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Encyclopedia > Brucella abortus
Brucellosis
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 A23.
ICD-9 023
DiseasesDB 1716
MedlinePlus 000597
eMedicine med/248 

Brucellosis (Undulant fever or Malta fever) is an infectious disease caused by the Brucella bacteria. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent such as by a virus, bacterium or parasite. ... Species Brucella melitensis Brucella abortus Brucella suis Brucella canis Brucella are a genus of bacteria. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are microscopic, unicellular organisms. ...

Contents

Nomenclature

The popular name of the condition is originated due to the inconstance (or undulance) of the fever, which raises and falls constantly. Brucellosis is named after its researcher David Bruce. Maltese doctor and archaeologist Sir Temi Zammit identified unpasteurized milk as the major source of the pathogen in 1905, and it has since become known as Malta Fever, or deni rqiq locally. Sir David Bruce (Melbourne, May 29, 1855 - November 27, 1931) was an English pathologist and microbiologist who investigated the Malta-fever and trypanosomes, identifying the cause of sleeping sickness. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In animals this disease is also known as contagious abortion and infectious abortion. In 1897 Danish veterinarian Bernhard Bang isolated Brucella abortus as the agent and the additional name Bang's disease was assigned. In modern usage "Bang's disease" is often corrupted to just "bangs" when ranchers discuss the disease or vaccine. 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bernhard Lauritz Frederik Bang (June 7, 1848 Sorø - June 22, 1932 Copenhagen), was a Danish veterinarian. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Transmission and incubation

The disease is transmitted either through contaminated or untreated milk (and its derivates) or through direct contact with infected animals, which may include sheep, pigs, goats, cattle, camels, bison, and other ruminants. This also includes contact with their carcasses. A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Species See text. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camels are even-toed ungulates in the genus Camelus. ... Binomial name Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Cervidae Giraffidae Moschidae Tragulidae A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud, a process called ruminating. ... Carcass of a chicken after cooking Carcass may refer to: A carcass (or carcase) is a term for a dead body, typically that of an animal. ...


The incubation period of brucellosis is, usually, of one to three weeks, but some rare instances may take several months to surface. Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


Symptoms

Brucellosis induces inconstant fevers, sweating, weakness, anorexia, headaches, depression and muscular and bodily pain. An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia, sometimes spelled as cephalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Clinical depression (also called severe depressive disorder, major depressive disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


The symptoms are like those associated with many other febrile diseases, but with emphasis on muscular pain and sweating. The duration of the disease can vary from a few weeks to many months or even years. An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...


The disease's sequelae are highly variable and may include granulomatous hepatitis, arthritis, spondylitis, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, meningitis, uveitis, optic neuritis and endocarditis. Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... this is a very painful thing my name is lauren!!!!! haha muaha muaha muahaha Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Spondylitis is an inflammation of a vertebra. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ... Optic [[neuritis](or retrobulbar neuritis) is the inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ...


Treatment and prevention

Antibiotics like tetracyclins, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and the aminoglycosides streptomycin and gentamicin are effective against Brucella bacteria. However, the use of more than one antibiotic is needed for several weeks, due to the fact that the bacteria incubates within cells. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Chloramphenicol (or 2,2-dichlor-N-[(aR,bR)-b-hydroxy-a-hydroxymethyl-4-nitrophenethyl]acetamide) is an antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Gentamicin is a aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


The gold standard treatment for adults is daily intramuscular injections of streptomycin 1g for 14 days and oral doxycycline 100mg twice daily for 45 days (concurrently). Gentamicin 5 mg/kg by intramuscular injection once daily for 7 days is an acceptable substitute when streptomycin is not available or difficult to obtain.[1] Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Doxycycline is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Gentamicin is a aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ...


The main way of preventing Brucellosis is by using fastidious hygiene in producing raw milk products, or by pasteurization of all milk that is to be ingested by human beings, either in its pure form or as a derivate, such as cheese. Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...


Brucellosis in dogs

The causative agent of brucellosis in dogs is Brucella canis. It is transmitted to other dogs through breeding and contact with aborted fetuses. Brucellosis can occur in humans that come in contact with infected aborted tissue or semen. The bacteria in dogs normally infect the genitals and lymphatic system, but can also spread to the eye, kidney, and intervertebral disc (causing discospondylitis). Symptoms of brucellosis in dogs include abortion in bitches and scrotal inflammation and orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) in males. Fever is uncommon. Infection of the eye can cause uveitis, and infection of the intervertebral disc can cause pain or weakness. Blood testing of the dogs prior to breeding can prevent the spread of this disease. It is treated with antibiotics as with humans, but it is difficult to cure.[2] Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... Closeup of a blue-green human eye. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Intervertebral discs lie in between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a bag of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Orchitis is an often very painful condition of the testicles involving inflammation, swelling and frequently infection. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ...


Biological warfare

The United States biological warfare program focused on three agents of the Brucella group:

  • Porcine Brucellosis (Agent US)
  • Bovine Brucellosis (Agent AB)
  • Caprina Brucellosis (Agent AM)

Agent US was in advanced development by the end of the Second World War. When the USAF wanted a biological warfare capability, the Chemical Corps offered agent US in the M114 bomblet, based after the 4-pound bursting bomblet developed for anthrax in the Second World War. Though the capability was developed, operational testing indicated that the weapon was less than desirable, and the USAF termed it an interim capability until replaced by a more effective biological weapon. The main drawbacks of the M114 with agent US was that it was incapacitating (the USAF wanted "killer" agents), the storage stability was too low to allow for storing at forward air bases, and the logistical requirements to neutralize a target were far higher than originally anticipated, requiring unreasonable logistical air support. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Agents US and AB had a median infective dose of 500 org/person, and AM was 300 org/person. The rate-of-action was believed to be 2 weeks, with a duration of action of several months. The lethality estimate was based on epidemiological information at 1 - 2%. AM was always believed to be a more virulent disease, and a 3% fatality rate was expected.


References

  1. ^ Roushan MRH, Mohraz M, Hajiahmadi M, Ramzani A, Valayati AA (2006). "Efficacy of gentamicin plus doxycycline versus streptomycin plus doxycycline in the treatment of brucellosis in humans". Clin Infect Dis 42 (8): 1075–80.
  2. ^ Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed., W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 072166793.

See also

Brucellosis in pigs is an infectious and contagious disease caused by the bacteria, Brucella suis. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brucella - MicrobeWiki (1192 words)
Brucella is a Gram-negative pathogen that is distinguished from most other pathogens because it does not have "obvious virulence factors" like "capsules, fimbriae, flagella, exotoxins, exproteases, or other exoenzymes, cytolysins, resistance forms, antigenic variation, plamids, or lysogenic phages" (Moreno and Moriyon 2002).
Brucella is a pathogenic bacterium that has been called "exceedingly well adapted" to the niche of living in compartments within professional and nonprofessional phagocytes (Moreno and Moriyon 2002).
Brucella is generally known for causing infertility, abortions, and other reproductive complications in animals with the disease brucellosis, however, this bacterium is also the cause of a rarer, more severe systemic infection called neurobrucellosis.
Brucella abortus* (595 words)
Cows are the source of Brucella abortus but other species of Brucella can be contracted from other animals and can also cause brucellosis.
Humans are generally infected by eating or drinking something that is contaminated with Brucella, breathing in the organism (inhalation), or having the bacteria enter the body through skin wounds.
Inhalation of Brucella organisms is not common, but it can be a significant hazard for people in laboratories where the organism is cultured.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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