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Encyclopedia > Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
Carries Motor vehicles (cars only), elevated trains (until 1944), streetcars (until 1950), pedestrians, and bicycles
Crosses East River
Locale New York City (ManhattanBrooklyn)
Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation
Design Suspension/Cable-stay Hybrid
Longest span 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m)
Total length 5,989 feet (1825 m)
Width 85 feet (26 m)
Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mid-span
AADT 145,000
Opening date May 24, 1883
Toll Free both ways
Maps and aerial photos

The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5,989 feet (1825 m)[1] over the East River connecting the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. On completion, it was the largest suspension bridge in the world and the first steel-wire suspension bridge. Originally referred to as the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, it was dubbed the Brooklyn Bridge in an 1867 letter to the editor of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle,[2] and formally so named by the city government in 1915. Since its opening, it has become an iconic part of the New York skyline. In 1964 it was designated a National Historic Landmark.[3][4][5] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1,014 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Simone Roda from Italia Title: Brooklyn Bridge - New York City Taken on: 2004-10-05 22:35:28 Original source: Flickr. ... Subway redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT or DOT) is responsible for the management of much of New York Citys transportation infrastructure. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. ... Annual average daily traffic, abbrevated AADT, is a term used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Brooklyn Bridge may mean: The Brooklyn Bridge, connecting Manhattan to Brooklyn. ... This is a list of road/highway and rail crossings of the East River from the mouth at New York Harbor upstream to the Long Island Sound. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of the largest suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ... For other uses, see Skyline (disambiguation). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...

Contents

History

Construction

Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867.
Plan of one tower for the Brooklyn Bridge, 1867.
Currier & Ives print (1877)
Currier & Ives print (1877)
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper c.1883
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper c.1883

Construction began in January 3, 1870. The Brooklyn Bridge was completed thirteen years later and was opened for use on May 24, 1883. On that first day, a total of 1,800 vehicles and 150,300 people crossed. The bridge's main span over the East River is 1,595 feet 6 inches (486.3 m). The bridge cost $15.5 million to build and approximately 27 people died during its construction. A week after the opening, on May 30, a rumor that the Bridge was going to break down caused a stampede which crushed and killed twelve people.[6] Download high resolution version (698x1200, 90 KB)Plan of One Tower for the East River Bridge, 1867. ... Download high resolution version (698x1200, 90 KB)Plan of One Tower for the East River Bridge, 1867. ... Image File history File links New_York_City_Brooklyn_Bridge_-_Currier_&_Ives_1877. ... Image File history File links New_York_City_Brooklyn_Bridge_-_Currier_&_Ives_1877. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2556 × 3718 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2556 × 3718 pixel, file size: 3. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time it opened, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world — 50% longer than any previously built — and it has become a treasured landmark. Additionally, for several years the towers were the tallest structures in the Western Hemisphere. Since the 1980s, it has been floodlit at night to highlight its architectural features. The bridge is built from limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement. The architectural style is Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. Rosendale Cement refers to a type of natural cement produced in and around Rosendale, New York. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


The bridge was designed by German-born John Augustus Roebling in Trenton, New Jersey. Roebling had earlier designed and constructed other suspension bridges, such as Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct in Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge in Cincinnati, Ohio and the Waco Suspension Bridge in Waco, Texas, that served as the engineering prototypes for the final design. Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1869 deaths | Engineers ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... Delaware Aqueduct post-restoration by the NPS. Delaware Aqueduct before restoration. ... Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, showing Roeblings Delaware Aqueduct crossing the Delaware River to Minisink Ford, New York (left). ... A view of the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge from Covington, Kentucky on the south bank of the Ohio River with Cincinnati in the background The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge spans the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Waco Suspension Bridge, modern day The Waco Suspension Bridge crosses the Brazos River in Waco, Texas. ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ...


During surveying for the East River Bridge project, Roebling's foot was badly injured by a ferry, pinning it against a pylon; within a few weeks, he died of tetanus. His son, Washington, succeeded him, but in 1872 was stricken with caisson disease (decompression sickness, commonly known as "the bends"), due to working in compressed air in caissons. The occurrence of the disease in the caisson workers caused him to halt construction of the Manhattan side of the tower 30 feet (10 m) short of bedrock when soil tests underneath the caisson found bedrock to be even deeper than expected. Today, the Manhattan tower rests only on sand. [7] Washington's wife, Emily Warren Roebling, became his aide, learning engineering and communicating his wishes to the on-site assistants. When the bridge opened, she was the first person to cross it. Washington Roebling rarely visited the site again. Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Washington Augustus Roebling (May 26, 1837 – July 21, 1926) was an American civil engineer best known for his work on the Brooklyn Bridge, which was initially designed by his father John A. Roebling. ... In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ... Emily Roebling Emily Warren Roebling (1843 – 1903) was born to Phoebe Lickley and Sylvanus Warren, in the village of Cold Spring, New York, on the eastern shore of the Hudson River. ...


At the time the bridge was built, the aerodynamics of bridge building had not been worked out. Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950s — well after the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940. It is therefore fortunate that the open truss structure supporting the deck is by its nature less subject to aerodynamic problems. Roebling designed a bridge and truss system that was six times as strong as he thought it needed to be. Because of this, the Brooklyn Bridge is still standing when many of the bridges built around the same time have vanished into history and been replaced. This is also in spite of the substitution of inferior quality wire in the cabling supplied by the contractor J. Lloyd Haigh — by the time it was discovered, it was too late to replace the cabling that had already been constructed. Roebling determined that the poorer wire would leave the bridge four rather than six times as strong as necessary, so it was eventually allowed to stand, with the addition of 250 cables. Diagonal cables were installed from the towers to the deck, intended to stiffen the bridge. This turned out to be unnecessary, but they are kept for their distinctive beauty. For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridges with main spans of 2800 feet (850 m), they carry Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, USA. The first bridge, nicknamed Galloping Gertie, was opened...


After the collapse of the I-35W highway bridge in the city of Minneapolis, increased public attention has been brought to bear on the condition of bridges across the US, and it has been reported that the some of the Brooklyn Bridge approach ramps received a rating of "poor" at its last inspection [8]. According to a NYC Department of Transportation spokesman, "The poor rating it received does not mean it is unsafe. Poor means there are some components that have to be rehabilitated.” A $725 million project to replace the approaches and repaint the bridge is scheduled to begin in 2009.[9] The I-35W Mississippi River bridge was an eight-lane, 1,907 feet (581 m) steel truss arch bridge that carried Interstate 35W across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. ...

Brooklyn bridge c.1890
Brooklyn approach with elevated BMT and streetcar tracks and trains, ca. 1905
Brooklyn approach with elevated BMT and streetcar tracks and trains, ca. 1905

Brooklyn Bridge 1890 from Harpers This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Brooklyn Bridge 1890 from Harpers This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Brooklyn Bridge Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Brooklyn Bridge Categories: U.S. history images ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended...

Later changes in use

At various times, the bridge has carried horses and trolley traffic; at present, it has six lanes for motor vehicles, with a separate walkway along the centerline for pedestrians and bicycles. Due to the roadway's height (11 feet posted) and weight (6,000 lb posted) restrictions, commercial vehicles and buses are prohibited from using this bridge. The two inside traffic lanes once carried elevated trains of the BMT from Brooklyn points to a terminal at Park Row. Streetcars ran on what are now the two center lanes (shared with other traffic) until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks. In 1950 the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was rebuilt to carry six lanes of automobile traffic. Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Subway redirects here; for the restaurant named Subway, see Subway (restaurant). ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Park Row was an elevated station on Park Row in Manhattan, New York City, USA. It was the terminal for BMT services operating over the Brooklyn Bridge from the BMT Fulton Street Line, BMT Myrtle Avenue Line and their feeders. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ...


1994 Brooklyn Bridge Shooting

On March 1, 1994, Lebanese-born Rashid Baz opened fire on a van carrying members of the Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish Movement, striking 16 year old student Ari Halberstam and three others traveling on the bridge. Halberstam died five days later from his wounds. Baz was apparently acting out of revenge for the Hebron massacre of 29 Muslims by Baruch Goldstein that had taken place days earlier on February 25, 1994. Baz was convicted of murder and sentenced to a 141 year prison term. After initially classifying the murder as one committed out of road rage, the FBI reclassified the case in 2000 as a terrorist attack. The entrance ramp to the bridge on the Manhattan side was named the Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp in memory of the victim[10]. The Brookly Bridge Shooting was an incident that took place on March 1, 1994, when Lebanese-born Rashid Baz, armed with a Glock 9-millimeter semi-automatic pistol and a 9-millimeter Cobray machine gun, shot on a van carrying members of the Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish sect on the... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Rashid Baz (1966-) is a Lebanese-born immigrant and convicted muderer who shot and killed 16-year old Ari Halberstam on March 1, 1994 while driving on the ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge (re-named the Ari Halberstam ramp in 1995). ... Chabad Lubavitch, or Lubavich, is one of the largest branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi . ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Ari Halberstam (May 6, 1977 - March 1, 1994) was a yeshiva student from a distinguished family associated with the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, who was killed in a terrorist shooting in New York City. ... The facade and minarets of the Cave of the Patriarchs. ... Baruch Kappel Goldstein (December 9 or December 12, 1956–February 25, 1994, ‎) was an American-Israeli physician who perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, murdering 29 Arab attendants of the Ibrahimi Mosque (within the Cave of the Patriarchs) and wounding another 150 in... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Road rage or road violence is the common name for deliberately dangerous and/or violent behaviour under the influence of heightened anger by a motor vehicle operator that affects the safety of one or more other operators or bystanders. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


2003 Plot

In 2003, truck driver Iyman Faris was sentenced to 20 years in prison for providing material support to al-Qaeda, after an earlier plot to destroy the bridge by cutting through its support wires with blowtorches was cancelled.[citation needed] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The word blowtorch can mean:- A cutting torch used for cutting metal. ...


2006 Bunker Discovery

In 2006, a Cold War era bunker was found by city workers near the East River shoreline of Manhattan's Lower East Side. The bunker, hidden within one of the masonry towers, still contains the emergency supplies that were being stored for a potential nuclear attack from the Soviet Union[11]. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Access points

Brooklyn Bridge shot from Fulton Park
Brooklyn Bridge shot from Fulton Park

The Brooklyn Bridge is accessible from the Brooklyn entrances of Tillary/Adams Streets, Sands/Pearl Streets, and Exit 28B of the eastbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. In Manhattan, motor cars can enter from either direction of the FDR Drive, Park Row, Chambers/Centre Streets, and Pearl/Frankfort Streets. Pedestrian access to the bridge from the Brooklyn side is from either Tillary/Adams Streets (in between the auto entrance/exit), or a staircase on Prospect St between Cadman Plaza East and West. In Manhattan, the pedestrian walkway is accessible from the end of Centre Street, or through the unpaid south staircase of Brooklyn Bridge-City Hall IRT subway station. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... On the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (I-278). ... FDR Drive is a major freeway-standard parkway on the east side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Park Row may refer to: The street in downtown Manhattan The BMT elevated train terminal bordering the Manhattan street. ... Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall is a station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. ... The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the operator of the original New York Subway line that opened in 1904 and additional rapid transit lines in the City of New York. ...


Trivia

Brooklyn Bridge at night
Brooklyn Bridge at night
Brooklyn bridge from Brooklyn side
Brooklyn bridge from Brooklyn side
Brooklyn Bridge and Ferrybank Restaurant
Brooklyn Bridge and Ferrybank Restaurant
375 Pearl towers over the traffic ramps on the Manhattan side
375 Pearl towers over the traffic ramps on the Manhattan side

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (495 × 628 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (495 × 628 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2018x1320, 1001 KB) Summary Author: druchoy / Andrew Choy Taken From: flickr Edited by Mdd4696: Rotated 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2018x1320, 1001 KB) Summary Author: druchoy / Andrew Choy Taken From: flickr Edited by Mdd4696: Rotated 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2503 KB) Summary The Brooklyn Bridge, seen from Manhattan. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2503 KB) Summary The Brooklyn Bridge, seen from Manhattan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 753 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2363 × 1881 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 753 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2363 × 1881 pixel, file size: 6. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... The Manhattan Bridge is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River in New York City, connecting Lower Manhattan (at Canal Street) with Brooklyn (at Flatbush Avenue Extension). ... The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn on Long Island at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). ... A 1914 map showing what was at the time the proposed expansion for the BRT. The only major differences from what was built is that a new 60th Street Tunnel was used rather than the Queensboro Bridge, the Manhattan-side Brooklyn Bridge connection was never built, and several lines ended... The Nassau Street Line is a rapid transit line of the BMT Division of the New York City Subway system. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ... Chambers Street Station, opened on March 14, 1913, is one of the earlist subway stations opened in New York. ... The Brooklyn Loops was a service pattern of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT), now part of the New York City Subway system. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The following is a partial list of historic civil engineering landmarks as designated by the American Society of Civil Engineers since it began the program in 1964. ... David Gaub McCullough (mə-kŭlə) (born July 7, 1933) is an American historian and bestselling author. ... PBS redirects here. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Pedestrian access

The Brooklyn Bridge has a wide pedestrian walkway open to walkers and cyclists, in the center of the bridge and higher than the automobile lanes. While the bridge has always permitted the passage of pedestrians across its span, its role in allowing thousands to cross takes on a special importance in times of difficulty when usual means of crossing the East River have become unavailable.


During transit strikes by the Transport Workers Union in 1980 and 2005 the bridge was used by people commuting to work, with Mayors Koch and Bloomberg crossing the bridge as a gesture to the affected public. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Transport Workers Union of America. ... Edward Irving Koch (born December 12, 1924; pronounced ) was a United States Congressman from 1969 to 1977 and the Mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989. ... Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the current Mayor of New York City. ...


Following the 1965, 1977 and 2003 Blackouts and most famously after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, the bridge was used by people in Manhattan to leave the city after subway service was suspended. The massive numbers of people on the bridge could not have been anticipated by the original designer, and yet John Roebling designed it with three separate systems managing even unanticipated structural stresses. The bridge has a suspension system, a diagonal stay system, and a stiffening truss. "Roebling himself famously said if anything happens to one of [his] systems, 'The bridge may sag, but it will not fall.'"[13] The movement of large numbers of people on a bridge creates pedestrian oscillations or "sway" as the crowd lifts one foot after another, some falling inevitably in synchronized cadences. The natural sway motion of people walking caused small sideways oscillations in a bridge, which in turn cause people on the bridge to sway in step, increasing the amplitude of the bridge oscillations and continually reinforcing the effect. This high-density traffic causes a bridge to appear to move erratically or "to wobble" as happened at opening of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000.[14] A map of the states and provinces affected The Northeast Blackout of 1965 was a significant disruption in the supply of electricity on November 9, 1965, affecting Ontario, Canada and Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, New York, and New Jersey in the United States. ... TIME, July 25, 1977 “New York Blackout” redirects here. ... The 2003 North America blackout was a massive power outage that occurred throughout parts of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003. ... Tree limbs create a short circuit in electrical lines during a storm that spawned two tornadoes. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Millennium Bridge. ...


Cultural significance

Contemporaries marveled at what technology was capable of and the bridge became a symbol of the optimism of the time. John Perry Barlow wrote in the late 20th century of the "literal and genuinely religious leap of faith" embodied in the Brooklyn Bridge … the Brooklyn Bridge required of its builders faith in their ability to control technology."[15] John Perry Barlow (born Jackson Hole, Wyoming, October 3, 1947) is an American poet, essayist, retired Wyoming cattle rancher, and former lyricist for the Grateful Dead. ...


References to "selling the Brooklyn Bridge" abound in American culture, sometimes as examples of rural gullibility but more often in connection with an idea that strains credulity. For example, "If you believe that, I have a wonderful bargain for you…" References are often nowadays more oblique, such as "I could sell you some lovely riverside property in Brooklyn ... ". George C. Parker and William McCloundy are two early 20th-century con-men who had (allegedly) successfully perpetrated this scam on unwitting tourists.[1] George Parker (1870-1936) was one of the most audacious con men in American history. ... William McCloundy was an early 20th-century con-man who served a two-and-a-half-year prison term in Sing Sing for selling the Brooklyn Bridge to a tourist in 1901. ...


In his second book The Bridge, Hart Crane begins with a poem entitled "Poem: To Brooklyn Bridge." The bridge was a source of inspiration for Crane and he owned different apartments specifically to have different views of the bridge. Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ...


In the 1972 film, The Hot Rock, the Brooklyn Bridge was shown as a visual icon of New York City. The partially-finished World Trade Center was also shown. In the years between 1972 and 2001, the WTC became the icon of choice for New York City, and use of the Brooklyn Bridge fell. Since 2001, the Brooklyn Bridge has been restored to its status of "If you see the Brooklyn Bridge, you know you're looking at New York City." A sly comic caper directed by Peter Yates, The Hot Rock stars Robert Redford, George Segal, and Moses Gunn. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...


Panoramas

1896 Panorama
1896 Panorama
A panorama of the bridge


Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 362 pixelsFull resolution (1525 × 690 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: Library of Congress [1] TITLE: [Brooklyn Bridge] CALL NUMBER: PAN US GEOG - New York no. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (6330 × 2260 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6699x800, 1063 KB) I took these pictures and stitched them together my self I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ NYCDOT Bridges Information. New York City Department of Transportation. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  2. ^ E.P.D. (January 25, 1867), "Bridging the East River -- Another Project", The Brooklyn Daily Eagle: 2, <http://www.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/eagle/>. Retrieved on 26 November 2007
  3. ^ Brooklyn Bridge. National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service (2007-09-11).
  4. ^ ["The Brooklyn Bridge", February 24, 1975, by James B. Armstrong and S. Sydney BradfordPDF (501 KiB) National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination]. National Park Service (1975-02-24).
  5. ^ [The Brooklyn Bridge--Accompanying 3 photos, from 1975.PDF (476 KiB) National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination]. National Park Service (1975-02-24).
  6. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle 1841-1902 Online. Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
  7. ^ GlassSteelandStone: Brooklyn Bridge-tower rests on sand. Retrieved on 2007-02-20.
  8. ^ Brooklyn Bridge Is One of 4 With Poor Rating. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  9. ^ Brooklyn Bridge called ‘safe’ - DOT says span is okay despite getting a ‘poor’ rating. Courier-Life Publications. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  10. ^ Ari Halberstam Memorial Ramp
  11. ^ Cold War "Time Capsule" Found in Brooklyn Bridge
  12. ^ Life Magazine May 24, 1954. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  13. ^ village voice > news > Point of Collapse by Robert Julavits
  14. ^ Strogatz, Steven. (2003). Sync: The Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order, pp. 174-175, 312, 320.
  15. ^ Cultural Significance

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cadbury, Deborah .(2004), Dreams of Iron and Steel. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-716307-X
  • McCullough, David. (1972). The Great Bridge. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21213-3
  • Haw, Richard. (2005). "The Brooklyn Bridge: A Cultural History". New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3587-5
  • Strogatz, Steven. (2003). Sync: The Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order. New York: Hyperion books. 10-ISBN 0-7868-6844-9; 13-ISBN 978-0-7868-6844-5 (cloth) [2nd ed., Hyperion, 2004. 10-ISBN 0-7868-8721-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-7868-8721-7 (paper)]
  • Strogartz, Steven, Daniel M. Abrams, Allan McRobie, Bruno Eckhardt, and Edward Ott. et al. (2005). "Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge," Nature, Vol. 438, pp, 43-44....link to Nature article...Millennium Bridge opening day video illustrating "crowd synchrony" oscillations

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ... Hyperion Books is the publishing arm of theWalt Disney Company,inc it publishes both books for adults and children. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Brooklyn Bridge
  • Brooklyn Bridge interactive 360 Panorama from 360 Cities
  • New York City DOT Brooklyn Bridge webcam
  • Interactive Map of Brooklyn Bridge and South Street Seaport: MondoMap
  • NYCroads.com - Brooklyn Bridge
  • Transportation Alternatives Fiboro Bridges - Brooklyn Bridge
  • Brooklyn Bridge in the Structurae database
  • The story of Brooklyn Bridge - by CBS Forum
  • Panorama of Brooklyn Bridge 1899 - Extreme Photo Constructions
  • Structurae: Brooklyn Bridge
  • Great Buildings entry for the Brooklyn Bridge
  • American Society of Civil Engineers
  • Railroad Extra - Brooklyn Bridge and its Railway
  • Brooklyn Bridge is at coordinates 40°42′23″N 73°59′51″W / 40.706344, -73.997439 (Brooklyn Bridge)Coordinates: 40°42′23″N 73°59′51″W / 40.706344, -73.997439 (Brooklyn Bridge)
  • Images of the Brooklyn Bridge from the Brooklyn Museum's art, archives, and library collections, and the text from our 1983 catalog, The Great East River Bridge
  • Brooklyn Bridge Photo Gallery with a QTVR 360 of the Brooklyn Bridge Pedestrian Walkway

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brooklyn Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2228 words)
The Brooklyn Bridge was completed thirteen years later and was opened for use on May 24, 1883.
Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950s - well after the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in the 1940s.
The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 17, 1977 and on March 24, 1983 the bridge was designated a National Historic Engineering Landmark.
Brooklyn Bridge - definition of Brooklyn Bridge - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (694 words)
The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States, spanning the East River from Manhattan to Brooklyn.
Bridges were not tested in wind tunnels until the 1950's - well after after the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in the 1940.
At various times, the bridge has carried horses and trolley traffic; at present, it has lanes for motor vehicles, and a separate level for pedestrians and bicycles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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