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Encyclopedia > Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nation's pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly in economics, government, and foreign policy.[2] Its stated principal purpose is "to aid in the development of sound public policies and to promote public understanding of issues of national importance." This article is about the institution. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - D.C. Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ...

The organization is currently headed by Strobe Talbott, a former Clinton administration appointee in the U.S. State Department. Carlos Pascual, the former Ambassador to Ukraine, serves as Vice President of Brookings and as the Director of the Foreign Policy Studies program. Nelson Strobridge Strobe Talbott III (born April 25, 1946 in Dayton, Ohio) is a U.S. diplomat and political scientist. ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...



Brookings publishes the Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (twice a year) and an Annual Report. Its main focus is on the production of policy briefs, books, OpEds, and project papers prepared by its scholars. These papers and books are published by the Brookings Institution Press and are also posted on the Brookings website.

Policy influence

Of the 200 most prominent think tanks in the U.S., the Brookings Institution's studies are the most widely cited by the media, [3] and the third most-cited of all public policy institutes by Members of Congress, behind only the Heritage Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union.[4] The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.[1] It works through litigation, legislation, and community...

Brookings is commonly regarded as politically liberal, although this is disputed by some critics.[5] Its scholars are cited with equal frequency by Democratic and Republican members of Congress.[6] Its board of Trustees comes from across the country and the political spectrum, including prominent Republicans such as Kenneth Duberstein, a former chief of staff to Ronald Reagan, and prominent Democrats, such as former Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers. Its scholars include former government officials hailing from both Democratic and Republican administrations, as well as many who have not served in government and do not advertise a party affiliation. Kenneth M. Duberstein (born April 21, 1944) served as U.S. President Ronald Reagans White House Chief of Staff from 1988 to 1989. ... Lawrence Henry (Larry) Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist and academic. ...

Along with the American Enterprise Institute and Heritage Foundation, Brookings is generally considered one of the three most influential policy institutes in the U.S. By comparison, the American Enterprise Institute is considered conservative/free market and Heritage Foundation considered more right-wing. All three organizations are nominally non-partisan, as required by their non-profit organizational status.[7] The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a conservative think tank, founded in 1943, whose stated mission is to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalism — limited government, private enterprise, individual liberty and responsibility, vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ...


Brookings was founded in 1916, when a group of reformers founded the Institute for Government Research (IGR), the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level.[8] 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The institution's founder, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings (18501932), originally financed the formation of three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics, and the Robert Brookings Graduate School. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution in 1927. A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... Robert Somers Brookings (born January 22, 1850, Cecil County, Maryland; died November 15, 1932, Washington, D.C.) was an American businessman and philanthropist, known for his involvement with Washington University in St. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Named to Nixon's "Enemies List"

During the administration of Richard M. Nixon, Brookings was named to Nixon's famous enemies list, due to its criticism of Nixon's domestic and foreign policies. Nixon-administration advisor Charles Colson even proposed firebombing the Brookings Institution and stealing politically damaging documents while firefighters put the fire out.[9][10][11][12] Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Nixons enemies list was compiled by Charles Colson and sent to John Dean Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of President Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell [1] (assistant to Colson, special... Charles Wendell Chuck Colson (born October 16, 1931) was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973 and was one of the Watergate Seven, jailed for Watergate-related charges. ...


Brookings focuses on five main areas of research: Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy.

The five main programs include the following:

  • Economic Studies Program
  • Governance Studies Program
  • Foreign Policy Studies Program
  • Global Economy and Development Program
  • Metropolitan Policy Program

Policy centers include the following:

  • American Enterprise Institute-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies
  • Brown Center on Education Policy
  • Center for Children and Families
  • Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies
  • Center on Social and Economic Dynamics
  • Center on the United States and Europe
  • John L. Thornton China Center
  • Saban Center for Middle East Policy
  • Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center
  • The Wolfensohn Center

The Saban Center for Middle East Policy was founded by a grant from Mr. Haim Saban in 2002.[13] The Saban Center has helped the Brookings Institution to dramatically expand its research and analysis of Middle East policy issues. In September 2006, Brookings announced the founding of The John L. Thornton China Center, a major new center focused on the study of Chinese politics and policy, with support from former President and COO of Goldman Sachs John L. Thornton. In November 2006, Brookings announced the opening of its first-ever overseas center, the Brookings-Tsinghua Center at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. Brookings-Tsinghua Center Haim Saban Haim Saban (born 15 October 1944 in Alexandria, Egypt) is a television and media proprietor. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ...


Brookings currently has over 140 resident and nonresident scholars.[14] Some of Brookings' notable resident scholars:

  • Ivo H. Daalder, Foreign Policy Studies
  • Kenneth Dam, Economic Studies
  • E.J. Dionne, Governance Studies
  • Gregg Easterbrook, Economic Studies, Governance Studies
  • Joshua M. Epstein, Economic Studies, Center on Social and Economic Dynamics
  • William G. Gale, Economic Studies, Tax Policy Center
  • Philip H. Gordon, Foreign Policy Studies
  • Ron Haskins, Economic Studies
  • Stephen Hess, Media and Public Affairs, George Washington University
  • Bruce Katz, Metropolitan policy
  • Muqtedar Khan, Islam and Global Politics
  • Michael O'Hanlon, expert on terrorism and foreign affairs
  • Peter R. Orszag, Social Security (In January 2007, he left Brookings to become director of the Congressional Budget Office)
  • Carlos Pascual, Foreign Policy Studies
  • Jonathan Rauch, Governance Studies
  • Alice Rivlin, United States budget process
  • Peter Rodman, Foreign Policy Studies

Previous scholars include Under-Secretary-General of the Department of Political Affairs at the UN Ibrahim Gambari. Stéphane Dion, leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and Leader of the Official Opposition also served as a senior research fellow. Gregg Easterbrook is an American writer who is a senior editor of The New Republic. ... Joshua M. Epstein is Director of the Center on Social and Economic Dynamics, Senior Fellow in Economic Studies at The Brookings Institution, and a member of the External Faculty of the Santa Fe Institute. ... William G. Gale is vice president and director of the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution and the Arjay and Frances Miller Chair in Federal Economic Policy. ... The process of creating the budget for the United States Government is known as the budget process. ... Peter W. Rodman (born November 24, 1943 in Boston). ... An Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations (USG) is a senior official within the United Nations System, normally appointed by the UN General Assembly on the recommendation of the UN Secretary-General for a repeatable term of four years. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Dr. Ibrahim Agboola Gambari B.A., M.A., Ph. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ...


At the end of 2004 the Brookings Institution had assets of $258 million. It spent $39.7 million in that year. According to its annual report,[15] the largest contributors in that year included the Pew Charitable Trusts, the MacArthur Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation; the governments of the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Others can be found listed at mediatransparency.org. It has been suggested that Pew Research Center be merged into this article or section. ... The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a major private grant-making foundation based in Chicago that has awarded more than US$3 billion since its inception in 1978. ... The Carnegie Corporation was founded by the will of Andrew Carnegie in 1911 to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding. ...

See also

List of scholars from the Brookings Institution Stephen P. Cohen Anthony Downs Gregg Easterbrook Bill Frenzel Muqtedar Khan Thomas E. Mann Michael E. OHanlon Kenneth M. Pollack Jonathan Rauch Diane Ravitch Susan E. Rice Alice M. Rivlin Jeremy Shapiro Peter W. Singer Strobe Talbott Shibley Telhami External links Brookings... The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) describes itself as a policy organization . ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The Tax Foundation logo The Tax Foundation is a Washington-D.C.-based tax research organization founded in 1937. ... Based in Washington, D.C., the nonpartisan Urban Institute collects data, conducts policy research, evaluates social programs, educates the public on key domestic issues, and provides advice and technical assistance to developing governments abroad. ...


  1. ^ The Other Think Tank, Time Magazine, Monday, Sep. 19, 1977
  2. ^ "Brookings Institution" Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. ^ Study Finds First Drop in Think Tank Cites By Michael Dolny, FAIR, May/June 2006
  4. ^ "A Measure of Media Bias" by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo, September 2003.
  5. ^ Brookings - The Establishment's Think Tank by Sam Husseini, FAIR, November/December 1998
  6. ^ "A Measure of Media Bias" by Tim Groseclose and Jeff Milyo, September 2003.
  7. ^ Happy Birthday, Heritage Foundation by Jacob Weisberg, Slate, January 9, 1998
  8. ^ Brookings Institution History Brookings Institute.
  9. ^ Democracy Now! interview with John Dean and Daniel Ellsberg
  10. ^ 'Insanity' in Nixon's White House Los Angeles Times, February 18, 2003.
  11. ^ LA Times Archives - Insanity' in Nixon's White House Presidential scholars hear about 1971 plan to firebomb a think tank, from John Dean.
  12. ^ Dean, John. Blind Ambition, 1976, ISBN 0-671-81248-3. p 35–39.
  13. ^ "Brookings Announces New Saban Center for Middle East Policy" Brookings Institute, May 9, 2002.
  14. ^ List of Brooking's scholars Brooking Institute
  15. ^ Brooking's annual report Brookings Institute

External links

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Brookings Institution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (396 words)
The Brookings Institution is one of the oldest and best known think tanks in the United States.
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Nevertheless, Brookings is widely acclaimed for its intellectual rigor and pragmatic approach to a wide range of policy issues.
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