FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bronze" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bronze
Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling.
Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling.

Bronze is any of a broad range of copper alloys, usually with tin as the main additive, but sometimes with other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, aluminium, or silicon. (See table below.) It was particularly significant in antiquity, giving its name to the Bronze Age. That name, in turn, is perhaps ultimately taken from the Persian word "birinj," meaning "copper".[1] Bronze is a metal alloy, composed of tin and various other metals. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (877x1071, 172 KB) Summary Assorted bronze castings dating from the bronze age. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (877x1071, 172 KB) Summary Assorted bronze castings dating from the bronze age. ... Copper alloys are alloys with Copper as their principial component. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Contents

History of Bronze

Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC-481 BC)
Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC-481 BC)

Bronze was significant to any culture that encountered it. It was one of the most innovative alloys of mankind. Tools, weapons, armor, and various building materials like decorative tiles made of bronze were harder and more durable than their stone and copper ("Chalcolithic") predecessors. In early use, the impurity arsenic sometimes created a superior alloy; this is termed arsenical bronze. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pu with openwork interlaced dragons design, Late Spring and Autumn, Shanghai Museum, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 373 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pu with openwork interlaced dragons design, Late Spring and Autumn, Shanghai Museum, By Mountain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Thai name Thai: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is a Chinese mythical creature, depicted as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with four claws. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Arsenical bronze (or arsenical copper) is an alloy in which arsenic is added to copper as opposed to, or in addition to other constituent metals. ...


The earliest tin-alloy bronzes date to the late 4th millennium BC in Susa (Iran) and some ancient sites in Luristan (Iran) and Mesopotamia (Iraq). The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


While copper and tin can naturally co-occur, the two ores are rarely found together (although one ancient site in Thailand and one in Iran provide counterexamples). Serious bronze work has therefore always involved trade (and the compelling idea that there were really traders in such goods). In fact, archaeologists suspect that a serious disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition to the Iron Age. In Europe, the major source for tin was Great Britain, where significant deposits of ore could be found in Cornwall. Phoenician traders visited Great Britain to trade goods from the Mediterranean for tin.[citation needed] For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...

Ewer from 7th century Iran. Cast, chased, and inlaid bronze. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Bronze is stronger (harder)[2] than wrought iron, but the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age. That may have been because the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean (or from Great Britain) became more limited during the major population migrations around 12001100 BC, which dramatically limited supplies and raised prices.[3] Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, but for many purposes the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong. As ironworking improved, iron became cheaper, and people figured out how to make steel, which is stronger than bronze, holding a sharper edge longer.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 304 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (526 × 1036 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 304 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (526 × 1036 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Properties

With the exception of steel, bronze is superior to iron in nearly every application. Although bronze develops a patina, it does not oxidize beyond the surface. It is considerably less brittle than iron and has a lower casting temperature. The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ...


Copper-based alloys have lower melting points than steel and are more readily produced from their constituent metals. They are generally about 10 percent heavier than steel, although alloys using aluminium or silicon may be slightly less dense. Bronzes are softer and weaker than steel, bronze springs are less stiff (and so store less energy) for the same bulk. It resists corrosion (especially seawater corrosion) and metal fatigue better than steel and also conducts heat and electricity better than most steels. The cost of copper-base alloys is generally higher than that of steels but lower than that of nickel-base alloys such as stainless steel. An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... A form of corrosion of metal exposed to seawater. ... This article is about a computer game. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ...


Copper and its alloys have a huge variety of uses that reflect their versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Some common examples are the high electrical conductivity of pure copper, the excellent deep-drawing qualities of cartridge case brass, the low-friction properties of bearing bronze, the resonant qualities of bell bronze, and the resistance to corrosion by sea water of several bronze alloys. Not to be confused with electrical conductance, a measure of an objects or circuits ability to conduct an electric current between two points, which is dependent on the electrical conductivity and the geometric dimensions of the conducting object. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ...


In the twentieth century, silicon was introduced as the primary alloying element, creating an alloy with wide application in industry and the major form used in contemporary statuary. Aluminium is also used for the structural metal aluminium bronze. Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper. ...

Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid in the Bards' crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Cracow, Poland by sculptor Czesław Dźwigaj
Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid in the Bards' crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Cracow, Poland by sculptor Czesław Dźwigaj

Bronze is the most popular metal for top-quality bells and cymbals, and more recently, saxophones. It is also widely used for cast metal sculpture (see bronze sculpture). Common bronze alloys often have the unusual and very desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling in the finest details of a mould. Bronze parts are tough and typically used for bearings, clips, electrical connectors and springs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1821 births | 1883 deaths | Polish painters | Polish poets | Polish writers ... Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Fragment of the grave of Cyprian Kamil Norwid CzesÅ‚aw Dźwigaj (born June 18, 1950 in Nowy WiÅ›nicz) - artist, sculptor, professor, student of Antoni Hajdecki. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Molding (US) or moulding (UK) can be: moulding or molding, a decorative feature used in interior design and architecture molding or moulding, a process used in manufacturing This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A bearing is a component used to reduce friction in a machine. ... The word spring has several meanings: spring (device), a common mechanical part. ...


Bronze also has very little metal-on-metal friction, which made it invaluable for the building of cannons where iron cannonballs would otherwise stick in the barrel. It is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors. Phosphor bronze is particularly suited to precision-grade bearings and springs. For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3. ...


Bronze is typically 88% copper and 12% tin.[5] Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs, turbines and blades. Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ...


Commercial bronze (otherwise known as brass) is 90% copper and 10% zinc, and contains no tin. It is stronger than copper and it has equivalent ductility. It is used for screws and wires. “Brazen” redirects here. ... Screws come in a variety of shapes and sizes for different purposes. ... A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, elongated strand of drawn metal. ...


Unlike steel, bronze struck against a hard surface will not generate sparks, so it is used to make hammers, mallets, wrenches and other durable tools to be used in explosive atmospheres or in the presence of flammable vapours.


Classification of copper and its alloys

Classification of Copper and Its Alloys - Wrought / Extruded[6]
Family Principal alloying element UNS numbers
Copper alloys, Brass Zinc (Zn) C1xxxx–C4xxxx,C66400–C69800
Phosphor bronzes Tin (Sn) C5xxxx
Aluminium bronzes Aluminium (Al) C60600–C64200
Silicon bronzes Silicon (Si) C64700–C66100
Copper nickel, Nickel silvers Nickel (Ni) C7xxxx

The Unified Numbering System (UNS) is an alloy designation system widely accepted in North America. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ...

See also

Aluminum bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminum is the main alloying metal added to copper. ... “Brazen” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A bronze medal is a medal awarded to the third place finisher of contests (typically athletics competitions) such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Bronzing is a process by which a bronze-like surface is imparted to objects of metal, plaster, wood, &c. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... Florentine bronze is a modern term for an alloy usually formed as a mixture of aluminium or tin (<10%) and copper (>90%). Currently no chemical formula for Florentine bronze has been made as it is an alloy which is not standardised (in proportions) worldwide. ... For other uses, see Gunmetal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... some canonical Luristan bronze artifacts including harnesses and disc headed pins in the Louvre Museum Luristan bronze is a term used for a set of ancient bronze artifacts of various individual forms which mainly have been recovered from Luristan and Kermanshah areas in west central Iran. ... Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3. ... The Seagram Building is a skyscraper in New York City, located at 375 Park Avenue, between 52nd Street and 53rd Street in Midtown Manhattan. ... Speculum metal is an alloy of four parts copper to one part tin. ...

References

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bronze.
  1. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bronze
  2. ^ http://www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/238547.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.claytoncramer.com/Iron2.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/238547.pdf
  5. ^ Knapp, Brian. (1996) Copper, Silver and Gold. Reed Library, Australia
  6. ^ Machinery's Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, ISBN 0-8311-2492-X, Edition 24, page 501

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Bronze

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phosphor bronze - encyclopedia article about Phosphor bronze. (618 words)
Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3.5 to 10% of tin and a significant phosphorus content of up to 1%.
Phosphor bronze is used for springs and other applications where resistance to fatigue, wear and chemical corrosion is required.
Bronze is the traditional name for a broad range of alloys of copper.
Bronze - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (827 words)
Bronzes are softer and weaker than steel, and more elastic, though bronze springs are less stiff (and so store less energy) for the same bulk.
Bronze is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors.
Bronze is typically 60% copper and 40% tin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m