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Encyclopedia > Bruce Medal

The Catherine Wolfe Bruce gold medal is awarded every year by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for outstanding lifetime contributions to astronomy. Catherine Wolfe Bruce (1816 – 1900) was a noted American patroness of astronomy. ... The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) was founded in San Francisco in 1889. ... In ancient Greece and other early civilizations, astronomy consisted largely of astrometry, measuring positions of stars and planets in the sky. ...


See also: Bruce Medalists


Past laureates are:


1898 Simon Newcomb
1899 Arthur Auwers
1900 David Gill
1902 Giovanni V. Schiaparelli
1904 William Huggins
1906 Hermann Carl Vogel
1908 Edward C. Pickering
1909 George William Hill
1911 Henri Poincaré
1913 Jacobus C. Kapteyn
1914 Oskar Backlund
1915 William Wallace Campbell
1916 George Ellery Hale
1917 Edward Emerson Barnard
1920 Ernest W. Brown
1921 Henri A. Deslandres
1922 Frank W. Dyson
1923 Benjamin Baillaud
1924 Arthur Stanley Eddington
1925 Henry Norris Russell
1926 Robert G. Aitken
1927 Herbert Hall Turner
1928 Walter S. Adams
1929 Frank Schlesinger
1930 Max Wolf
1931 Willem de Sitter
1932 John S. Plaskett
1933 Carl V.L. Charlier
1934 Alfred Fowler
1935 Vesto M. Slipher
1936 Armin O. Leuschner
1937 Ejnar Hertzsprung
1938 Edwin P. Hubble
1939 Harlow Shapley
1940 Frederick H. Seares
1941 Joel Stebbins
1942 Jan H. Oort
1945 E. Arthur Milne
1946 Paul Merrill
1947 Bernard Lyot
1948 Otto Struve
1949 Harold Spencer Jones
1950 Alfred H. Joy
1951 Marcel Minnaert
1952 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
1953 Harold D. Babcock
1954 Bertil Lindblad
1955 Walter Baade
1956 Albrecht Unsöld
1957 Ira S. Bowen
1958 William W. Morgan
1959 Bengt Strömgren
1960 Viktor A. Ambartsumian
1961 Rudolph Minkowski
1962 Grote Reber
1963 Seth Barnes Nicholson
1964 Otto Heckmann
1965 Martin Schwarzschild
1966 Dirk Brouwer
1967 Ludwig Biermann
1968 Willem J. Luyten
1969 Horace W. Babcock
1970 Fred Hoyle
1971 Jesse Greenstein
1972 Iosif S. Shklovskii
1973 Lyman Spitzer, Jr.
1974 Martin Ryle
1975 Allan R. Sandage
1976 Ernst J. Öpik
1977 Bart J. Bok
1978 Hendrik C. van de Hulst
1979 William A. Fowler
1980 George Herbig
1981 Riccardo Giacconi
1982 E. Margaret Burbidge
1983 Yakov B. Zel'dovich
1984 Olin C. Wilson
1985 Thomas G. Cowling
1986 Fred L. Whipple
1987 Edwin E. Salpeter
1988 John G. Bolton
1989 Adriaan Blaauw
1990 Charlotte E. Moore Sitterly
1991 Donald E. Osterbrock
1992 Maarten Schmidt
1993 Martin Rees
1994 Wallace Sargent
1995 P. James E. Peebles
1996 Albert E. Whitford
1997 Eugene Parker
1998 Donald Lynden-Bell
1999 Geoffrey R. Burbidge
2000 Rashid A. Sunyaev
2001 Hans A. Bethe
2002 Bohdan Paczynski
2003 Vera C. Rubin
2004 Chushiro Hayashi
2005 Robert Kraft 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Simon Newcomb. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Georg Friedrich Julius Arthur von Auwers (September 12, 1838 – January 24, 1915) was a German astronomer. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Sir David Gill (June 12, 1843 – January 24, 1914) was a Scottish astronomer who spent much of his career in South Africa. ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (March 14, 1835 – July 4, 1910) was an Italian astronomer. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Huggins Sir William Huggins (February 7, 1824 – May 12, 1910) was a British astronomer. ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Hermann Carl Vogel (April 3, 1841 – August 13, 1907) was a German astronomer. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist, brother of William Henry Pickering. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George William Hill (March 3, 1838 – April 16, 1914), U.S. astronomer and mathematician. ... 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Henri Poincaré, photograph from the frontispiece of the 1913 edition of Last Thoughts Jules Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912), generally known as Henri Poincaré, was one of Frances greatest mathematicians, theoretical scientists (as a mathematical physicist) and a philosopher of science. ... Link title1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn, (January 19, 1851 – June 18, 1922) was a Dutch astronomer, best known for his extensive studies of the Milky Way and as the first discoverer of evidence for galactic rotation. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Wallace Campbell (April 11, 1862 – June 14, 1938) was an American astronomer. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... George Ellery Hale (June 29, 1868 – February 21, 1938) was an American solar astronomer. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Ernest William Brown (November 29, 1866 – July 22, 1938) was a British astronomer. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Henri Alexandre Deslandres (July 24, 1853 – January 15, 1948) was a French astronomer, director of the Meudon and Paris Observatories. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Frank Watson Dyson (January 8, 1868 – May 25, 1939) was an English astronomer. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Benjamin Baillaud Édouard Benjamin Baillaud (February 14, 1848 – July 8, 1934) was a French astronomer. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Henry Norris Russell (October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957) was a US astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (1910). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Robert Grant Aitken (December 31, 1864 – October 29, 1951) was an American astronomer. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Herbert Hall Turner (August 13, 1861 – August 20, 1930) was a British astronomer and seismologist. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walter Sydney Adams (December 20, 1876 – May 11, 1956) was an American astronomer. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frank Schlesinger (May 11, 1871 – July 10, 1943) was an American astronomer. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... John Stanley Plaskett (November 17, 1865 – October 17, 1941) was a Canadian astronomer. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Carl Vilhelm Ludwig Charlier (April 1, 1862 – November 5, 1934) was a Swedish astronomer. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfred Fowler (March 22, 1868 – June 24, 1940) was a British astronomer. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Armin Otto Leuschner (January 16, 1868 – April 22, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ejnar Hertzsprung (October 8, 1873, Copenhagen – October 21, 1967, Roskilde) was a Danish chemist and astronomer. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edwin Hubble Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer, noted for his discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and the cosmic red shift. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harlow Shapley (November 2, 1885 – October 20, 1972) was an American astronomer. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frederick Hanley Seares (May 17, 1873 – July 20, 1964) was an American astronomer. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Joel Stebbins (July 30, 1878 – March 16, 1966) was an American astronomer who pioneered photoelectric photometry in astronomy. ... This article is about the year. ... Jan Hendrik Oort (April 28, 1900 – November 5, 1992) was an internationally famous Dutch astronomer. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Edward Arthur Milne (February 14, 1896 – September 21, 1950) was a British mathematician and astrophysicist. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Paul Willard Merrill (August 15, 1887 – July 19, 1961) was an American astronomer whose specialty was spectroscopy. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bernard Ferdinand Lyot (February 27, 1897 – April 2, 1952) was a French astronomer. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Sir Harold Spencer Jones (March 29, 1890 – November 3, 1960) was a British astronomer. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alfred Harrison Joy (September 23, 1882 – April 18, 1973) was an American astronomer. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Marcel Gilles Jozef Minnaert (February 12, 1893 – October 26, 1970) was a Belgian astronomer. ... 1952 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Chandra in his later years. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Harold Delos Babcock (January 24, 1882 – April 8, 1968) was an American astronomer, and the father of Horace W. Babcock. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bertil Lindblad (Örebro November 26, 1895 – Saltsjöbaden [outside Stockholm] June 25, 1965) was a Swedish astronomer. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 - June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who emigrated to the USA in 1931. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albrecht Otto Johannes Unsöld (April 20, 1905 – September 23, 1995) was a German astronomer. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ira Sprague Bowen (December 21, 1898 – February 6, 1973) was an American astronomer. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Wilson Morgan (January 3, 1906 – June 21, 1994) was an American astronomer. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bengt Georg Daniel Strömgren (January 21, 1908 – July 4, 1987) was a Danish astronomer and astrophysicist. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (Վիկտոր Համբարձումյան in Armenian, Виктор Амазаспович Амбарцумян in Russian) (September 18, 1908 (Julian calendar: September 5) – August 12, 1996) was an Armenian-Russian astronomer. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rudolph Minkowski (born Rudolf Leo Bernhard Minkowski) (May 28, 1895 – January 4, 1976) was a German-American astronomer. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Grote Reber (December 22, 1911 – December 20, 2002) was one of the pioneers of radio astronomy. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seth Barnes Nicholson (November 12, 1891 – July 2, 1963) was an American astronomer. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... Martin Schwarzschild (May 31, 1912 – April 10, 1997) was a German-American astronomer. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Dirk Brouwer ( September 1, 1902 – January 31, 1966) was a Dutch- American astronomer. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig Franz Benedict Biermann (March 13, 1907 – January 12, 1986) was a German astronomer. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Willem Jacob Luyten (March 7, 1899 – November 21, 1994) was a Dutch-American astronomer. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Horace Welcome Babcock (September 13, 1912 – August 29, 2003) was an American astronomer. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Sir Fred Hoyle (June 24, 1915 – August 20, 2001) was a British astronomer, notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of science fiction, including a number of books co-authored by his son Geoffrey Hoyle. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Jesse Leonard Greenstein (October 15, 1909 – October 21, 2002) was an American astronomer. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky (Ио́сиф Самуи́лович Шкло́вский) (July 1, 1916 – March 3, 1985) was a Russian astronomer and astrophysicist. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Lyman Spitzer Lyman Spitzer, Jr. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Sir Martin Ryle (September 27, 1918 – October 14, 1984) was a British radio astronomer who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems (see e. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Allan Rex Sandage (Born June 18, American astronomer. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ernst Julius Öpik Ernst Julius Öpik (October 23, 1893 – September 10, 1985) was a notable Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist, who spent the last part of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland. ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... Bart Jan Bok ( Hoorn, April 28, 1906 – Tucson, August 5, 1983) was a Dutch-American astronomer. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (November 19, 1918 – July 31, 2000) was a Dutch astronomer. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... There is another William Fowler who was a Scottish poet and uncle of William Drummond of Hawthornden William Alfred Willy Fowler (August 9, 1911 – March 14, 1995) was an American astrophysicist. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... George Howard Herbig (born January 2, 1920) is an astronomer at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Riccardo Giacconi (born October 6, 1931) is an American Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Burbidge (nee Eleanor Margaret Peachey) (born August 12, 1919) is a British astrophysicist, noted for original research and holding many administrative posts, including director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (Russian:Яков Борисович Зельдович) (March 8, 1914 – December 2, 1987) was a prolific Soviet physicist. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Olin Chaddock Wilson (January 13, 1909 – July 13, 1994) was an American astronomer. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas George Cowling (June 17, 1906 – June 16, 1990) was a British astronomer. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fred Lawrence Whipple (November 5, 1906–August 30, 2004) was an American astronomer. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edwin Ernest Salpeter (born December 3, 1924) is an Austrian-Australian-American astronomer. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Gatenby Bolton (June 5, 1922 – July 6, 1993) was a British-Australian astronomer. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adriaan Blaauw (born April 12, 1914) is a Dutch astronomer. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charlotte Emma Moore Sitterly (September 24, 1898 – March 3, 1990) was an American astronomer. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Edward Osterbrock (born July 13, 1924) is an American astronomer. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maarten Schmidt (born December 28, 1929) is a Dutch astronomer who discovered objects in the universe called quasars. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Sir Martin John Rees, FRS (born 23 June 1942) is a professor of astronomy. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Wallace Leslie William Sargent (February 15, 1935 – ) is an American astronomer. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip James Edwin Peebles (born April 25, 1935) is an Canadian-American astronomer. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Albert Edward Whitford (October 22, 1905 – March 28, 2002) was an American astronomer. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugene N. Parker (1927 - ) is a solar astrophysicist. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Donald Lynden-Bell (born Dover, England April 5, 1935 – ) is a British astronomer, best known for his theories that galaxies contain massive black holes at their centre, and that such black holes are the principal source of energy in quasars. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Geoffrey Ronald Burbidge (September 24, 1925 – ) is a British-American physics professor in the University of California. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Rashid Alievich Sunyaev (Рашид Суняев) was born in Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, on March 1, 1943 and educated at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Moscow University. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Hans Bethe Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced Bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1967 for his discovery of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vera (Cooper) Rubin (born 23 July 1928) is an astronomer who has done pioneering work on galaxy rotation rates. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chushiro Hayashi (林忠四郎) (born July 25, 1920) is a Japanese astrophysicist. ... a bust ... Robert Paul Bob Kraft (born June 16, 1927) is an American astronomer. ...


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