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Encyclopedia > Brook trout
Brook trout

Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Genus: Salvelinus
Species: S. fontinalis
Binomial name
Salvelinus fontinalis
(Mitchill, 1814)

The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, (sometimes called the eastern brook trout) is a species of fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. In many parts of its range, it is known as the speckled trout. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior are known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters. Though commonly called a trout, the brook trout is actually a char, along with lake trout, bull trout, Dolly Varden and the Arctic char. Brooke Trout is an American punk/ska/New Wave singer/songwriter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2900x1048, 1479 KB) Source Own Picture Date Sunday, February 18, 2007 Author Photo by and (C)2007 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) Permission You may NOT use this image on your own web site or anywhere else unless you release this image... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Species (see text) Salvelinus is a genus of Salmonid fish, referring to charizard or charr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samuel Latham Mitchill (August 20, 1764 РSeptember 7, 1831) was a US physician, naturalist and Senator. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Sup̩rieur. ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... Species (see text) Salvelinus is a genus of Salmonid fish, referring to charizard or charr. ... Binomial name Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792) Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. ... Binomial name Salvelinus confluentus Suckley, 1859 The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a char of the family Salmonidae. ... Trinomial name Salvelinus malma malma Walbaum, 1792 For the other subspecies, see Southern Dolly Varden. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Arctic char or Arctic charr () is both a freshwater and saltwater fish in the Salmonidae family, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic and alpine lakes and coastal waters. ...

Contents

Habits and range

The brook trout is native to small streams, creeks, lakes, and spring ponds. Some brook trout are anadromous. It is native to a wide area of eastern North America but increasingly confined to higher elevations southward in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia, Canada from the Hudson Bay basin east, the Great LakesSaint Lawrence system, and the upper Mississippi River drainage as far west as eastern Iowa. Some can found in the upper lakes and streams of the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is mostly in eastern California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Description

A captive male brook trout

The brook trout is of dark green to brown basic colouration with a distinctive marbled pattern (called vermiculations) of lighter shades across the flanks and back and extending at least to the dorsal fin, and often to the tail. There is a distinctive sprinkling of red dots, surrounded by blue haloes, along the flank. The belly and lower fins are reddish in colour, the latter with white leading edges. Often the belly, particularly of the males, becomes very red or orange when the fish are spawning. The species reaches a maximum recorded length of 86 cm (33 in) and a maximum recorded weight of 9.4 kg (21 lb). It can reach at least seven years of age, with reports of 15-year-old specimens observed in California habitats to which the species has been introduced. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). ... Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Environmental requirements

S. fontinalis prefers cool, clear waters of high purity and a narrow pH range in lakes, rivers, and streams, being sensitive to poor oxygenation, pollution, and changes in pH caused by environmental effects such as acid rain. Its diverse diet includes crustaceans, frogs and other amphibians, insects, molluscs, smaller fish, and even small aquatic mammals such as voles. It provides food for seabirds and suffers attack by lampreys. The brook trout is a short-lived species, rarely surviving beyond four or five years in the wild. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... For other uses, see Vole (disambiguation). ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ...


Individuals normally spend their entire life in fresh water, but some — colloquially called "salters" or "sea run" — may spend up to three months at sea in the spring, not straying more than a few kilometres from the river mouth. The fish return upstream to spawn in the late summer or autumn. The female constructs a depression in a location in the stream bed, sometimes referred to as a "redd", where groundwater percolates upward through the gravel. One or more males approaches the female, fertilising the eggs as the female expresses them. The eggs are slightly more dense than water. The female then buries the eggs in a small gravel mound. The eggs hatch in approximately 100 days. For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... “km” redirects here. ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...


A potamodromous population of brook trout native to Lake Superior, which run into inflowing rivers to spawn, are called "coasters". Coasters tend to be larger than most other populations of brook trout, often reaching 2 to 3 kg in size. Many coaster populations have been severely damaged by overfishing and by habitat alterations, especially by the construction of hydro-electric power dams, on their inflowing streams. In Ontario and Michigan, efforts are under way to restore and recover coaster populations. The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...


Angling and commercial use

The brook trout is very popular with anglers, particularly fly fishermen. Today, many anglers practice catch-and-release tactics to preserve remaining brook trout populations, and organizations such as Trout Unlimited have been in the forefront of efforts to institute air and water quality standards sufficient to protect the brook trout. Revenues derived from the sale of fishing licenses have been used to restore many sections of creeks and streams to brook trout habitat. Brook trout are also commercially raised in large numbers for food production, being sold for human consumption in both fresh and smoked forms. Because of its dependence on pure water and a variety of aquatic and insect life forms, the brook trout is also used for scientific experimentation in assessing the effects of pollution. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ... Trout Unlimited is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the conservation of freshwater streams, rivers, and associated upland habitats for trout, other aquatic species, and people. ...


Partially as a result of its popularity as a game fish, the brook trout has been introduced in some areas to which it was not originally native, and has become established widely throughout the world. In some parts of the world, the brook trout has had a harmful effect on native species, and is a potential pest. A Game fish is a fish that is pursued for sport, regardless of whether the fisherman ultimately eats the fish. ... IT is a new species. ...


Brook trout can sometimes hybridise with other species. One such hybrid, between the brook trout and the brown trout (genus Salmo) is the tiger trout. Tiger trout occur very rarely naturally but are sometimes artificially propagated. Such crosses are almost always reproductively sterile. This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Morphs Salmo trutta morpha trutta Salmo trutta morpha fario Salmo trutta morpha lacustris The brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario and morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( morpha trutta) are fish of the same species. ... Species (see text) Salmo Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of fish in the salmon family (Salmonidae) that includes many familiar species of salmon and trout. ... The tiger trout (Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis) is a sterile, intergeneric hybrid of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...


Human-caused habitat destruction

Brook-trout populations depend on cold, clear, well-oxygenated water of high purity. As early as the late 19th century, native brook trout in North America became extirpated from many watercourses as land development, forest clear-cutting, and industrialization took hold. Streams and creeks that were polluted, dammed, or silted up often became too warm to hold native brook trout, and were colonized by transplanted smallmouth bass and perch or other introduced salmonids such as brown and rainbow trout. The brown trout, a species not native to North America, has replaced the brook trout in much of the brook trout's native water. Brook trout populations, if already stressed by overharvest or by temperature, are very susceptible to damage by the introduction of exogenous species. Many lacustrine populations of brook trout have been extirpated by the introduction of other species, particularly percids but sometimes other spiny-rayed fishes. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ... Binomial name Micropterus dolomieu Lacépède, 1802 The smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Morphs Salmo trutta morpha trutta Salmo trutta morpha fario Salmo trutta morpha lacustris The brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario and morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( morpha trutta) are fish of the same species. ... It has been suggested that Steelhead be merged into this article or section. ... Lacustrine is derived from the Latin word lacus, which means lake. ... Genera Ammocrypta Crystallaria Etheostoma Gymnocephalus Perca Percarina Percina Romanichthys Sander Zingel The Percidae are a family of perciform fish found in fresh and brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Families many, see text The Perciformes, also called the Percomorphi or Acanthopteri, include about 40% of all fish and are the largest order of vertebrates. ...


In addition to chemical pollution and algae growth caused by runoff containing chemicals and fertilizers, air pollution has also been a significant factor in the disappearance of brook trout from their native habitats. In the United States, acid rain caused by air pollution has resulted in pH levels too low to sustain brook trout in all but the highest headwaters of some Appalachian streams and creeks.[1]. Brook trout populations across large parts of eastern Canada have been similarly challenged; a subspecies known as the aurora trout was extirpated from the wild by the effects of acid rain. Binomial name S. fontinalis timagamiensis (Henn, 1925) The Aurora trout is a subspecies of the brook trout. ...


Today, in many parts of the range, efforts are underway to restore brook trout to those waters that once held native populations, stocking other trout species only in habitats that can no longer be recovered sufficiently to sustain brook trout populations.


Trivia

For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...

References

  1. ^ Camuto, Christopher, A Fly Fisherman's Blue Ridge, Henry Holt & Company (1990)
  • Salvelinus fontinalis (TSN 162003). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 30 January 2006.
  • "Salvelinus fontinalis". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. 10 2005 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2005.
  • Camuto, Christopher, A Fly Fisherman's Blue Ridge, Henry Holt & Company (1990)
  • The New Jersey State Fish

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brook Trout (308 words)
The largest Brook trout on record was 14.5 pounds and caught in 1916 in the Nipigon River in Ontario.
DISTRIBUTION - The brook trout is native to northern North America and is widely distributed throughout the maritime provinces.
The brook trout is carnivorous and feed upon a wide range of organisms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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