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Encyclopedia > Browder v. Gayle

Browder v. Gayle, 142 F. Supp. 707, was a case heard before the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama regarding Montgomery bus segregation laws. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court... The United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the following counties: Autauga, Barbour, Bullock, Butler, Chambers, Chilton, Coffee, Coosa, Covington, Crenshaw, Dale, Elmore, Geneva, Henry, Houston, Lee, Lowndes, Macon, Montgomery, Pike, Russell, and Tallapoosa. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or...


Case history

Right after the commencement of the Montgomery Bus Boycott in December 1955, black community leaders began discourse on the need for a federal lawsuit to challenge City of Montgomery and Alabama bus segregation laws. They sought a declaratory judgment that Alabama state statutes and ordinances of the Montgomery providing for and enforcing racial segregation on "privately" operated buses abridged the privileges and immunities of plaintiffs and denied them equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment and the rights guaranteed them by Sections 1981 and 1983 of the Civil Rights Act. This case came before a three-judge court under the authority of 28 U.S.C., § 2281, and 28 U.S.C., §§ 1331 and 1343. A three-judge district court is required under § 2281 for the granting of an interlocutory, or permanent injunction restraining the enforcement of a state statute by restraining the action of a state officer, such as an official of the Alabama Public Service Commission. The court held that given the admission of city officials that they were enforcing state statutes, a three judge court had jurisdiction over the case. Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Several United States laws have been called the Civil Rights Act: Civil Rights Act of 1866[1] aimed to buttress Civil Rights Laws to protect freedmen and to grant full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil except Indians. ... The Alabama Public Service Commission is a body of three elected members, a President and two Commissioners, who each serve 4-year terms. ...


About two months after the bus boycott began, the case of a girl, only 15 years old, Claudette Colvin was re-considered by black legal leaders. Attorneys Fred Gray, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr (a white lawyer and his wife, Virginia, who were activists in the civil rights movement) searched for the ideal case law to challenge the constitutional legitimacy of Montgomery and Alabama bus segregation laws. Durr believed that an appeal of Mrs. Rosa Parks' case would just get tied up in the Alabama state courts. Gray researched for the law suit, consulting with NAACP legal counsels Robert Carter and Thurgood Marshall (who would later become United States solicitor general and a United States Supreme Court justice). Gray approached Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith, all women who had been mistreated by the Montgomery bus system. They all agreed to become plaintiffs in a civil action law suit. On February 1, 1956, case Browder v. Gayle (Browder was a Montgomery housewife; Gayle was the mayor of Montgomery) was filed in U.S. District Court by Fred Gray. It was Browder v. Gayle that caused segregation on Montgomery public buses to be eradicated. Claudette Colvin (born 1940) is a black woman from Alabama. ... Fred Gray is a notable lawyer. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... Clifford Durr (1899 – 1975) was an Alabama lawyer who played an important role in defending activists and others accused of disloyalty during the New Deal and McCarthy eras and who represented Rosa Parks in her challenge to the constitutionality of the ordinance requiring the segregation of passengers on buses in... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Mary Louise Smith was a civil rights protester. ...


See also

and they make poopies on eachothers chest and then eat their crap Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ...


References

  • Browder v. Gayle, District Court of the United States for the Middle District of Alabama Northern Division, June 19, 1956, retrieved October 29, 2005.

 
 

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