FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bruges" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bruges
Bruges
Brugge (Dutch)
A canal in Bruges
Coat of arms Location of Bruges in West Flanders
Geography
Country Belgium
Community Flemish Community of Belgium flag Flemish Community
Region Flemish Region flag Flemish Region
Province West Flanders flag West Flanders
Arrondissement Bruges
Coordinates 51°13′N 03°14′E / 51.217, 3.233Coordinates: 51°13′N 03°14′E / 51.217, 3.233
Area 138.40 km²
Population (Source: NIS)
Population
– Males
– Females
- Density
117,224 (01/01/2006)
48.43%
51.57%
847 inhab./km²
Age distribution
0–19 years
20–64 years
65+ years
(01/01/2006)
20.57%
59.34%
20.09%
Foreigners 2.62% (01/07/2005)
Economy
Unemployment rate 7.40% (01/01/2006)
Mean annual income 13,617 €/pers. (2003)
Government
Mayor Patrick Moenaert (CD&V)
Governing parties CD&V, SP.A-Spirit, VLD
Other information
Postal codes 8000, 8200, 8310, 8380
Area codes 050
Web address www.brugge.be

Bruges (Dutch: Brugge, stemming from Bryggja, which assumedly used to signify 'landing stage' or 'port') is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the north-west of the country. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 559 pixel Image in higher resolution (2577 × 1801 pixel, file size: 3 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bruges ... Image File history File links RedDot. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links BruggeLocatie. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Flanders. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Flanders. ... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_West_Flanders. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... This is a list of Belgian administrative arrondissements or districts. ... The Arrondissement of Bruges (Dutch: ; French: ) is one of the eight administrative arrondissements in the Province of West Flanders, Belgium. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Statistics Belgium is the main official statistical institution in Belgian offering a large choice of figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... This distribution is named for the pyramidal shape of its graph. ... Map of the world with countries colored according to their immigrant population as a percentage of total population: Immigration is the movement of people from one nation-state to another. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... The SP.A-Spirit is a political cartel between the parties SP.A and Spirit ... VLD may refer to: Ventilated Linear Dynamic Flemish Liberals and Democrats Category: ... This is a list of postal codes for Belgium. ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ...


The historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It's egg-shaped and about 430 ha big. The surface of the complete city amounts to more than 13,840 ha, including 193.7 ha off the coast, at Zeebrugge. The city's total populuation is more than 117,000, of which ca. 20,000 live in the historic centre. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The church of Zeebrugge Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ...


Bruges has a quite big economic importance, thanks to its port, and it's also home to the College of Europe. Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... The College of Europe is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with campuses in Bruges, Belgium and Natolin (Warsaw), Poland. ...

Contents

History

Origins

The Big Market square (Grote Markt)
The Big Market square (Grote Markt)
Historic Centre of Bruges*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Also referred to as the "Venice of the North", Bruges has many waterways across the city.
State Party Flag of Belgium Belgium
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference 996
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 2000  (24th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.
Beguinage
Beguinage

Very few traces of human activity date from the Pre-Roman Gaul era. The first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the 1st century BC to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks took over the whole region from the Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the 9th century prompted Baldwin I, Count of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications; trade soon resumed with England and Scandinavia. It is at around this time that coins appeared bearing for the first time the name Bryggia, a name that may have the same origin as Norway’s Bryggen. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1524, 667 KB) The Bruges city square, taken by myself (Sophie Templer). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1524, 667 KB) The Bruges city square, taken by myself (Sophie Templer). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 539 KB) Begijnhof in Brugge, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bruges Béguinage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 539 KB) Begijnhof in Brugge, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bruges Béguinage Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC, dwelling around the Rhine estuary, and extending inland towards the Ardennes. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... In the later Western Roman Empire, following the reorganization of Diocletian, a pagus (compare French pays) became the smallest administrative district of a province. ... The term king commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of britain and ireland as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8–18th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Baldwin I of Flanders (d. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Bryggen in Bergen Built after 1702 Bryggen (Norwegian, The Wharf), also known as Tyskebryggen (the German Wharf) is a series of Hanseatic commercial buildings lining the eastern side of the fjord coming into Bergen, Norway. ...


Golden Age (12th to 15th century)

Bruges got its city charter on July 27, 1128 and built itself new walls and canals. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter Hedeby is sacked by King Harald Hardraade of Norway during the course of a conflict with King Eric Estridsson of Denmark. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... Sea lavender blossoms in august-september The Zwin is a natural reserve with an area of 1. ... Damme church Damme is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ...


With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, and the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. Bruges was already included in the circuit of the Flemish cloth fairs at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean. This development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but also advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the fourteenth century. By the time Venetian galleys first appeared, in 1314, they were latecomers.[1] The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... Damme church Damme is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Sluis is a municipality and a town in the southwestern Netherlands in the west of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. ... Excavated cog from 1380 Cogs or rather cog-built vessels came into existence around 12th century AD. They were cheracterized by flush-laid flat bottom at midships but gradually shifted to overlapped strakes near the posts. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A stock exchange is an organization of which the members are stock brokers. ...


Such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained. In 1302, however, the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in the victory at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, fought near Kortrijk on July 11. The statue of Jan Breydel and Pieter de Coninck, the leaders of the uprising, can still be seen on the Big Market square. Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Kortrijk Coordinates , , Area 80. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan Breydel (born in Bruges in the 13th century) is credited with leading the Brugse Metten, a violent uprising against Philip the Fair. ... Pieter de Coninck (birthday unknown - died in 1332 or 1333) was a weaver from Bruges well-known for his role in the events surrounding the Battle of the Golden Spurs. ...


In the 15th century, Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy set up court in Bruges, as well as Brussels and Lille, attracting a number of artists, bankers, and other prominent personalities from all over Europe. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ...


The new Flemish-school, oil-painting techniques gained world renown. The first book in English ever printed was published in Bruges by William Caxton. This is also the time when Edward IV and Richard III of England spent time in exile here. The population swelled to more than 40,000 inhabitants. The printers device of William Caxton, 1478. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ...


16th century until now

Starting around 1500, the Zwin channel, which had given the city its prosperity, also started silting. The city soon fell behind Antwerp as the economic flagship of the Low Countries. During the 17th century, the lace industry took off and various efforts to bring back the glorious past were taken. The maritime infrastructure was modernized, and new connections with the sea were built, but without much success. Bruges became impoverished and gradually disappeared from the picture. George Rodenbach even named the sleepy city Bruges-la-Morte meaning Bruges-the-dead. In the last half of the 19th century Bruges became one of the world's first tourist destinations attracting wealthy British and French tourists. Only in the second half of the twentieth century has the city started to reclaim some of its past glory. The port of Zeebrugge was built in 1907. The Germans used it for their U-boats in World War I. It was greatly expanded in the 1970s and early 1980s and has became one of Europe's most important and modern ports. International tourism has boomed and new efforts have resulted in Bruges being designated 'European Capital of Culture' in 2002. 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... Rodenbachs gravesite in Paris. ... Bruges-la-Morte is a short novel by the Belgian author Georges Rodenbach, first published in 1892. ... Satellite image of Bruges and the Port of Zeebrugge Post-Panamax-Containership CMA CGM BALZAC in PSA HNN-Terminal The Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge (Port of Zeebrugge) is a large container, bulk cargo, new vehicles, and passenger ferry terminal port in the municipality of Bruges, Flanders, Belgium, handling over 30... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


Sights

Bruges has most of its medieval architecture intact. There are many beautiful medieval buildings, including the Church of Our Lady, whose brick spire - at 122m - makes it one of the world's highest brick towers/buildings. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... View of tower from the northeast The Church of Our Lady (Dutch: Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk) in Bruges, Belgium, dates mainly from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. ...


Bruges is also famous for its 13th-century Belfry, housing a municipal Carillon comprising 47 bells. The city still employs a full-time bell ringer, Aimé Lombaért,[1] who puts on regular free concerts. Belfry of Bruges The belfry of Bruges, sometimes called the Halletoren, is one of the most prominent symbols of Bruges, Belgium. ... The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA. A carillon is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime). ...


Other famous buildings in Bruges include the Beguinage, the Heilig Bloed Basiliek (the Basilica of the Holy Blood), the modern Concert Building (Concertgebouw) and the Old St-John's Hospital. The historic centre of Bruges is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.[2] UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bruges also has a very fine collection of medieval and early modern art, including the world-famous collection of Flemish Primitives. Various masters, such as Hans Memling and Jan van Eyck, lived and worked in Bruges. St Ursula Shrine by Hans Memling (1489) Gilded and painted wood, 87 x 33 x 91 cm Memlingmuseum, Sint-Janshospitaal, Bruges Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ...

  • Sint-Salvator Cathedral
  • Groeningemuseum
  • Heilig Bloed Basiliek (the Basilica of the Holy Blood). The relic of the Holy Blood, which was brought to the city during the First Crusade, is paraded every year through the streets of the city. More than 1,600 inhabitants take part in this mile-long religious procession, many dressed as medieval knights or crusaders.
  • Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk (Church of Our Lady). The sculpture Madonna and Child, which can be seen in the transept, is believed to be Michelangelo's only sculpture to have left Italy within his lifetime.

Sint-Salvator Cathedral The Sint-Salvator Cathedral is the cathedral of Bruges in Belgium. ... The Groeningemuseum is a Municipal Museum of Bruges, Belgium It houses a comprehensive survey of six centuries of Flemish and Belgian painting, from Jan van Eyck to Marcel Broodthaers. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Each Ascension Day, Bruges becomes the decor of a large procession, dating back to the Middle Ages. ... The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, of Mary with the infant Jesus. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ...

Culture and art

Concertgebouw (Concert Building)
Concertgebouw (Concert Building)
't Zand with the Concertgebouw
't Zand with the Concertgebouw
The Belfry - situated on the south side of the Big Market square (Grote Markt)
The Belfry - situated on the south side of the Big Market square (Grote Markt)
City Hall
Mill
Mill
North-western view from the Belfry
North-western view from the Belfry

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (933 × 622 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Concertgebouw Bruges Picture taken myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (933 × 622 pixel, file size: 392 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Concertgebouw Bruges Picture taken myself I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 672 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 672 pixel, file size: 252 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 241 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bruges Bell tower Belfry of Bruges ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 241 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bruges Bell tower Belfry of Bruges ... Cityhall of Bruges File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cityhall of Bruges File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1,005 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bruges, View from the belfry, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1,005 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bruges, View from the belfry, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Theatres and concert halls

  • Biekorf
  • Bogardenkapel
  • De Bond
  • Concertgebouw (Concert Building)
  • De Dijk
  • The English Theatre of Bruges
  • Het Entrepot
  • Jan Garemijnzaal
  • Magdalenazaal
  • Stadsschouwburg
  • De Werf

The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

Cinemas

  • Cinema Lumière (alternative movies)
  • Cinema Liberty
  • Kinepolis Bruges

The first megaplex in the world is generally considered to be Kinepolis Brussels in Brussels, Belgium, which opened in 1988 with 25 screens. ...

Festivals

  • Accordion festival Airbag
  • BAB beer festival
  • Bad Boys Festival
  • Brugge Tripel Dagen
  • Brugges Festival
  • Brugse Kantdagen (Bruges' Lace Days)
  • Burgrock
  • Cactusfestival
  • Chocolate festival Choco-Laté
  • Film festival Cinema Novo
  • Comma Rocks Festival
  • Dance festival December Dance
  • Dudstock
  • European Youth Film Festival of Flanders
  • Feest In't Park
  • Jazz festival Jazz Brugge
  • Jonge Snaken Festival
  • Klinkers
  • miniROCK
  • Music in Mind
  • Festival van Vlaanderen Musica Antiqua
  • Polé Polé Beach (Zeebrugge)
  • Redrock
  • Reiefeest
  • Soundscape Festival
  • Thoprock
  • Vama Veche festival
  • Walvisfestival

Museums

  • Municipal museums
    • Artistic works from the 15th to 21st century:
      • Groeningemuseum
      • Arents House
      • Forum + [Concertgebouw] (exhibitions of contemporary art)
    • The Bruggemuseum (Bruges Museum) (general title encompassing all the different historical museums):
    • Hospitaalmuseums:
      • Old St John’s Hospital (Hans Memling)
      • Our Lady of the Potteries
    • Folklore:
      • Museum of Folklore
      • Guido Gezelle Museum
      • Koelewei (Cool Meadow) Mill
      • Sint-Janshuis (St. John’s House) Mill
  • Non-municipal museums
    • Beguine's House
    • Hof Bladelin
    • Basilica of the Holy Blood
    • Choco-Story
    • Diamond Museum
    • Ter Doest
    • English Convent
    • Jerusalem Church
    • Lace centre
    • St. George’s Archers Guild
    • Sint-Salvator Cathedral
    • St. Sebastian’s Archers’ Guild
    • St. Trudo Abbey Male
    • Public Observatory Beisbroek

The Groeningemuseum is a Municipal Museum of Bruges, Belgium It houses a comprehensive survey of six centuries of Flemish and Belgian painting, from Jan van Eyck to Marcel Broodthaers. ... View of tower from the northeast The Church of Our Lady (Dutch: Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk) in Bruges, Belgium, dates mainly from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. ... Belfry of Bruges The belfry of Bruges, sometimes called the Halletoren, is one of the most prominent symbols of Bruges, Belgium. ... St Ursula Shrine by Hans Memling (1489) Gilded and painted wood, 87 x 33 x 91 cm Memlingmuseum, Sint-Janshospitaal, Bruges Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. ... Sint-Salvator Cathedral The Sint-Salvator Cathedral is the cathedral of Bruges in Belgium. ...

Geography

The municipality comprises the historic city centre of Bruges, considered one of the most beautiful in Europe, Sint-Jozef and Sint-Pieters (I), Koolkerke (II), Sint-Andries (III), Sint-Michiels (IV), Assebroek (V), Sint-Kruis (VI), Dudzele (VII) and Lissewege (with Zeebrugge and Zwankendamme) (VIII). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Belgium comprises 589 municipalities (Dutch: gemeenten, French: communes, German: Gemeinde) grouped into five provinces in each of two regions and into a third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, comprising 19 municipalities that do not belong to a province. ... Sint-Jozef is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Sint-Pieters is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Koolkerke is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Sint-Andries is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Sint-Michiels is a Belgian town in Bruges, in the provinceWest Flanders. ... Church of Ver-Assebroek, photo: Dries Declercq The concentrical rings, photo: www. ... Sint-Kruis is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Dudzele is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... Lissewege is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ... The church of Zeebrugge Zeebrugge (French: Zeebruges) is a harbour-town at the coast of Belgium, a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port. ... Zwankendamme is a town in Bruges, a part of Belgium. ...


Transport

Satellite picture of Bruges
Satellite picture of Bruges

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Road

Bruges has excellent road connections from all directions (E40, A10, E403, N31, E34). European route E 40 passes through the following cities: Calais - Dunkerque - Veurne - Oostende - Brugge - Gent - Brussels - Leuven - Liège - Aachen - Köln - Gummersbach - Olpe - Siegen - Wetzlar - Gießen - Bad Hersfeld - Eisenach - Gotha - Erfurt - Weimar - Jena - Gera - Chemnitz - Dresden - Bautzen - Görlitz - BolesÅ‚awiec - Legnica - WrocÅ‚aw - Opole - Metropolian Katowice - Krak...


Driving within the 'egg', the historical centre enclosed by the main circle of canals in Bruges, is discouraged by traffic management schemes, including a network of one way streets. The system encourages the use of set routes leading to central car parks and direct exit routes. The car parks are convenient for the central commercial and tourist areas; they are inexpensive.


Railway

Bruges' main railway station provides at least hourly trains to all other major cities of Belgium. Further there are several regional and local trains. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Brugge train station Bruges main railway station is the biggest railway station in Bruges and one of the busiest railway stations in Belgium. ...


The main station is also a halt for the Thalys train Paris - Brussels - Ostend. Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... The esplanade with the Thermae Palace, the former Royal Residence and the casino For other uses, see Ostend (disambiguation). ...


Bus links to the centre are frequent, though the railway station is just a 20 minute walk from the Big Market square (Grote Markt).


Air

Although the nearest airport is Ostend-Bruges International Airport in Ostend (±20 km from Bruges), it's recommended to fly to Brussels Airport and take a train from there. Ostend-Bruges International Airport (commonly: Ostend Airport) is located in Ostend, Belgium, near the coast. ... Brussels Airport (IATA: BRU, ICAO: EBBR) (also called in Dutch: Luchthaven Zaventem or in French: Aéroport de Zaventem), also Zaventem Airport or Brussels (Zaventem) International Airport, was formerly known as Brussel Nationaal/Bruxelles-National (Brussels National). ...

't Zand bus station
't Zand bus station

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 567 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) [[category:De Lijn] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 567 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) [[category:De Lijn] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Public city transport

Bruges has an extensive web of bus lines, operated by De Lijn, providing access to the city centre and the suburbs (city lines, Dutch: stadslijnen) and to many towns and villages in the region around the city (regional lines, Dutch: streeklijnen). De Lijn is a company run by the Flemish government in Belgium to provide public transportation, similar to the way in which Belgian railroads or the postal system is run. ...


Plans for a north-south light rail connection, that would join up with the Belgian Coast Tram in Zeebrugge, are under construction. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The Belgian Coast Tram at Ostend The Belgium Coast Tram (Flemish: Kusttram) is a public transport service serving the Belgian coast between De Panne near the French border to Knokke-Heist near the Dutch border. ...


Cycling

Although a few streets are restricted, no part of Bruges is car free.


Cars are required to yield to pedestrians and cyclists. Plans have long been under way to ban cars altogether from the historic center of Bruges or to restrict traffic much more than it currently is, but these plans have yet to come to fruition. In 2005, signs were changed for the convenience of cyclists, allowing two-way cycle traffic on more streets, however car traffic has not decreased. Recent cycle fatalities have increased pressure to close bridges and further calm inner Bruges, but laws have not yet passed. Due to heavily populated suburbs, bus traffic is high on the narrow streets. This makes cycling even trickier.


Nethertheless, in common with many cities in the region, there are thousands of cyclists in the city of Bruges.


Port

The port of Bruges is Zeebrugge. It's the most modern and second biggest port of Belgium and one of the biggest and most important in Europe.

Further information: Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge

Satellite image of Bruges and the Port of Zeebrugge Post-Panamax-Containership CMA CGM BALZAC in PSA HNN-Terminal The Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge (Port of Zeebrugge) is a large container, bulk cargo, new vehicles, and passenger ferry terminal port in the municipality of Bruges, Flanders, Belgium, handling over 30...

Sports

The Tour of Flanders (Dutch: Ronde van Vlaanderen) is a road cycling race held in Flanders, Belgium. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The Belgian First Division, also known as Jupiler League (for sponsorship reasons), is the top competition in Belgian football (soccer). ... Club Brugge KV is a football club from Brugge, Belgium. ... Cercle Brugge K.SV. is a Belgian football club. ... Jan Breydel Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Bruges, Belgium. ...

Miscellaneous

Brugse Zot
Brugse Zot
  • Bruges is known for its lace.
  • Several beers are named after Bruges, such as Brugse Tripel, Brugs Blond, Brugs Witbier and Straffe Hendrik. However, only Brugse Zot is still brewed in the city itself in the Halve Maan Brewery (a blonde ale was launched in 2005 and a brown ale in 2006).
  • The detective stories of Pieter Aspe are situated in Bruges.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (622 × 841 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (622 × 841 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Valenciennes Mechlin Lace Bobbin lace is a delicate lace that uses wound spools of thread (the bobbins) to weave together the shapes in the lace. ... Brugs is a white beer from Western Flanders, based on a traditional Brabant brew. ... The College of Europe is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with campuses in Bruges, Belgium and Natolin (Warsaw), Poland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... The Bruges Matins or Brugse Metten was the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18 May 1302. ... In Bruges is a feature film from Oscar-winning director Martin McDonagh starring Colin Farrell, Brendan Gleeson and Ralph Fiennes. ... Martin McDonagh (born 26 March 1970) is a contemporary Irish playwright. ... Alan Hollinghurst is a British novelist. ... The Folding Star is a 1994 novel by Alan Hollinghurst. ... Pieter Aspe, (officially Pierre Aspeslag, born Brugge, 3 April 1953) is a Belgian/Flemish writer of a series of detective stories starring inspector Van In. ...

Famous inhabitants

See also: Notable people from Bruges This is a list of Notable people from Bruges, who were either born in Bruges, or spent part of their life there. ...


The following people were born in Bruges:

In the 15th century, the city became the magnet for a number of prominent personalities: Jan Breydel (born in Bruges in the 13th century) is credited with leading the Brugse Metten, a violent uprising against Philip the Fair. ... Pieter de Coninck (birthday unknown - died in 1332 or 1333) was a weaver from Bruges well-known for his role in the events surrounding the Battle of the Golden Spurs. ... Philip the Handsome (July 22, 1478 – September 25, 1506; Spanish: ; German: ; French: ) was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Through his mother Mary of Burgundy he inherited the greater part of the Burgundian state the Burgundian Netherlands and through his wife Joanna the Mad he briefly succeeded... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Adrian Willaert (c. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Simon Stevin Simon Stevin (1548/49 – 1620) was a Flemish mathematician and engineer. ... Franciscus Gomarus (born January 30, 1563 in Bruges, died 1641), was a Dutch theologian. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Guido Gezelle (1830-1899) was a poet and Roman Catholic priest writing in the Dutch language area of Belgium. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

The fictional supervillain, Doctor Evil, from the Austin Powers movie series, is also supposed to be from Bruges. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The printers device of William Caxton, 1478. ... Petrus Christus, born 1410/1420 in Antwerpen, dead 1472 in Bruges, flemish painter, active in Bruges from 1444. ... Annunciation from 1506, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Gerard David (c. ... St Ursula Shrine by Hans Memling (1489) Gilded and painted wood, 87 x 33 x 91 cm Memlingmuseum, Sint-Janshospitaal, Bruges Hans Memling (Memlinc) (c. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ... Juan Luís Vives (March 6, 1492 - May 6, 1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia. ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... Dr. Evil is a fictional supervillain played by Mike Myers in the Austin Powers film series. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Cooperations

On principle, Bruges has up till now never gone into close collaboration with so-called twin sisters. Without denying the usefulness of this schemes for towns with less international contacts, the main reason is that Bruges would find it difficult to choose between cities and thinks that it has enough work already with its many international contacts. Too often also, it was thought in Bruges, was twinning mostly an occasion for city authorities and representatives to travel on public expense.


This principle resulted in the nineteen fifties in Bruges refusing a 'jumelage' with Nice and other towns, signed by a Belgian ambassador without previous consultation. In the seventies, a Belgian consul in Oldenburg made the mayor of Bruges sign a 'declaration of friendship' which he tried to present, in vain, as a 'jumelage' This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


The twinning between some of the former communes, merged with Bruges in 1971, were discontinued.


This does not mean that Bruges would not be interested in cooperation with others, as well in the short term as in the long run, for particular projects. Here follow a few examples.


Bastogne Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ...


After World War II and into the seventies, Bruges, more in particular the Fire Brigade of Bruges, entertained friendly relations with Bastogne in the province of Luxemburg. Each year a free holiday was offered at the seaside in Zeebrugge, to children from the Nuts city. German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The coat of arms of the Bastogne municipality. ... Luxembourg (Dutch and German: Luxemburg, Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg, Waloon: Lussimbork) is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ...


Arolsen Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ...


From the fifties on until the eighties, Bruges was the patron of the Belgian First Regiment of Horse Guards, quartered in Arolsen (Germany) Horse Guards is also a large building on Whitehall, at the eastern end of Horse Guards Parade. ... Arolsen is a small town in northern Hesse and the baroque 18th century residence of the Princes of Waldeck_Pyrmont, a former principality in Hesse, Germany. ...


Salamanca Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ...


Both towns having been made European Capital of Culture in 2002, Bruges had some exchanges organized with Salamanca (Spain). The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Salamanca (population 160,000) is a city in western Spain, the capital of the province of Salamanca, which belongs to the autonomous community (region) of Castile-Leon (Castilla y León). ...


Mons Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ...


In 2007, cultural and artistic cooperation between Mons (Hainaut) and Bruges was inaugurated. Geography Country Belgium Region Walloon Region Community French Community Province Hainaut Arrondissement Mons Coordinates Area 146. ... Hainaut (French; English traditionally Hainault, Dutch: Henegouwen, German: Hennegau, Walloon: Hinnot) is the westernmost province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. ...


Burgos Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ...


The mayors of Burgos (Spain) and Bruges have signed on 29th January 2007 a declaration of intent about future cooperation on cultural, touristic and economic matters. The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ...


External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. ^ Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, in Vol.III Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
  2. ^ Historic centre of Bruges becomes a UNESCO World Heritage Site


Municipalities in the Province of West Flanders, Flanders, Belgium
Bruges: Beernem | Blankenberge | Bruges/Brugge | Damme | Jabbeke | Knokke-Heist | Oostkamp | Torhout | Zedelgem | Zuienkerke
Diksmuide: Diksmuide | Houthulst | Koekelare | Kortemark | Lo-Reninge
Kortrijk: Anzegem | Avelgem | Deerlijk | Harelbeke | Kortrijk | Kuurne | Lendelede | Menen | Spiere-Helkijn | Waregem | Wevelgem | Zwevegem
Ostend: Bredene | De Haan | Gistel | Ichtegem | Middelkerke | Oostende/Ostend | Oudenburg
Roeselare: Hooglede | Ingelmunster | Izegem | Ledegem | Lichtervelde | Moorslede | Roeselare | Staden
Tielt: Ardooie | Dentergem | Meulebeke | Oostrozebeke | Pittem | Ruiselede | Tielt | Wielsbeke | Wingene
Veurne: Alveringem | De Panne | Koksijde | Nieuwpoort | Veurne
Ypres: Heuvelland | Ieper/Ypres | Langemark-Poelkapelle | Mesen | Poperinge | Vleteren | Wervik | Zonnebeke

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tourist and travel information about Bruges (Brugge) in Belgium. (334 words)
The best way to visit Bruges is to spend at least one night in one of the many beautiful and cozy hotels.
Bruges is always beautiful, in the summertime as well as in the wintertime.
Bruges is unique, in the sense that here the town authorities have done the utmost to preserve the medieval-looking image of the city.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Bruges (2172 words)
Bruges, in 1300 it became a member of the Hanseatic League, and by 1356 it was the chief emporium of the cities of the League.
Bruges by the Dutch in 1704, the surrender to the Allies in 1706, its surprise-capture by the
Bruges, the Communal Council (which consists of the burgomaster, 5 aldermen, and 24 councillors) with the exception of 6 councillors (five of whom are Liberals and one a Christian Democrat) being in the hands of the Catholic party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m