national dishes.


The Belgian cuisine is characterized by the combination of French cuisine with the more hearty Flemish fare. Notable specialities include Brussels waffles (gaufres) and mussels (usually as "moules frites," served with fries). The city is a stronghold of chocolate and pralines manufacturers with traditional companies like Godiva, Neuhaus and Leonidas. Numerous friteries are spread throughout the city, and in tourist areas, fresh, hot, waffles are also sold on the street. Mussels A mussel is a bivalve shellfish that can be found in lakes, rivers, creeks, intertidal areas, and throughout the ocean. ...


In addition to the regular selection of Belgian beer, the famous lambic style of beer is only brewed in and around Brussels, and the yeasts have their origin in the Senne valley. In mild contrast to the other versions, Kriek (cherry beer) enjoys outstanding popularity, as it does in the rest of Belgium. Kriek is available in almost every bar or restaurant. Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ... Kriek is a Belgian beer fermented with cherries. ...


Economy

Further information: Economy of Belgium

Serving as the centre of administration for Europe, Brussels' economy is largely service-oriented. It is dominated by regional headquarters of multinationals, by European institutions, by various administrations, and by related services, though it does have a number of notable craft industries, such as the Cantillon Brewery, a lambic brewery founded in 1900. Belgium, a highly developed market economy, belongs to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a group of leading industrialized democracies. ... Cantillon Brewery (Brasserie-Brouwerij Cantillon) is a small Belgian traditional family brewery based in Brussels and founded in 1900. ... Traditional wooden Lambic barrels; the L on the barrel indicates the brewery. ...


Languages

Languages spoken at home (Capital Region, 2006)     French only     French & Dutch     French w/ another non-Dutch language     Dutch only     Neither French nor Dutch
Languages spoken at home (Capital Region, 2006)[19]
     French only     French & Dutch     French w/ another non-Dutch language     Dutch only     Neither French nor Dutch
See also: Frenchification of Brussels

Originally a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels is nowadays officially bilingual French-Dutch.[20][21] French is the mother tongue of the majority of the population and the lingua franca. Research in the city's archives shows that Dutch was by far the most widely used language in local administration until the French occupation (1793-1815),[22] even though French had been the language of the local governors since the Burgundian era.[23] From 1880 on, more and more Dutch-speaking people became bilingual, resulting in a rise of monolingual French-speakers after 1910. Halfway through the 20th century the number of monolingual French-speakers carried the day over the (mostly) bilingual Flemish inhabitants.[24] Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Burgundian party was a political allegiance in France that formed during the reign of Charles VI during the latter half of the Hundred Years War. ...


During the 19th century most dialect-speakers (speaking the local dialect of Dutch) turned to French rather than to Dutch as their language of culture. The main reasons for this were the higher prestige of the French language at the time (even the Flemish elites had adopted French), the perception that Dutch was the language of rural and poor Flanders and the fact that the Belgian administration was solely conducted in French. The education system was almost exclusively French-speaking, which hampered the spread of the Dutch standard language and contributed to low-class image of Dutch.[25] As a result, people would often speak a Dutch dialect in private but French in public occasions. Even today, it is not uncommon to meet (older) French-speaking "Bruxellois" who are unable to express themselves in standard Dutch but who speak or at least understand the Brabantian dialect. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Brabantian or Brabantic (Dutch: Brabants) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant and small parts in the west of Limburg. ...


A linguistic curiosity is Marols (Marollien), a variant of the Dutch dialect of Brussels heavily influenced by the Walloon of Liège, which used to be spoken mostly in the Marolles/Marollen, a central section of the city. Today, all Brussels dialects are on the verge of extinction.[26] Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Liege or Liège has several meanings: A liege is the person or entity to which one has pledged allegiance. ... There are commune names that begin with Marolles in France: Marolles, in the Calvados département Marolles, in the Loir-et-Cher département Marolles, in the Marne département Marolles, in the Oise département Related Marolles-en-Beauce, in the Essonne département Marolles-en-Brie, in the Seine-et-Marne département Marolles...


Nowadays, the Brussels Capital Region is officially bilingual French-Dutch. There are no official linguistic statistics since the State-run decennial linguistic census has been abolished after the fixation of the Belgian language border. All studies carried out can only be estimations. A language border is a border between two language areas. ...

Manneken Pis is seen as a symbol of French and Dutch cohabitation in Brussels.
Manneken Pis is seen as a symbol of French and Dutch cohabitation in Brussels.[27]

As Brussels is the capital of a country of which 60% of the inhabitants are Dutch speakers, and the Brussels Region is completely surrounded by the Flemish region, it is logical that many Dutch speakers from the periphery come to the city for working, shopping and going out. So, although the lingua franca is French, knowledge of Dutch is considered highly desirable.[28] One of the consequences of this change of attitude towards the Dutch language is, for example, that most children in Dutch-speaking schools in Brussels do not speak Dutch at home.[29] Janssens estimates that 28.23% of the population have a good to perfect knowledge of Dutch (either as a first or as a second language). For English this is 35.4% and for French 95%, due to its role as lingua franca.[30][19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1146 KB) Manneken Pis van Brussel File links The following pages link to this file: Brussels ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1146 KB) Manneken Pis van Brussel File links The following pages link to this file: Brussels ... Manneken Pis of Brussels in the nude Manneken Pis (little man piss in English), is a Brussels landmark. ...


The occasional imprecision of linguistic pairing can be quite amusing. Whilst some ancient streets have only their original Dutch name (e.g. Coudenberg), others were originally named in French and have had their later Dutch names revised. For instance the Rue du Beau Site in Ixelles/Elsene bears two bilingual nameplates, the older giving, as the Dutch version, the hastily translated Schoon-Zicht Straat and the more recent giving the more idiomatic Welgelegenstraat. Other such pairs are Regentiestraat/Regentschapstraat and Koopmansstraat/Koopliedenstraat. The palace and gardens of Coudenberg in 1659 Coudenberg (older Dutch for cold hill) is a small hill in Brussels where the Palace of Coudenberg was built. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Flemish Community Region Brussels-Capital Region Arrondissement Brussels Coordinates , , Area 6. ...


Due to the city's growth beyond the limits of the Brussels Capital Region, the periphery, which is institutionally part of Dutch-speaking Flanders, has attracted a large French-speaking population. In some of the municipalities immediately bordering the Brussels Capital Region, the population became majority French-speaking during the second half of the 20th century, in a few cases currently numbering over 70%. Because of the refusal of many of these to use Dutch, this is one of the major sources of linguistic conflict in Belgium, particularly in the Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde region.[31] The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde (often abbreviated as BHV) is a contentious Belgian electoral arrondissement in the center of the country that encompasses both the officially bilingual Brussels-Capital Region, which coincides with the administrative arrondissement of Brussels-Capital, as well as the officially unilingual Dutch-speaking area around it, Halle-Vilvoorde...


Education

There are several universities in Brussels. The two main universities are the Université Libre de Bruxelles, a French-speaking university with about 20,000 students in three campuses in the city (and two others outside),[32] and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a Dutch-speaking university with about 10,000 students.[33] Both universities originate from a single ancestor university founded in 1834, namely the Free University of Brussels, which was split in 1970 at about the same time the Flemish and French Communities gained legislative power over the organisation of higher education. The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... The Free University of Brussels is the name of two Belgian universities both in Brussels: the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other universities include the Facultés Universitaires Saint Louis with 2,000 students,[34] , the Catholic University of Brussels (Katholieke Universiteit Brussel)[35] , the Royal Military Academy, a military college established in 1834 by a French colonel[36] and two drama schools founded in 1982: the Dutch-speaking Koninklijk Conservatorium and the French-speaking Conservatoire Royal.[37][38] The Catholic University of Brussels is a Flemish-language university located in Brussels. ... The Royal Military Academy is the military university of Belgium. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... The Koninklijk Conservatorium - Royal is a drama and music college in Brussels in Belgium. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Still other universities have campuses in Brussels, such as the Université Catholique de Louvain that has had its medical faculty in the city since 1973.[39] In addition the Boston University Brussels campus was established in 1972 and offers masters degrees in business administration and international relations. Due to the post-war international presence in the city, there are also a number of international schools, including the International School of Brussels with 1,450 pupils between 2½ to 18,[40] the British School of Brussels, and the four European Schools serving those working in the EU institutions.[41] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Boston University Brussels, officially named the Boston University Brussels Graduate Center, and also known as BUB, is part of Boston Universitys Metropolitan College (MET), one of seventeen degree granting colleges that make up Boston University. ... The International School of Brussels (ISB), founded in 1951, is an English-language day school providing an international education to students from over 60 countries, within the age range of 3 to 18. ... The Schola Europaea logo. ... There are currently five institutions of the European Union which govern the Union. ...


Transport

Brussels is connected with other European cities through the Eurostar high-speed rail network.
Brussels is connected with other European cities through the Eurostar high-speed rail network.

This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ...

Connections

Brussels is served by Brussels Airport, located in the nearby Flemish municipality of Zaventem, and by the much smaller so-called Brussels South Charleroi Airport, located near Charleroi (Wallonia), some 50 km (30 mi) from Brussels. Brussels is also served by direct high-speed rail links: to London by the Eurostar train via the Channel Tunnel (1hr 51 min); to Amsterdam, Paris and Cologne by the Thalys; and to Cologne and Frankfurt by the German ICE. For the airport in Charleroi, see Brussels South Charleroi Airport. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Halle-Vilvoorde Coordinates Area 27. ... Charleroi Brussels South, also called Brussels South Airport or Brussels South Charleroi Airport (BSCA), is located near Charleroi, 46 km from central Brussels, Belgium. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... ICE 3 trainset near Ingolstadt The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation: ) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its neighbouring countries. ...


Public transport

The Brussels Metro dates back to 1976, but underground lines known as premetro have been serviced by tramways since 1968. A comprehensive bus and tram network also covers the city. Map of the Brussels metro system A station in the Brussels Metro Brussels, Belgium, has a metro network with three lines of metro (two of which share a common section), two lines of premetro (underground sections used by otherwise open-air tramway lines and designed so as to be convertible... The Brussels tram/streetcar) system is a successful medium-sized system, whose development demonstrates many of the quandaries that face local public transport planners. ...


Brussels also has its own port on the Brussels-Scheldt Maritime Canal located in the northwest of the city. The Brussels-Charleroi Canal connects the industrial areas of Wallonia. The course of the Brussels-Charleroi Canal. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ...


An interticketing system means that a STIB/MIVB ticket holder can use the train or long-distance buses inside the city. The commuter services operated by De Lijn, TEC and SNCB/NMBS will in the next few years be augmented by a metropolitan RER rail network around Brussels. For other uses, see RER (disambiguation). ...


Since 2003 Brussels has had a car-sharing service operated by the Bremen company Cambio in partnership with STIB/MIVB and local ridesharing company taxi stop. In 2006 shared bicycles were also introduced. This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Road network

Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat is one of the city's main streets
Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat is one of the city's main streets

In mediaeval times Brussels stood at the intersection of routes running north-south (the modern Hoogstraat/Rue Haute) and east-west (Gentsesteenweg/Chaussée de Gand-Grasmarkt/Rue du Marché aux Herbes-Naamsestraat/Rue de Namur). The ancient pattern of streets radiating from the Grand Place in large part remains, but has been overlaid by boulevards built over the River Zenne/Senne, over the city walls and over the railway connection between the North and South Stations. A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ... Construction of the covering and tunnels. ...


As one expects of a capital city, Brussels is the hub of the fan of old national roads, the principal ones being clockwise the N1 (N to Breda), N2 (E to Maastricht), N3 (E to Aachen), N4 (SE to Luxembourg) N5 (S to Rheims), N6 (SW to Maubeuge), N8 (W to Koksijde) and N9 (NW to Ostend) [42]. Usually named steenwegen/chaussées, these highways normally run straight as a die, but on occasion lose themselves in a maze of narrow shopping streets. Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady). ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Maubeuge is a town and commune of northern France, in the département of Nord, situated on both banks of the Sambre, here canalized, 234 miles by railway southeast of Valenciennes, and about 2 m. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Veurne Coordinates , , Area 43. ... The esplanade with the Thermae Palace, the former Royal Residence and the casino For other uses, see Ostend (disambiguation). ...


As for motorways, the town is skirted by the European route E19 (N-S) and the E40 (E-W), while the E411 leads away to the SE. Brussels has an orbital motorway, numbered R0 (R-zero) and commonly referred to as the "ring" (French: ring Dutch: grote ring). It is pear-shaped as the southern side was never built as originally conceived, owing to residents' objections. European route E19 passes through the following cities: Amsterdam - Den Haag - Rotterdam - Breda - Antwerp - Brussels - Mons - Valenciennes - Cambrai - Compiègne - Paris Category: ... European route E 40 passes through the following cities: Calais - Dunkerque - Veurne - Oostende - Brugge - Gent - Brussels - Leuven - Liège - Aachen - Köln - Gummersbach - Olpe - Siegen - Wetzlar - Gießen - Bad Hersfeld - Eisenach - Gotha - Erfurt - Weimar - Jena - Gera - Chemnitz - Dresden - Bautzen - Görlitz - BolesÅ‚awiec - Legnica - WrocÅ‚aw - Opole - Metropolian Katowice - Krak... For the American political term, see Inside the Beltway and Beltway bandits. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ...


The city centre, sometimes known as "the pentagon", is surrounded by the "Small ring" (Dutch: kleine ring, French: petite ceinture), a sequence of boulevards formally numbered R20. These were built upon the site of the second set of city walls following their demolition. Metro line 2 runs under much of these.


On the eastern side of the city, the R21 (French: grande ceinture, grote ring in Dutch) is formed by a string of boulevards that curves round from Laken (Laeken) to Ukkel (Uccle). Some premetro stations (see Brussels Metro) were built on that route. A little further out, a stretch numbered R22 leads from Zaventem to Sint-Job. Laeken (French: Laeken, Dutch: Laken) is a residential suburb in north-east Brussels, Belgium. ... Uccle/Ukkel within the Brussels-Capital Region Uccle (French) or Ukkel (Dutch) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... Map of the Brussels metro system A station in the Brussels Metro Brussels, Belgium, has a metro network with three lines of metro (two of which share a common section), two lines of premetro (underground sections used by otherwise open-air tramway lines and designed so as to be convertible...


Twin cities

The Sonian Forest at the outskirts of Brussels
The Sonian Forest at the outskirts of Brussels

Brussels is twinned with the following 14 cities: The Forest of Soignes or Sonian Forest (French: Forêt de Soignes, Dutch: Zoniënwoud) is a 43 km² forest on the southeast of Brussels, Belgium, which stretches out over the three regions of Belgium, the Brussels-Capital Region (38 %), the Flemish Region (56 %) and the Walloon Region (6 %). The... Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Akhisar (pronounced: ah-kee-sahr; or Tepe Mezarligi) is a district and a town center of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ...

See also

The Parliaments Paul-Henri Spaak building, as seen from Justus Lipsius Brussels (Belgium) is considered to be the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union. ... Construction of the covering and tunnels. ... The Atomium. ... The Heysel Stadium disaster occurred due to football hooliganism in which a retaining wall of the Heysel Stadium in Brussels collapsed on May 29, 1985 during a football match between Liverpool F.C. from England and Juventus F.C. from Italy. ... Parc Astrid (French) or Astridpark (Dutch) is an urban public park in Anderlecht, Brussels inaugurated on August 13, 1911. ... Parc de Bruxelles (French) or Warandepark (Dutch), wrongly called Parc Royal in French, is the largest urban public park in the center of Brussels. ... The Bois de la Cambre (Dutch: Ter Kamerenbos) is a 123-hectare urban park on the edge of the Forest of Soignes in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Cinquantenaire Arch in winter Cinquantenaire is a park in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Heysel Exhibition Park is the place in the north of the centre of Brussels, Belgium, where the Worlds Fair of 1935 and 1958 (the Expo 58) took place. ... The Ixelles Ponds (in French: Étangs dIxelles, in Dutch: Vijvers van Elsene) are two freshwater ponds in the Brussels municipality of Ixelles. ... The Josaphat park is a public park located in the municipality of Schaerbeek, Brussels. ... A view of the park Tenbosch (or Tenbos) is a public park in Ixelles, Brussels. ... The pond with the European Parliament building in the background Leopold Park (in French: Park Léopold, in Dutch: Leopoldspark) is a public park in central Brussels adjacent to the Paul-Henri Spaak building, the seat of the European Parliament. ... Parc Malou (French) or Park Malou (Dutch) is an urban park in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Forest of Soignes or Sonian Forest (French: Forêt de Soignes, Dutch: Zoniënwoud) is a 43 km² forest on the southeast of Brussels, Belgium, which stretches out over the three regions of Belgium, the Brussels-Capital Region (38 %), the Flemish Region (56 %) and the Walloon Region (6 %). The... The Atomium (before renovation) Built for the 1958 Brussels Worlds Fair (Expo 58), the 103-metre (335-foot) tall Atomium monument represents a unit cell of an iron crystal (body-centred cubic), magnified 165 billion times, with vertical body diagonal, with tubes along the 12 edges of the cube... Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels The Basilica of the Sacred Heart or Koekelberg Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-Coeur or Basilique de Koekelberg, Dutch: Basiliek van het Heilig Hart or Basiliek van Koekelberg) is the fifth largest church in the world, and is located in Brussels, Belgium. ... The Berlaymont building is an important governmental building in Brussels, Belgium. ... Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium The Brussels Stock Exchange (BSE) was founded in Brussels, Belgium by Napoleonic decree in 1801. ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament, it consists of two chambers. ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... The Heysel Stadium was a sports ground in north-west Brussels, Belgium. ... The Serre du Congo or Congoserre (left) and the Grote wintertuin or Grand Jardin dhiver (right) part of the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (in Dutch: Koninklijke Serres van Laken, in French: Serres Royales de Laeken), are a vast complex of monumental heated greenhouses in... The Royal Palace of Belgium The Royal Palace of Brussels (Dutch: Koninklijk Paleis van Brussel, French: Palais Royal de Bruxelles), sometimes known instead as the Royal Palace of Belgium is the official palace of the King of the Belgians in the centre of the nations capital Brussels. ... Town Hall of Brussels The Town Hall (French: Hôtel de Ville, Dutch: Stadhuis) of Brussels, Belgium, stands on that citys famous Grand Place. ... Façade of De Munt / La Monnaie Logo of De Munt or La Monnaie The Koninklijke Muntschouwburg in short: De Munt (in Dutch), or Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in short: La Monnaie (in French) is a theatre in Brussels, Belgium. ... Map of the Brussels metro system A station in the Brussels Metro Brussels, Belgium, has a metro network with three lines of metro (two of which share a common section), two lines of premetro (underground sections used by otherwise open-air tramway lines and designed so as to be convertible... For the airport in Charleroi, see Brussels South Charleroi Airport. ... Charleroi Brussels South, also called Brussels South Airport or Brussels South Charleroi Airport (BSCA), is located near Charleroi, 46 km from central Brussels, Belgium. ... The Brussels tram/streetcar) system is a successful medium-sized system, whose development demonstrates many of the quandaries that face local public transport planners. ... Rue dAerschot - Brussels, Belgium Located next to the North Station, one of the 4 main train stations in Brussels. ... Avenue Louise (in Dutch: Louizalaan) is one of the most important thoroughfares of Brussels. ... A view of Lange (The Angel) on the Grand Place The Grand Place (French: Grand-Place or Grand Place, Dutch: Grote Markt) is the central market square of Brussels. ...

References

  1. ^ City Data. Brussels. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
  2. ^ Welcome to Brussels
  3. ^ Brussels.org - History of Brussels
  4. ^ Brussels: The "Capital of Europe"
  5. ^ a b c Belgium - Three large urban agglomerations. The [Belgian] Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Retrieved on June 12, 2008.
  6. ^ Brussels History
  7. ^ (Dutch)Zo ontstond Brussel Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie - Commission of the Flemish Community in Brussels
  8. ^ MSN Weather. Retrieved on 4 October 2007.
  9. ^ http://www.fed-parl.be/gwuk0015.htm#E11E15
  10. ^ Brussels, an international city and European capital Université Libre de Bruxelles
  11. ^ a b E!Sharp magazine, Jan-Feb 2007 issue: Article "A tale of two cities".
  12. ^ a b European Navigator Seat of the European Commission
  13. ^ a b European Commission publication: Europe in Brussels 2007
  14. ^ Wheatley, Paul (2006-10-02). The two-seat parliament farce must end. Café Babel. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  15. ^ Stark, Christine. Evolution of the European Council: The implications of a permanent seat (PDF). Dragoman.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  16. ^ Vucheva, Elitsa (2007-09-05). EU quarter in Brussels set to grow. EU Observer. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  17. ^ Museum
  18. ^ Museum of Modern Art in Brussels. Museum Moderne Kunst Brussel. Musée d'art moderne Bruxelles
  19. ^ a b (Dutch)”Taalgebruik in Brussel en de plaats van het Nederlands. Enkele recente bevindingen”, Rudi Janssens, Brussels Studies, Nummer 13, 7 January 2008 (see page 4).
  20. ^ (Dutch)"Brussel historisch", Hoofdstedelijke Aangelegenheden, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap
  21. ^ (French)"Histoire de la langue", Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)
  22. ^ (Dutch)"De mythe van de vroege verfransing", Taalgebruik te Brussel van de 12de eeuw tot 1794, Paul De Ridder
  23. ^ Linguistic Usages in Brussels before 1794, [1] last accessed 14 February 2007
  24. ^ (Dutch)"Thuis in gescheiden werelden" — De migratoire en sociale aspecten van verfransing te Brussel in het midden van de 19e eeuw", BTNG-RBHC, XXI, 1990, 3-4, pp. 383-412, Machteld de Metsenaere, Eerst aanwezend assistent en docent Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  25. ^ (Dutch)"Taal- en onderwijspolitiek te Brussel (1878-1914)", Harry van Velthoven, p261-443, Taal en Sociale Integratie 4, Brussel, VUB, 1981
  26. ^ (Dutch)de Vriendt, Sera: Taal in stad en land - Brussels, Uitgeverij Terra - Lannoo, 2004, ISBN 90-209-5857-7
  27. ^ Manneken-Pis schrijft slecht Nederlands (Dutch). Het Nieuwsblad (2007-08-25).
  28. ^ L’accompagnement des demandeurs d’emploi à Bruxelles
  29. ^ the official VGC figures for February, 2006
  30. ^ (French)"Welcome supplante Welkom à Bruxelles", Le Soir, 8 January 2008
  31. ^ (French)"Bruxelles dans l'oeil du cyclone", France 2, 14 November 2007
  32. ^ Presentation of the Université libre de Bruxelles. Université Libre de Bruxelles. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  33. ^ About the University : Culture and History. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  34. ^ Institution: Historique. Facultés Universitaires Saint Louis. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  35. ^ Katholieke Universiteit Brussel. Katholieke Universiteit Brussel. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  36. ^ What makes the RMA so special?. Belgian Royal Military Academy. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  37. ^ Petite histoire du Conservatoire royal de Bruxelles. Conservatoire Royal. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  38. ^ Koninklijk Conservatorium Brussel. Koninklijk Conservatorium. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  39. ^ L'histoire de l'UCL à Bruxelles. Université Catholique de Louvain. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  40. ^ ISB Profile. International School of Brussels. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  41. ^ Background. Schola Europaea. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  42. ^ Belgian N roads

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Military Academy is the military university of Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Koninklijk Conservatorium - Royal is a drama and music college in Brussels in Belgium. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International School of Brussels (ISB), founded in 1951, is an English-language day school providing an international education to students from over 60 countries, within the age range of 3 to 18. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Schools project began in October 1953 in Luxembourg, on the initiative of officials of the European Coal and Steel Community, with the support of the Communitys institutions and the Luxembourg Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Brussels-Capital Region, official site
  • Brussels travel guide from Wikitravel
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  • Virtual tour 360° From Brussels !
    • Brussels Grand-Place
    • Manneken Pis
    • Jubilee¨Park
    • St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral
    • Royal Galleries of Saint-Hubert

Coordinates: 50°51′N 4°21′E / 50.85, 4.35 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Brussels - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2217 words)
Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, pronounced [brʏsəl]; French: Bruxelles, pronounced [bʁysɛl] in Belgian French and often [bʁyksɛl] by non-Belgian speakers of French; German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, the Flemish Community and the de facto capital of the European Union.
Brussels is, first of all, a city located in the center of Belgium and is its capital, but it sometimes also refers to the largest municipality of the Brussels-Capital Region.
However, according to a 2001 study by Rudi Janssens, a sociolinguist at the VUB, 8.5% of the Brussels population are native Dutch-speakers and 10.2% have both Dutch and French as a mother tongue.
Brussels-Capital Region - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1285 words)
The Brussels-Capital Region (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Brüssel-Hauptstadt) or short Brussels Region (French: Région Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brussels Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium.
Brussels citizens belonging to the French-speaking French Community of Belgium or to the Flemish Community, or often to one of the many communities of migrant and EU-nationals.
The original Dutch dialect of Brussels (Brussels) still survives among the local Flemings; it's a form of Brabantic (the variant of Dutch spoken in the ancient Duchy of Brabant) with many loanwords from French.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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