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Encyclopedia > Brusilov Offensive
Brusilov Offensive
(Брусиловский прорыв)
Part of Eastern Front (World War I)


The Eastern Front before and during the Brusilov Offensive
Date June 4 - September 20, 1916
Location Galicia
Result Decisive Russian victory
Combatants
Russian Empire Austria-Hungary
German Empire
Commanders
Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf
Alexander von Linsingen
Strength
40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men)
15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men)
39 infantry divisions (437,000 men)
10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men)
Casualties
500,000+ men killed or wounded 975,000 Austro-Hungarian,
350,000 German,
(includes 400,000 prisoners)
Eastern Front
StalluponenGumbinnenTannenberg1st LembergKrasnik1st Masurian Lakes – Przemyśl – Vistula River – Łódź – Bolimov2nd Masurian Lakes – Gorlice-Tarnów – WarsawLake NarochBrusilov OffensiveKerensky Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Russian: Брусиловский прорыв) was the greatest Russian feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal battles in world history. It was a major offensive against the armies of the Central Powers on the Eastern Front, launched on June 4, 1916 and lasting until early August. It took place in what today is Ukraine, in the general vicinity of the towns of Lemberg, Kovel, and Lutsk. The offensive was named after the Russian commander in charge of the Southwestern Front, Aleksei Brusilov. Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 193 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brusilov Offensive ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 229 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brusilov Offensive ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... General Brusilov at 64 (1917) Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Francis Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Alexander von Linsingen Alexander Adolf August Karl von Linsingen (1850-1935) was one of the best German field commanders during WWI. In 1868 he started service in Prussian Army and rose to Commander of Corps in 1909. ... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Battle of Stalluponen was the first German victory on the Eastern Front in World War I. Brought on by the aggressive tactics of General Hermann von Francois in defense of the German province of East Prussia, the battle was completely unexpected by both sides, along with its outcome. ... The Battle of Gumbinnen was fought on August 19 and August 20 of 1914 between Germany and Russia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Austria-Hungary Commanders Nikolai Ivanov Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 1,200,000 1,000,000 Casualties 255,000 300,000 The Battle of Lemberg was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914 in which the... The first battle of Krasnik started on August 23rd, 1914 in the province of Galicia, in northern Austria, and ended two days later on the 25th. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Combatants Russia Austria-Hungary Commanders Radko Dmitriev Andrei N. Selivanov Hermann Kusmanek Strength 300,000 PrzemyÅ›l Garrison (126,000) Casualties (40,000 casualties were sustained in the first few days of the siege) at least 16,000 dead, the remaining 110,000 surrendered The Siege of PrzemyÅ›l was... The Battle of the Vistula River, also known as the Battle of Warsaw, was a Russian victory against Germany on the Eastern Front during the First World War. ... Combatants Russia Germany Commanders Nikolai Ruzski August von Mackensen Strength Russian First, Second and Fifth Armies German Ninth Army Casualties 95,000 killed, wounded & captured 35,000 killed, wounded & missing The Battle of Łódź took place from November 11 to December 6, 1914, near the city of Łódź in Poland. ... The battle of Bolimov was fought in 1914 and was a battle of World War One. ... The Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes, also known as the Winter Battle of the Masurian Lakes, was the northern part of the Central Powers offensive on the Eastern Front (World War I) in the winter of 1915. ... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Ratko Dimitriev August von Mackensen Strength III Army XI Army (Germany) IV Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 240,000 90,000 To allay Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians on the Eastern Front, and to inflict Russia a decisive blow, the German Chief of Staff... Poniatowski Bridge, blown up by the retreating Russian Army in 1915 only months after its grand opening. ... Combatants Russian Empire German Empire Commanders Alexei Kuropatkin Alexei Evert Hermann von Eichhorn Strength Parts of two army groups (350,000 men + 1,000 guns) Tenth Army (75,000 men + 400 guns) Casualties 120,000 20,000 The Lake Naroch Offensive (Russian: Нарочь; Belarusian: Нарач (Narač) was an inconclusive battle mainly fought... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Aleksei Brusilov von Bothmer Strength XI, VII, VIII Armies South Army (A.H.-Germany) VII and III Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 400,000 ? The Kerensky Offensive (aka July Offensive or Galician Offensive) was the last Russian offensive in World War One. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Coat of Arms, circa 1993 Kovel (In Ukrainian and in Russian: Ковель, in Polish: Kowel) is a town now situated in western Ukraine in the Volyn oblast. ... Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк) is the capital of the Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. ... General Brusilov at 64 (1917) Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ...

Contents

Background

Early in 1916 France called upon Russia to help relieve the pressure on Verdun by launching an offensive against the Germans on the Eastern Front, hoping Germany would transfer more units to the East to cope with the Russian attack. The Russians responded by initiating the disastrous Lake Naroch Offensive in the Vilno area, during which the Germans suffered just 1/5 as many casualties as the Russians. In the summer of 1916, the British Somme Offensive designed to the same end had resulted in a quagmire, and the western Allies called upon the Russians again to help relieve German pressure on their front. In response, General Aleksei Brusilov presented his plan to STAVKA, which involved a massive offensive by his Southwestern Front against the Austro-Hungarian forces in Galicia. The main purpose of Brusilov's operation was to take some of the pressure off French and British armies in France and the Italian Army along the Isonzo Front, and to, if possible, knock Austria-Hungary out of the War. Combatants France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died 337,000; of whom 100,000 died The Battle of Verdun was one of... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... Combatants Russian Empire German Empire Commanders Alexei Kuropatkin Alexei Evert Hermann von Eichhorn Strength Parts of two army groups (350,000 men + 1,000 guns) Tenth Army (75,000 men + 400 guns) Casualties 120,000 20,000 The Lake Naroch Offensive (Russian: Нарочь; Belarusian: Нарач (Narač) was an inconclusive battle mainly fought... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... European military alliances in 1915. ... Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Ariete Tanks of the Italian Ariete Tank Brigade on exercise Three Bersaglieri ride in a Dardo The Italian Army has recently become a professional all-volunteer force of 112,000 active duty personnel. ...


Russian plan

General Alexei Evert, commander of the Russian Western Army Group, favoured a defensive strategy and was opposed to Brusilov's offensive. Tsar Nicholas II had taken personal command of the army in 1915. Evert was a strong supporter of Nicholas and the Romanovs, but the Tsar approved Brusilov's plan. The objectives were to be the cities of Kovel and Lemberg which had been lost to the Central Powers in the previous year. Although STAVKA had approved Brusilov's plan, his request for supporting offensives by neighboring fronts was effectively denied. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Nicholas II of Russia (May 18, 1868–July 17, 1918)[1] (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[2] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


Preparations

Mounting pressure from the western Allies caused the Russians to hurry their preparations. Brusilov amassed four armies totaling 40 infantry divisions and 15 cavalry divisions. He faced 39 Austrian infantry divisions and 10 cavalry divisions formed in a row of three defensive lines, although later German reinforcements were brought up. The Russians secretly crept to within 100 yards of the Austrian lines and at some points as close as 75 yards. Brusilov prepared for a surprise assault along a 300 mile front. The Russian General Staff (Stavka) urged Brusilov to considerably shorten his attacking front to allow for a much heavier concentration of Russian troops. Brusilov, however, insisted on his plan and Stavka relented.


Breakthrough

On June 4, the Russians opened the offensive with a massive, accurate, but brief artillery barrage against the Austro-Hungarian lines. The key point of this was the brevity and accuracy of the bombardment, in marked contrast to the customary protracted barrages of the day which gave the defenders time to bring up reserves and evacuate forward trenches. The initial attack was successful and the Austro-Hungarian lines were broken, enabling three of Brusilov's four armies to advance on a wide front. The success of the breakthrough was helped in large part by Brusilov's innovation of shock troops to attack weak points along the Austrian lines to effect a breakthrough which the main Russian Army could then exploit. Brusilov's tactical innovations anticipated the German infiltration tactics (also called Hutier tactics) used later in the Western Front. June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Shock troops are group troops, typically infantry formations and their supporting units, intended to lead an attack. ... In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, isolating them for attack by follow-on friendly troops with heavier weapons. ... In warfare, infiltration tactics involves small forces bypassing enemy strongpoints, instead isolating these strongpoints for later forces and disrupting rear areas. ...


Battle

On June 8, forces of the Southwestern Front took Lutsk. The Austrian Archduke Josef Ferdinand barely managed to escape the city before the Russians entered, a testament to the speed of the Russian advance. By now the Austrians were in full retreat and the Russians had taken over 200,000 prisoners. Brusilov's forces were becoming overextended and he made it clear that further success of the operation depended on Evert launching his part of the offensive. Evert, however, continued to delay, which gave the German high command time to send reinforcements to the Eastern Front. June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Look up Archduke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... now. ...


In a meeting held on the same day Lutsk fell, German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn persuaded Austrian Field Marshall Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf to pull troops away from the Italian Front to counter the Russians in Galicia. General Paul von Hindenburg was again able to capitalize on good railroads to bring German reinforcements east. Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Francis Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Turkish: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ...


At last on June 18, a weak and poorly prepared offensive commenced under Evert. On July 24, Alexander von Linsingen counterattacked the Russians south of Kovel and temporarily checked the Russians. On July 28 Brusilov resumed his own offensive, and although his armies were short on supplies he reached the Carpathian Mountains by September 20. The Russian high command started transferring troops from Evert's front to reinforce Brusilov, a transfer Brusilov strongly opposed because more troops only served to clutter Brusilov's front. All forces involved were reaching exhaustion and the offensive finally died down in late September and ended as Russian troops had to be transferred to help Romania, which was being overrun by Austro-German forces. June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Alexander von Linsingen Alexander Adolf August Karl von Linsingen (1850-1935) was one of the best German field commanders during WWI. In 1868 he started service in Prussian Army and rose to Commander of Corps in 1909. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ...


Results

Russian infantry on the march
Russian infantry on the march

The operation succeeded in its basic purpose, as Germany had to terminate its attack on Verdun and transfer considerable forces to the East. It also broke the back of the Austro-Hungarian Army which lost nearly 1.5 million men (including 400,000 prisoners). The Austro-Hungarian Army was never able to mount a successful attack from this point onward. Instead it had to rely on the German Army for its military successes. The early success of the offensive convinced Romania to enter the war on the side of the Entente, though with disastrous consequences. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1526x1067, 685 KB) Description: TYPES OF THE MEN WHO DEFENDED WARSAW TILL THE END. Source: 300 ppi scan of the National Geographic Magazine, Volume 31 (1917), page 369, panel A. Date: created 7 June 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1526x1067, 685 KB) Description: TYPES OF THE MEN WHO DEFENDED WARSAW TILL THE END. Source: 300 ppi scan of the National Geographic Magazine, Volume 31 (1917), page 369, panel A. Date: created 7 June 2005. ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of...


Russian casualties were also considerable, numbering around half a million. However, given the large manpower resources of the Russian Army, this was, perhaps, militarily acceptable. The Brusilov Offensive was the high point of the Russian effort during World War I, and was a rare manifestation of good leadership and planning on the part of the Imperial Russian Army. Thereafter the effectiveness of the Russian Army started to decline, due to the deteriorating economic and political situation on the home front, which the army's heavy casualties did nothing to alleviate. The Military history of Imperial Russia is that of the Russian Empire from its creation in 1721 by Peter the Great, until the Russian Revolution of 1917, which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union // Peter the Great and the Russian Empire Peter the Great Peter I, a child...


The operation was marked by a considerable improvement in the quality of Russian tactics. Brusilov used smaller specialized units of soldiers to attack weak points in the Austro-Hungarian trench lines and blow open holes for the rest of the Russian Army to advance into. These shock tactics were a remarkable departure from the "human wave" tactics that were prevalent until that point during World War I by the Russo-Austro-German Armies. The irony was that the Russians themselves did not realize the potential of the tactics that Brusilov produced. It would be Germany that seized on the model and utilized "storm troopers" to great effect in the 1918 offensive on the Western Front, which was hastily copied and used to an even greater effect by the Western Allies. Shock tactics would later play a large role as well in the early German blitzkrieg offensives of World War II and the later attacks by the Western Allies to defeat Germany and would continue until the Korean War and the First Indochinese War, which ended the era of the mass-Trench in all but a few nations, mostly in Africa. Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Combatants French Colonialists Việt Minh Strength 500,000  ? Casualties 94,581 dead 78,127 wounded 40,000 captured 300,000+ dead 500,000+ wounded 100,000 captured The First Indochina War (also called the French Indochina War, the French War or the Franco-Vietnamese War) was fought in Indochina... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...


References and further reading

  • Schindler J. "Steamrollered in Galicia: The Austro-Hungarian Army and the Brusilov Offensive, 1916", War in History, Vol. 10, No. 1. (2003), pp. 27–59.
  • Tucker, Spencer The Great War: 1914–18 (1998)
  • Операция русского Юго-Западного фронта летом 1916 года
  • B. P. Utkin Brusilovskij proryv (2001)
World War I Portal

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brusilov Offensive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1228 words)
Brusilov's forces were becoming overextended and he made it clear that further success of the operation depended on Evert launching his part of the offensive.
The Brusilov Offensive was the high point of the Russian effort during World War I, and was a rare manifestation of good leadership and planning on the part of the Imperial Russian Army.
Brusilov used smaller specialized units of soldiers to attack weak points in the Austro-Hungarian trench lines and blow open holes for the rest of the Russian Army to advance into.
Aleksei Brusilov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (563 words)
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916.
The Brusilov offensive by the Russian 8th Army was one of the most important Russian campaigns during World War I with Austria-Hungary losing a staggering total of 1.5 million men in its aftermath and 25,000 square kilometres of territory.
Brusilov was a patriot, and he despised the presence of the Bolsheviks in power, but he saw in them a path for the Russian nation to rise as a Greater Russia, united and indivisible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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