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Encyclopedia > Brunei Revolt
Brunei Revolt
Part of Borneo Confrontation
Date 8 December 19621966
Location BruneiMedia:Example.ogg
Result Decisive British/Commonwealth victory
Combatants
United Kingdom
Australia
New Zealand
Malaya
Brunei
Parti Rakyat Brunei
Indonesia
Commanders
General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi
Strength
 ?  ?
Casualties
 ?  ?

The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. The rebels began co-ordinated attacks on the oil town of Seria, targeting the Shell oil installations and attacks on police stations and government facilities around the protectorate. Contemporary accounts also refer to it as the Brunei Rebellion. This uprising is seen as one of the first stages of the Borneo Confrontation. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The Brunei Peoples Party (Parti Rakyat Brunei, PRB) is a banned political party in Brunei. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... General Sir Nigel Poett (J.H.N. Poett) was a British Army officer best known for commanding the 5th Parachute Brigade, British 6th Airborne Division during the Battle of Normandy. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Seria is a town in the Belait District of Brunei. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of Anglo Dutch origin. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ...

Contents

Background

Between 1959 and 1962, the British, Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak were involved in negotiations to form a new Malaysian Federation. However, the Philippines and particularly Indonesia opposed any move towards unification of Sarawak with the new federation by evidence of widespread anti-Federation sentiment in Sarawak and Brunei itself. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 76... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... Motto Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu (English: Unity Is Strength)[1] Anthem Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur1 Official languages Malay Government Federal constitutional monarchy  -  Paramount Ruler Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the UK (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation (with...


Local opposition and sentiments against the Malaysian Federation plan have often been under-represented in historical writings on the Brunei Revolt and the subsequent Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation. In fact, political forces in Sarawak had long anticipated their own national independence as promised (but later aborted) by the last White Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Vyner Brooke, in 1941. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... The White Rajahs is a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1842 to 1946. ... Sir Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke (September 30, 1874–May 9, 1963) was the third and final white Rajah of Sarawak. ...


Left-wing and communist cell groups, which grew rapidly among Sarawak's urban Chinese communities since the 1950s (which later became the nucleus of the anti-Malaysia PARAKU and PGRS guerrilla forces), supported and propagated the unification of all British Borneo territories to form an independent leftist North Kalimantan state, an idea originally proposed by A.M. Azahari, leader of the Brunei People's Party, who had forged links with Sukarno's nationalist movement in Java since the 1940s. The North Kalimantan (or Kalimantan Utara) proposal was seen as a post-decolonization alternative by local opposition against the Malaysian Federation plan. Local opposition throughout the Borneo territories was primarily based on economic, political, historical and cultural differences between the Borneo states and the Malayan peninsula, and the refusal to be subjected to peninsular political domination. Sheikh Azahari bin Sheikh Mahmud (19??–19??), better known as A.M. Azahari, was a Brunei politician turned rebel. ... The Brunei Peoples Party (Parti Rakyat Brunei, PRB) is a banned political party in Brunei. ...


Contrary to popular belief, no firm evidence has ever been unearthed to support claims that Sukarno had territorial ambitions over Sarawak (he always held firmly to the 1945 decision which delineated Indonesia's boundaries to territories inherited from the former Dutch-Indies, and this might explain why he eagerly pursued Papua's - but not East Timor's - annexation). More likely was that Sukarno invested hopes for the establishment of a North Kalimantan state aligned to Jakarta's anti-colonial/imperialist geopolitics, in which he found suitable allies.


In effort to thwart any effort to form Malaysia, Indonesia became actively involved in subterfuge operations and later declared war on Malaysia. During this period, Indonesian agents came into contact with local opposition that was against the idea of a federation.


The Battle for Seria

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Prehistoric Malaysia (60,000–2,000 BCE)
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century–1400)
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
1964 Race Riots (1964)
Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
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The town of Seria was under rebel control when two Gurkha Rifles companies began to clear the area of rebels. Soon afterwards the Queen's Own Highlanders (a large part of the British force had been on leave) landed at Anduki Airfield and met up with 1/2 Gurkha Rifles. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links History_merdeka. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... now. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took placed in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahdi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants British Army, Indian Army, Australian Army, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 140,000 70,000 Casualties 5,000 killed, 50,000 prisoners of war no more than 34,000 The Battle of Malaya was a conflict between a Commonwealth army... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Indera Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 25 dead including non-combatants Bukit Kepong Incident was a historic armed encounter which took place on the February 23, 1950 between the police and... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu (English: Unity Is Strength)[1] Anthem Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur1 Official languages Malay Government Federal constitutional monarchy  -  Paramount Ruler Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the UK (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation (with... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... Combatants Malaysian Federal Government Malaysian Army Royal Malay Regiment Royal Ranger Regiment Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Police Malayan Communist Party Commanders Abdullah CD (Che Anjang Abdullah) - CPM leader Chin Peng - Secretary general Ah Sek (Ah Sze) Casualties Civilian casualties: The Communist Insurgency War or Second Malayan Emergency was... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputra are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Gurkha (or Gorkha) are people from Nepal who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorkhnath. ... The Queens Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons), officially abbreviated QOH, was an infantry regiment in the Scottish Division of the British Army. ...


Anduki Airfield today [1] is a grass airstrip with a concrete ramp used almost exclusively by Brunei Shell Petroleum aircraft and helicopters servicing Brunei's extensive offshore petroleum production installations. The Sultan of Brunei and members of the Royal Family sometimes use it in their helicopters when they wish to visit Seria, especially on State occasions[2]. Regarded as strategically important because of its proximity to the oil town of Seria, its history in the Brunei Revolt and the paucity of other Brunei airstrips usable by fixed-wing military aircraft, Anduki and the adjacent highway to Bandar Seri Begawan is one of the first areas to be secured by Gurkha and Brunei Army troops when they deploy on contemporary war exercises. The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state of Brunei. ... Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque Bandar Seri Begawan, estimated population 46,229 (1991), is the capital and the royal town of the Sultanate of Brunei. ... Gurkha, also spelt as Gorkha, are people from Nepal who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ...


Eyewitness accounts

Several government buidings in the capital which were regarded as key targets by the rebels were occupied and officials working at the time were held hostage. They included the Bruneian ministers who were in the building at the time when the rebels entered the compound and held them as hostages briefly. There were some interesting and rather obvious facts during the revolt, that many people in Bandar seri Begawan reported seeing groups of men buying army uniforms and equipments at the shop. The rebels were in fact preparing themselves for the revolt. While in the Tutong district, the supporters of the rebellion confirmed that they had engaged with the British in a firefight and some exchanges of fire. They reported that one had killed a Gurkha riflemen patrolling the region around the district. The news of one of the first casualties on the British army since the revolt began.


Executions at Temburong

On December 8, from two till five in the morning, shots could be heard near police stations all over Brunei. According to news received from Temburong, the District Officer Pengiran Haji Besar bin Pengiran Haji Kula, a few others from Brunei security forces and a number of civilians were executed for refusing to join in the rebellion. Temburong is the eastern-most district (daerah) in Brunei. ...


By five in the morning, TNKU already managed to control Pekan Besar. More news came out that a number of civil servants at Pekan Besar had managed to escape capture. Around an hour later at downtown, Deputy Chief Minister Pengiran Dato Setia Haji Mohd Ali bin Pengiran Dato Setia Haji Muhammad Yusuf bin Pengiran Haji Abdul Rahim was granted audience by the Sultan. After the meeting, the Sultan made a public appearance through radio to condemn TNKU, which was the armed wing of Parti Rakyat Brunei, for treason.


Consequences of the revolt

The revolt ended after five months when the last rebel leader, Yassin Affandi, being shot in the hip, was captured by British troops in mangrove swamps.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brunei - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (706 words)
Brunei was a British protectorate from 1888 to 1984.
Brunei consists of two unconnected parts; 97% of the population lives in the larger western part, only about 10,000 live in the mountainous eastern part, the district of Temburong.
Islam is the official religion of Brunei, and the sultan is the head of the religion in the country.
Brunei Revolt - encyclopedia article about Brunei Revolt. (1622 words)
Brunei is one of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
Brunei Brunei Darussalam, more commonly referred to as the Sultanate of Brunei or simply Brunei, is a petroleum-rich country located on the island of Borneo, in southeast Asia.
The Brunei Revolt broke out on the 8th of December December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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