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Encyclopedia > Bronze age
Bronze Age
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Bronze Age

Abashevo culture Bronze Age may refer to: Bronze Age the archaeological era, for the era in Classical mythology see Ages of Man. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Abashevo culture, ca. ...

Aegean civilization Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ...

Andronovo culture Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ...

Atlantic Bronze Age The so called Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the approx. ...

BMAC The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ...

Bronze Age Britain Extent of the Beaker culture In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2700 to 700 BC. Periodization late neolithic: Meldon Bridge Period EBA (2700-1500) 2700 BC - 2000 BC: Mount Pleasant Phase, Early Beaker culture: Ireland: copper+arsenic, flat axes, halberds; Britain...

Bronze Age Europe A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ...

Catacomb culture Catacomb culture, ca. ...

Chinese Bronze Age

Cycladic civilization Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3000 BC-2000 BC. // Cycladic marble figurine of the Keros Culture type The significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Cycladic...

Deverel-Rimbury culture The Deverel-Rimbury culture was a name given to an archaeological culture of the British Middle Bronze Age. ...

Elp culture The Elp culture (ca. ...

Ewart Park Phase The Ewart Park Phase refers to a period of the later Bronze Age in Britain. ...

Ezero culture Ezero culture, 3300—2700 BC, a bronze age archaeological culture occupying most of present-day Bulgaria. ...

Glazkov culture

Argaric culture El Argar is the name given to an ancient civilization that flourished from the town of Antas, Almeria, in the south of Spain between 1700 BCE and 1400 BCE. The El Argar civilization was characterized by its early adoption of bronze, which briefly allowed this tribe local dominance over other...

Hallstatt culture The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ...

Helladic period The Helladic is a modern term to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. ...

Indus Valley Civilization Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...

Lusatian culture A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. ...

Maykop culture The Maykop culture, ca. ...

Minoan civilization The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ...

Mumun pottery period The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ...

Mycenaean Greece Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ...

Nordic Bronze Age Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far...

Ordos culture Location of the archaeological finds of the Ordos culture. ...

Penard Period

South-Western Iberian Bronze The Horizon of Atalaia was the apogee of this culture The South-Western Iberian Bronze is a poorly defined Bronze Age culture of Southern Portugal and nearby areas of SW Spain (Huelva, Seville, Extremadura). ...

Srubna culture Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ...

Tagar culture

Terramare culture A simplified map showing the Terramare culture c 1200 BC (blue area). ...

Trzciniec culture Trzciniec culture is an archaeological culture in Central Europe, that existed between 1700 BCE and 1200 BCE. Its remnants have been found in Kujawy, Małopolska, Mazowsze, Podlasie and in western Ukraine. ...

Tumulus culture The Tumulus culture which followed the Únêtice, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during much of the second part of the second millenium B.C.E.. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ...

Unetice culture Unetice, or more properly Únětice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ...

Urnfield culture The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ...

Wessex culture The Wessex culture is a name given to the predominant prehistoric culture of southern Britain during the early Bronze Age. ...

Wilburton-Wallington Phase

Iron age
A late Bronze Age sword or dagger blade.
A late Bronze Age sword or dagger blade.

The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper ores, and then smelting those ores to cast bronze. These naturally-occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3,000 B.C. The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic is directly followed by the Iron Age[citation needed]. In some parts of the world, a Copper Age follows the Neolithic and precedes the Bronze Age. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... three Bronze Age swords (not to scale): from Hajdusamson, Hungary (ca. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ...

Contents

Origins

The place and time of the invention of bronze are controversial and it is possible that bronzing was invented independently in multiple places. The earliest known tin bronzes are from what is now Iran and Iraq and date to the late 4th millennium BC. Arsenical bronzes were made in Anatolia and on both sides of the Caucasus by the early 3rd millennium BC. Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BC, which would make them the oldest known bronzes, but others date the same Maykop artifacts to the mid 3rd millennium BC. BCE redirects here. ... Arsenical bronze (or arsenical copper) is an alloy in which arsenic is added to copper as opposed to, or in addition to other constituent metals. ... The Maykop culture, ca. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ...


Indian Bronze Age

(3300 BCE - 1500 BCE [Approx])

The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus Valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The Indian Bronze Age ends at the start of the Iron Age Vedic Period (1500 BCE - 500 BCE). This is during the Harappan culture, which dates from 1700 BCE to 1300 BCE, that overlaps the transition period between the bronze age, and the iron age period. As a result, it is difficult to pinpoint the true end of the Indian Bronze Age. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ...


East Asia

A two-handled bronze gefuding gui, from the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE).
A two-handled bronze gefuding gui, from the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BCE).

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...

China

Historians disagree about the dates that should be attached to a “Bronze Age” in China. The difficulty lies in the term “Bronze Age” itself, as it has been applied to signify a period in European and Middle Eastern history when bronze tools replaced stone tools, and were later replaced by iron ones. In those places, the medium of the new “Age” made that of the old obsolete. In China, however, any attempt to establish a definite set of dates for a Bronze Age is complicated by two factors: the early arrival of iron smelting technology and the persistence of bronze in tools, weapons and sacred vessels.


Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (also Erh-li-t’ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.[1] Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (also Hsia) dynasty.[2] The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the “period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC,” a period which begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.[3] Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. Since this is significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China.[citation needed] Neolithic culture (1900–1350 BC) of the central plains of northern China. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ...

Chinese pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722–481 BC)
Chinese pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722–481 BC)

Iron is found in the Zhou period, but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests a knowledge of iron smelting, possibly making iron a Chinese invention, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.[4] Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze “at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (481 BC)” and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or through 221 AD.[5] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pu with openwork interlaced dragons design, Late Spring and Autumn, Shanghai Museum, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pu with openwork interlaced dragons design, Late Spring and Autumn, Shanghai Museum, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ...


The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or ritualistic, like the numerous large sacrificial tripods. However, even some of the most utilitarian objects bear the markings of more sacred items. The Chinese inscribed all kinds of bronze items with three main motif types: demons, symbolic animals, and abstract symbols.[6] Some large bronzes also bear inscriptions that have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou period.


The bronzes of the Western Zhou period document large portions of history not found in the extant texts, and often were composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class. Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.[7] These inscriptions can commonly be subdivided into four parts: a reference to the date and place, the naming of the event commemorated, the list of gifts given to the artisan in exchange for the bronze, and a dedication.[8] The relative points of reference these vessels provide have enabled historians to place most of the vessels within a certain time frame of the Western Zhou period, allowing them to trace the evolution of the vessels and the events they record. [9]


Southeast Asia

Song Da bronze drum's surface, Dong Son culture, Vietnam
Song Da bronze drum's surface, Dong Son culture, Vietnam

In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC.[1] Drum from Sông Đà, Vietnam. ... Ban Chiang (Thai บ้านเชียง) is an archeological site located in the Udon Thani province, Thailand, at 17°32′55″N, 103°21′30″E. It is listed in the UNESCO world heritage list since 1992. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ...


In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artefacts. Dating is still currently broad (3500–500 BC). [2]


Korean peninsula

Main article: Mumun Pottery Period

The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production (c. 700–600? BC) after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (c. 900–700 BC). The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site [3]. Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until 100. The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Igeum-dong is a complex archaeological site located in Igeum-dong, Samcheonpo in Sacheon-si, South Gyeongsang Province, Korea. ...


Aegean

Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.
Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete.

The Aegean Bronze Age civilizations established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of the tin in some Mediterranean bronze objects indicates it came from as far away as Great Britain.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1264x803, 352 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded until a method was discovered (or perhaps rediscovered) to determine longitude around 1750 AD, with the notable exception of the Polynesian sailors. This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ...


The Minoan civilization based from Knossos appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ...


One crucial lack in this period was that modern methods of accounting were not available. Numerous authorities[citation needed] believe that ancient empires were prone to misvalue staples in favor of luxuries, and thereby perish by famines created by uneconomic trading. A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet. ... A Lincoln Town Car luxury sedan is an example of a luxury good. ...


Collapse

Main article: Bronze Age collapse

How the Bronze Age ended in this region is still being studied. There is evidence that Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. Evidence also exists that supports the assumption that several Minoan client states lost large portions of their respective populations to extreme famines and/or pestilence, which in turn would indicate that the trade network may have failed at some point, preventing the trade that would have previously relieved such famines and prevented some forms of illness (by nutrition). It is also known that the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea, also suddenly lost significant portions of its population, and thus probably some degree of cultivation in this era. The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil or advantageous climate, produces an agricultural surplus which is often considered vital for the country as a whole. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

Mycenaean sword found in Eastern Europe
Mycenaean sword found in Eastern Europe

Recent research has discredited the theory that exhaustion of the Cypriot forests caused the end of the bronze trade. The Cypriot forests are known to have existed into later times, and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


One theory says that as iron tools became more common, the main justification of the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it once did. The individual colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought, famine, war, or some combination of these three factors, and thus they had no access to the far-flung resources of an empire by which they could easily recover. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...


Another family of theories looks to Knossos itself. The Thera eruption occurred at this time, 110 kilometers (70 mi) north of Crete. Some authorities speculate that a tsunami from Thera destroyed Cretan cities. Others say that perhaps a tsunami destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbor, which then lost crucial naval battles; so that in the LMIB/LMII event (c. 1450 BC) the cities of Crete burned and the Mycenaean civilization took over Knossos. If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think), then its immediate effects belong to the Middle Bronze to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age; but it could have triggered the instability which led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall. One such theory looks to the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire, post-Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made crucial political and commercial mistakes when administering the Cretans' empire. Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Naval redirects here. ... Model of the Palace of Minos on Kephala at the Museum in Iraklio. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ...


More recent archaeological findings, including on the island of Thera (more commonly known today as Santorini), suggest that the center of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on this island rather than on Crete. Some think that this was the fabled Atlantis (a map drawn on a wall of a Minoan palace in Crete depicts an island similar to that described by Plato and similar too to the form Thera very likely had prior to its explosion). According to this theory, the catastrophic loss of the political, administrative and economic center by the eruption as well as the damage wrought by the tsunami to the coastal towns and villages of Crete precipitated the decline of the Minoans. A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. Indeed, the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. 1630 BC. And, the Mycenaean Greeks first enter the historical record a few decades later c. 1600 BC. Thus, the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete (c.1450 BC) and Troy (c.1250 BC) are revealed as but continuations of the steady encroachments of the Greeks upon the weakened Minoan world.


Each of these theories is persuasive, and aspects of all of them may have some validity in describing the end of the Bronze Age in this region.


Europe

Main article: Bronze Age Europe

A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ...

Central Europe

Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments
Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments

In Central Europe, the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800–1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubingen, Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) Tumulus culture, which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture, followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures. Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Image File history File links Bronze_age_weapons_Romania. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Unetice, or more properly ÚnÄ›tice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... Hatvan is a town in Heves county, Hungary. ... The Tumulus culture which followed the Únêtice, and from which they descended, dominated central Europe during much of the second part of the second millenium B.C.E.. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... Körös is a Hungarian toponym with several meanings: Körös or CriÅŸ, a river that flows into Tisza, was used for an archeological site of the Starcevo-Körös culture Hungarian name for Križevci, was used for the historic Belovár-Körös county... The Ottomány culture in eastern Hungary is a local middle Bronze age culture (1600-1200 BC) near the village of Ottomány. ...


The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture, (1300–700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300–500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700–450 BC). The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... A simplified map of the central European cultures, ca 1200 BC. The purple area is the Lusatian culture, the central blue area is the Knoviz culture, the red area is the central urnfield culture, and the orange area is the northern urnfield culture. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ...


Important sites include: This is a list of archaeological sites is sorted by country. ...

Gate to the reconstructed settlement Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Nebra is a small city in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Location of Vráble in Slovakia Vráble is a town in Slovakia. ...   (-German; French: Zoug; Italian: Zugo) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. ...

Caucasus

Some scholars date some arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BC.[10] The Maykop culture, ca. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ...


Great Britain

Main article: Bronze Age Britain

In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 700 BC. Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people and cultural change was significant. Integration is thought to have been peaceful as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time. Additionally, the climate was deteriorating, where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued, forcing the population away from easily-defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands which appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1400–1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. Cornwall was a major source of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales. Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. Extent of the Beaker culture In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2700 to 700 BC. Periodization late neolithic: Meldon Bridge Period EBA (2700-1500) 2700 BC - 2000 BC: Mount Pleasant Phase, Early Beaker culture: Ireland: copper+arsenic, flat axes, halberds; Britain... Look up migration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... approximate extent of the Beaker culture The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk; German: ), ca. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... The Wessex culture is a name given to the predominant prehistoric culture of southern Britain during the early Bronze Age. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The Deverel-Rimbury culture was a name given to an archaeological culture of the British Middle Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Almost all that remains above ground of the Bishop of Bangors 13th century palace at Gogarth is the short wall on the left, the narrow column to the right of centre collapsed into the sea during the storms of March 2005 Saint Tudnos church, the original parish church... This article is about the country. ...


Also, the burial of dead (which until this period had usually been communal) became more individual. For example, whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow was used to house the dead, the Early Bronze Age saw people buried in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as Tumuli), or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. A chambered cairn is a burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a cairn of stones inside which a sizeable (usually stone) chamber was constructed. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... Part of an Ordnance Survey map at 1 inch to the mile scale from 1945 Ordnance Survey (OS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government. ... A cist (IPA ) is a small stone-built coffin-like box used to hold the bodies of the dead (notably during the Bronze Age in Britain and occasionally in Native American burials). ... For other uses, see Cairn (disambiguation). ...


The greatest quantities of bronze objects found in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire, where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces).[11] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... East Cambridgeshire is a local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. ... Isleham is a small village and civil parish in the English county of Cambridgeshire. ... The Isleham Hoard is a hoard of more than 6500 pieces of worked and unworked bronze found in 1959 at Isleham in the English county of Cambridgeshire and dating from the Bronze Age. ...


Bronze Age boats

  • Ferriby Boats
  • Langdon Bay hoard - see also Dover Museum
  • Divers unearth Bronze Age hoard off the coast of Devon
  • Moor Sands finds, including a remarkably well preserved and complete sword which has parallels with material from the Seine basin of northern France

The Ferriby Boats are three Bronze Age sewn plank-built boats, parts of which were discovered at North Ferriby in the East Riding of the English county of Yorkshire. ... Langdon Bay is a bay in east Kent, England. ... Dover Museum is a museum in Dover, Kent, in south-east England. ...

Ireland

The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced in the centuries around 2000 BC when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes, daggers, halberds and awls in copper. The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC), Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC), and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c. 500 BC). Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... For the typographical mark, see dagger (typography). ... Swedish halberds from 16th century A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. ... Awl may refer to: Scratch awl, a tool with a long pointed spike used for marking wood. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... For the Prison Break episode, please see Buried (Prison Break episode) Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea from an edition with drawings by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou. ...


One of the characteristic type of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe. There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel (c. 2200 BC), Ballybeg (c. 2000 BC), Killaha (c. 2000 BC), Ballyvalley (c. 2000–1600 BC), Derryniggin (c. 1600 BC), and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes.[12] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Americas

Andean Bronze Age

An Andean bronze bottle made by Chimú artisans from c. 1300 AD.

The Bronze Age in the Andes region of South America is thought to have begun at about 1300 BC[dubious ] when Chavin artisans discovered how to alloy copper with tin. The first objects produced were mostly utilitarian in nature, such as axes, knives, and agricultural implements. Decorative work in gold, silver and copper was already a highly developed tradition, and as the Chavin became more experienced in bronze-working technology they produced many ornate and highly decorative objects for administrative, religious, and other ceremonial purposes. Image File history File links Andean_Bronze_Age_Bottle. ... Image File history File links Andean_Bronze_Age_Bottle. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ... The Chimú were the residents of Chimor with its capital at the city of Chan Chan in the Moche valley of Peru. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chang, K. C.: “Studies of Shang Archaeology”, pp. 6-7, 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  2. ^ Chang, K. C.: “Studies of Shang Archaeology”, p. 1. Yale University Press, 1982.
  3. ^ http://www.nga.gov/education/chinatp_pt2.shtm Teaching Chinese Archaeology, Part Two – NGA
  4. ^ Barnard, N.: “Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China”, p. 14. The Australian National University and Monumenta Serica, 1961.
  5. ^ White, W. C.: “Bronze Culture of Ancient China”, p. 208. University of Toronto Press, 1956.
  6. ^ Erdberg, E.: “Ancient Chinese Bronzes”, p. 20. Siebenbad-Verlag, 1993.
  7. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L.: “Sources of Western Zhou History”, pp. xv-xvi. University of California Press, 1982.
  8. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. “Sources of Western Zhou History”, pp. 76-83. University of California Press, 1982.
  9. ^ Shaughnessy, E. L. “Sources of Western Zhou History”, p. 107
  10. ^ http://budgetcastingsupply.com/images/C873-Silicon-Bronze.jpg
  11. ^ Hall and Coles, p. 81–88.
  12. ^ Waddell; Eogan.

References

  • Eogan, George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age, Dublin : University College, 331p., ISBN 0-901120-77-4
  • Hall, David and Coles, John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence, Archaeological report 1, London : English Heritage, 170 p., ISBN 1-85074-477-7
  • Pernicka, E., Eibner, C., Öztunah, Ö., Wagener, G.A. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean", In: Wagner, G.A., Pernicka, E. and Uerpmann, H-P. (eds), Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches, Natural science in archaeology, Berlin; London : Springer, ISBN 3-540-43711-8, p. 143–172
  • Waddell, John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland, Galway University Press, 433 p., ISBN 1-901421-10-4

See also

The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age It was introduced by the Dane Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1820s in order to classify...

External links

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bronze Age.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bronze Age
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Names for archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bronze Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1577 words)
The Bronze Age is a period in a civilization's development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze.
The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period in the fourth millennium BC).
The late bronze age urnfield culture, (1300 BC-700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials.
Bronze Age - definition of Bronze Age in Encyclopedia (1327 words)
The Bronze Age is a period in a civilization's development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze.
The Bronze Age in the Near East is considered as beginning around 3300 BC with the increasing use of bronze and the rise of complex urban civilisation (to varying degrees and in varying forms) in the main cultural centres of the region, Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The end of the Bronze Age in the Near East is normally associated with the disturbances created by large population movements in the 12th century BC and the rise of new technologies and political formations, characterised as the start of the Iron Age.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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