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Encyclopedia > Bronx
Bronx
Location
Bronx, highlighted in yellow.
Government
County: Bronx
Borough president: Adolfo Carrión Jr.
Demographics[18]
Population: 1,332,650
Population density: 31,709.3/sq mi (12,243/km²)
Geography
Area: 57.43 sq mi (148.7 km²)
Land: 42.03 sq mi (108.9 km²)
Water: 15.40 sq mi (39.9 km²)
Coordinates: 40°42′15″N 73°55′5″W / 40.70417, -73.91806

The Bronx is New York City's northernmost borough, coterminous with Bronx County. It is the only one of the city's five boroughs situated primarily on the United States mainland rather than on an island. As of 2005, the United States Census Bureau estimated that the borough's population was 1,357,589.[1] If all five boroughs were independent cities, the Bronx would rank as the ninth most populous city in the United States. Recently, its population, which had been in decline since the 1960 census, has increased. The borough had its peak population in 1950. [2] The Bronx is the fourth most populous of New York City's five boroughs, and Bronx County is the fifth most populous county in the New York Metropolitan Area. Bronx may refer to: The Bronx, one of the five boroughs of New York City Bronx River, a river that flows south through The Bronx The Bronx, the American punk rock band Bronx cocktail, the alcoholic beverage A Bronx Morning, a 1931 avant-garde film The Bronx Bombers, nickname of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2652x2582, 4784 KB) A map of New York City with the Bronx highlighted. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Borough President is an elective office in New York City. ... Adolfo Carrión, Jr. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Public domain map courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, modified to show counties. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The New York metropolitan area is the most populous in the United States and the fourth most populous in the world (after Tokyo, Seoul, and Mexico City). ...


"The Bronx" is the only borough in New York City that, in its capacity as a borough, is referred to, in both law[2] and popular usage[3], with the definite article ("The"). (The name of the coterminous "Bronx County," however, does not include a "the.") The best explanation for the definite article is that the original name of the borough, when it was annexed from Westchester, was "The Borough of the Bronx River," referring to the river that passed through the borough.[4][5]. The river was named after Jonas Bronck, a Swede, who was a sea captain and 1641 resident whose 500 acre (2 km²) farm between the Harlem River and the Bronx River or Aquahung, as it was called by the Native Americans of the time. Jonas Bronck Jonas Bronck alt Bronk or Brunk (1600 ? -1643) was a Dutch immigrant to North America who gave name to The Bronx borough of New York City. ... The Harlem River, shown in red, between the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City The Harlem River is a tidal strait in New York City, USA that flows 8 miles (13 km) between the East River and the Hudson River, separating the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. ... Bronx River in Westchester County, NY The Bronx River is a river, approximately 24 mi (38 km) long, in southeast New York in the United States. ... Bronx River in Westchester County, NY The Bronx River is a river, approximately 24 mi (38 km) long, in southeast New York in the United States. ...

Contents

History

The Bronx was called Rananchqua[6] by the native Siwanoy[7] band of Lenape, while other Natives knew The Bronx as Keskeskeck.[8] It was divided by the "Aquahung" river, now known as the Bronx River. The land was first settled by Europeans in 1639, when Jonas Bronck, for whom the area was later named, established a farm along the Harlem River in the area now known as the Mott Haven section. The Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as "Bronck's Land".[9] Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The Siwanoy are a Native American tribe in the New York area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bronx River in Westchester County, NY The Bronx River is a river, approximately 24 mi (38 km) long, in southeast New York in the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Jonas Bronck Jonas Bronck alt Bronk or Brunk (1600 ? -1643) was a Dutch immigrant to North America who gave name to The Bronx borough of New York City. ...


The territory now contained within Bronx County was originally part of Westchester County, an original county of New York state. The present Bronx County was contained in four towns: Westchester, Yonkers, Eastchester, and Pelham. Westchester County is a primarily suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ...


In 1846, a new town, West Farms, was created by secession from Westchester; in turn, in 1855, the town of Morrisania seceded from West Farms. In 1873, the town of Kingsbridge (roughly corresponding to the modern Bronx neighborhoods of Kingsbridge, Riverdale, and Woodlawn) seceded from Yonkers. Morrisania is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the Bronx in New York City. ... Kingsbridge Kingsbridge is a neighborhood in the Bronx, New York. ... Riverdale Riverdale (population approximately 45,000, according to the 2000 U.S. Census) is a middle- and upper-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. ... Woodlawn (population 7,741) is a neighborhood in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County, consisting of the towns of Kingsbridge, West Farms, and Morrisania, was transferred to New York County, and in 1895 the Town of Westchester and portions of Eastchester and Pelham, were transferred to New York County. City Island, New York City's only nautical community, voted to secede from Westchester County and join New York County in 1896. In 1898, the amalgamated City of New York was created, including the Bronx as one of its five boroughs (although still within New York County). In 1914, those parts of the then New York County which had been annexed from Westchester County in the past decades were newly constituted as Bronx County, while keeping its status as a borough of New York City. For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... City Island is a small island approximately 1. ...


The Bronx underwent rapid growth after World War I. Extensions of the New York City Subway contributed to the increase in population as thousands of immigrants flooded the Bronx, resulting in a major boom in residential construction. Among these groups, many Irish and Italians but especially Jews settled here. Author Willa Cather, Pierre Lorillard who made a fortune on tobacco sales, and inventor Jordan Mott were famous settlers. In addition, French, German, and Polish immigrants moved into the borough. The Jewish population also increased notably during this time and many synagogues still exist throughout the borough, although many of these have been converted to other uses. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... Willa Cather photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936 Wilella Sibert Cather (December 7, 1873[1] – April 24, 1947) is among the most eminent American authors. ... Pierre Lorillard IV (October 13, 1833 – July 7, 1901) was an American tobacco manufacturer and thoroughbred race horse owner. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


In prohibition days, bootleggers and gangs ran rampant in the Bronx. Mostly Irish and Italian immigrants smuggled in the illegal whiskey. By 1926, the Bronx was noted for its high crime rate and its many speakeasies. Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


After the 1930s, the Irish immigrant population in the Bronx decreased as a result of better living conditions in New York suburbs and in other states. The German population followed suit in the 1940s. So did many Italians in the 1950s and Jewish-Americans in the 1960s. As the generation of the 1930s retired, many moved to southeastern Florida, west of Fort Lauderdale and Palm Beach. The migration has left a thriving Hispanic (mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican) and African-American population, along with some white areas in the southeastern and northwestern part of the county. A Jewish American (also commonly American Jew) is an American (a citizen of the United States) of Jewish descent who maintains a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practicing Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Fort Lauderdale, known as the Venice of America, is a city located in Broward County, Florida. ... Being largely seasonal, downtown Palm Beachs streets are virtually vacant in the summer. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, the Bronx went into an era of sharp change in the residents' quality of life. Many factors have been put forward by historians and other social scientists. They include the theory that urban renewal projects in the borough (such as Robert Moses' Cross-Bronx Expressway) destroyed existing low-density neighborhoods in favor of roads that produced urban sprawl as well as high-density housing projects. Another factor may have been the reduction by insurance companies and banks in offering property-related financial services (mortgages) to some areas of the Bronx -- a process known as redlining.[citation needed] The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 - July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County. ... The Cross-Bronx Expressway is a major expressway in New York City. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... In the United States and Canada, public housing is usually a block of purpose-built housing operated by a government agency, often simply referred to as the projects. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, government involvement in housing for the poor was chiefly in the area of requiring new... For the automotive term, see redline. ...


For a period, a wave of arson overtook the southern portion of the borough's apartment buildings, with competing theories as to why. Some point to the heavy traffic and use of illicit drugs among the area's poor as causing them to be inclined to scam the city's benefits for burn-out victims as well as the Section 8 housing program. Others believe landlords decided to burn their buildings before their insurance policies expired and were not renewed. After the destruction of many buildings in the South Bronx, the arsons all but ended during the tenure of Mayor Ed Koch with aftereffects still felt into the early 1990s thanks to the infamous crack epidemic. The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... The Housing Choice Voucher Program is a type of Federal assistance provided by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) dedicated to sponsoring subsidized housing for low-income families and individuals. ... Edward Irving Koch (born December 12, 1924; pronounced to rhyme with Scotch) was a United States Congressman from 1969 to 1977 and the Mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989. ... The Crack Epidemic refers to a six year period between 1984 and 1990 in the United States during which there was a huge surge in the use of crack cocaine in major cities. ...


Since the early 1990s, much development has occurred. Groups affiliated with South Bronx churches have built the Nehemiah Homes with about 1,000 units. This and other developments have transformed the south Bronx, and the ripple effects are felt borough-wide. While the Bronx still contains the poorest congressional district in the mainland US, crime has dropped substantially from the burned-out days of the 1970s and 1980s. This is due to many reasons, but primarily to community members working to take the community back and build it up once again.


The resurgence in housing has led some single-family homes in the East Bronx to be replaced by multi-family homes. As a result, the IRT White Plains Road Line has experienced increased ridership. There have been many new apartments built in the Melrose and Morrisania sections of the South Bronx, and near the Grand Concourse, onetime rental apartments are being upgraded and turned into condominiums.[10] Business chains such as Staples have started stores in the Bronx and more banks have added branches in the Bronx. The White Plains Road Line is a rapid transit line of the IRT division of the New York City Subway, serving the central Bronx. ... There are two meanings of condominium In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ... Staples may mean: Abram Penn Staples Billy Staples Chris Staples Curtis Staples Greg Staples Isaac Staples Jim Staples (rugby player) Mavis Staples Neville Staples Peter Staples Pops Staples Sam Staples (cricketer) Todd Staples Waller Redd Staples Staples, Minnesota Staples Inc. ...


In 1997, the Bronx was designated an "All America City" by the National Civic League, signifying its comeback from the decline of the 1970s. In 1997, The Bronx, one of the five boroughs of New York City, was designated an All America City by the National Civic Council. ... The National Civic League is an organization founded in 1894 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at a meeting of civic leaders, policy-makers, journalists, and educators (including Theodore Roosevelt, Louis Brandeis, Marshall Field, and Frederick Law Olmsted) to discuss the future of American cities. ...


Geography

The Morrisania neighborhood of the Bronx.
The Morrisania neighborhood of the Bronx.

The Bronx is almost entirely situated on the North American mainland, but it also includes several small islands in the East River and Long Island Sound.GR6 The Hudson River separates the Bronx from New Jersey to its west, the Harlem River separates it from the island of Manhattan to the southwest, the East River separates it from Queens to the southeast, and Long Island Sound separates it from Nassau County to the east. Westchester County is directly north of the Bronx. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 813 KB) Richard Garey I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 813 KB) Richard Garey I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... The Harlem River, shown in red, between the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City The Harlem River is a tidal strait in New York City, USA that flows 8 miles (13 km) between the East River and the Hudson River, separating the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... New York City waterways: 1. ... This article is about the New York City borough. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... Nassau County is a suburban city county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ...


As a part of New York City, Bronx County contains no other political subdivisions. It is located at 40°42′15″N, 73°55′5″W (40.704234, -73.917927).GR1 According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 148.7 km² (57.4 mi²). 108.9 km² (42.0 mi²) of it is land and 39.9 km² (15.4 mi²) of it (26.82%) is water. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


The Bronx is the only New York City borough with a freshwater river (the Bronx River) running through it. A smaller river, the Hutchinson River, passes through the northeast Bronx and empties into Eastchester Bay. The borough includes two of the largest parks in New York City, Pelham Bay Park and Van Cortlandt Park. Pelham Bay Park includes a large man-made public beach called Orchard Beach, created by Robert Moses. Woodlawn Cemetery, one of the largest cemeteries in New York City, is located near the border with Westchester County. It opened in 1863, at a time when the Bronx was still considered a rural area. Bronx River in Westchester County, NY The Bronx River is a river, approximately 24 mi (38 km) long, in southeast New York in the United States. ... The Hutchinson River is a small freshwater stream in New York. ... Eastchester Bay is a protected body of water between City Island and the mainland Bronx, New York. ... Pelham Bay Park, located in the northeast corner of the New York City borough of The Bronx, is at 2,764 acres (11 km²) the largest public park in New York City, more than three times the size of Manhattans Central Park. ... Van Cortlandt Park is a large urban park in the Bronx, NY. It has an area of 1,146 acres (4. ... Orchard Beach is a public beach in the borough of The Bronx, in the City of New York. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 - July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County. ... Located in The Bronx, Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City. ... Westchester County is a primarily suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ...


Neighborhoods

See also: List of Bronx neighborhoods

Famous Bronx neighborhoods include the South Bronx, "Little Italy" on Arthur Avenue in the Belmont section, Morris Park, and Riverdale. This is a list of neighborhoods in the Bronx, one of five boroughs of New York City, grouped by what general region of the Bronx they are in. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Arthur Avenue is the heart of Little Italy in the Bronx. ... Fordham is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of The Bronx. ... Morris Park is a residential, working, middle-class, Italian-American neighborhood in the Bronx, New York City. ... Riverdale Riverdale (population approximately 45,000, according to the 2000 U.S. Census) is a middle- and upper-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. ...


West Bronx

The western parts of the Bronx are hilly and are dominated by a series of parallel ridges, running south to north. The West Bronx has older tenement buildings and apartments as well as mansions in Riverdale. It includes three of the Bronx's largest neighborhoods: Kingsbridge, University Heights, and Riverdale, as well as the large Van Cortlandt Park. The Grand Concourse, a wide boulevard runs through it, north to south. The Grand Concourse is likely the most famous street in The Bronx borough of New York City. ...


East Bronx

East of the Bronx River, the borough is flatter, and includes four large low peninsulas or "necks" of low-lying land that jut into the waters of the East River and were once saltmarsh: Hunts Point, Clason's Point, Screvin's Neck and Throgs Neck. In the northeast corner of the Bronx, Rodman's Neck lies in Long Island Sound. Sections of the Northeast Bronx have small apartment buildings, small private homes and multi family homes. It also contains the giant high-rise apartment complex of Co-op City. Neighborhoods include: Eastchester, Edenwald, Baychester, Co-op City, Woodlawn, Wakefield, Pelham Parkway, Williamsbridge, and Norwood. Southeast Bronx consists of large apartment buildings, and complexes,as well as small private homes, and large upscale homes. Neighborhoods include, Pelham Gardens, Country Club, Soundview, Castle Hill, Throgs Neck, Parkchester, Van Nest, West Farms, Morris Park, Bronxdale, Westchester Square, Pelham Bay, City Island, Locust Point, and Silver Beach. It is the home of the Bronx Zoo and the New York Botanical Gardens. Throgs Neck (neighborhood) The geographic feature Throgs Neck, shown in red, in the Bronx, New York City Aerial view of the Throgs Neck Bridge spanning Throgs Neck This Map shows the income distribution in Throgs Neck. ... Rodmans Neck is a peninsula of land in the Bronx, New York. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... Co-op City is a housing development located in the northeastern Bronx at the intersection of I-95 and the Hutchinson River Parkway. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... The New York Botanical Garden is a prestigious botanical garden in New York City. ...


City Island

A small island located in Long Island Sound, known for its seafood restaurants, and water front private homes. City Island is home to many animals and birds not seen anywhere else in the Bronx. City Island is also home to many shops and stores similar to small New England cities along the coast. The neighborhoods of Co-op City are to its far west across the City Island Bridge, the Long island Sound is to its east. City Island Avenue is the island's major road and the BX 29 bus connects the area to the mainland. There are five places called City Island in the United States: City Island, Bronx City Island (Daytona Beach, Florida) City Island (Sarasota, Florida) City Island, Iowa City Island, Pennsylvania There is also a housing development in Leeds, England called City Island. ... The City Island Bridge is a fixed bridge in the Bronx, New York City, connecting City Island and the mainland. ...


Pelham Manor

This small area of the Bronx located on the Bronx/Westchester line across Eastchester Bay. A shopping center is in the area as well as small private homes and shops some of which bear a city address. It is also the end of the BX 16 bus line. The village of Pelham Manor is to the north of the New York City border, Co-op City, Eastchester and Baychester neighborhoods are to the south, and the city of Mt Vernon is to the West.


South Bronx

The area south of Fordham Road ,and west of the Bronx River is filled with high-density apartment buildings. The South Bronx is home to the Bronx County Court House and Borough Hall, and many other civil court houses, as well as home to Yankee Stadium, and the birthplace of hip-hop. The Cross Bronx Expressway bisects it, east to west. It is home to the Hub - Third Avenue shopping center. The South Bronx has old tenement buildings, large and small apartment buildings, as well as small private homes, multi family homes and more than 50% of The Bronx's housing projects.. Neighborhoods include, Mott Haven, Melrose, Morrisania, Hunts Point, Tremont, Highbridge, Concourse Village, and Grand Concourse. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hip hop (disambiguation). ... The Cross-Bronx Expressway is a highway in New York City. ...


Rikers Island

A small island in the East River that is home to the Rikers island jail facility. Operated by the New York City Department of Corrections, it is the largest jail facility in New York City. Although it is a part of Bronx County, the Island is only accessible by a bridge running from Queens to the island. Although most of the island is composed of jail facilities, the island is a neighborhood in its own right, with barbershops, supermarkets, and other shops. The island is served by Q101R bus. View of Rikers Island Rikers Island is the name of New York Citys largest jail facility[1], as well as the name of the 413. ... The New York City Department of Correction is responsible for over 13,000 of New York Citys inmates, housing the majority of them on Rikers Island. ...


Government

Presidential election results
Year GOP Dems
2004 16.5% 56,701 82.8% 283,994
2000 11.8% 36,245 86.3% 265,801
1996 10.5% 30,435 85.8% 248,276
1992 20.7% 63,310 73.7% 225,038
1988 25.5% 76,043 73.2% 218,245
1984 32.8% 109,308 66.9% 223,112
1980 30.7% 86,843 64.0% 181,090
1976 28.7% 96,842 70.8% 238,786
1972 44.6% 196,756 55.2% 243,345
1968 32.0% 142,314 62.4% 277,385
1964 25.2% 135,780 74.7% 403,014
1960 31.8% 182,393 67.9% 389,818

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, the Bronx has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in the Bronx. New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a strong mayor-council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ...


The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[11] Since 1990 the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. The Borough President of the Bronx is Adolfo Carrión Jr., elected as a Democrat in 2001 and re-elected in 2005. Borough President is an elective office in New York City. ... The New York City Board of Estimate was a governmental body in New York City, responsible for budget and land-use decisions. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... Adolfo Carrión, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Controversial political issues in the Bronx include environmental issues, the cost of housing, and annexation of parkland for New Yankee Stadium. New Yankee Stadium is the working title for a new stadium for the New York Yankees, currently under construction. ...


Each of the city's five counties (coterminous with each borough) has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Robert T. Johnson, a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of Bronx County since 1989. He is the first African-American District Attorney in New York State. The Bronx has 9 City Council members, the fourth largest number among the five boroughs. It also has 12 administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ...


In the 2004 presidential election Democrat John Kerry received 82.8% of the vote in the Bronx and Republican George W. Bush received 16.5%. John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1900 200,507
1910 430,980 114.9%
1920 732,016 69.8%
1930 1,265,258 72.8%
1940 1,394,711 10.2%
1950 1,451,277 4.1%
1960 1,424,815 -1.8%
1970 1,471,701 3.3%
1980 1,168,972 -20.6%
1990 1,203,789 3.0%
2000 1,332,650 10.7%

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 1,332,650 people, 463,212 households, and 314,984 families residing in the borough. The population density was 12,242.2/km² (31,709.3/mi²). There were 490,659 housing units at an average density of 4,507.4/km² (11,674.8/mi²). The racial makeup of the borough was 35.64% Black or African American, 29.87% White, 0.85% Native American, 3.01% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 24.74% from other races, and 5.78% from two or more races. 48.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. It has one of the highest percentages of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in the U.S. with 24.0% and 10.0%, respectively. However, the Puerto Rican population has slowly been declining over the last few years as the Dominican population has increased. Immigration and Naturalization Service data shows that in 1996, about two-thirds of those Ghanaians visiting the United States (6,269), and nearly three-fourths of those naturalized (3,084), arrived in New York City. Many have clustered in communities in Morris Heights, Highbridge, & Tremont, making Ghana the third most frequent place of origin for immigrants to the Bronx, according to the report.[12] As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 1,332,650 people, 463,212 households, and 314,984 families residing in the borough. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twetieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,542,199, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... Highbridge is a neighborhood in New York City located in the western part of The Bronx, adjacent to the Harlem River. ... Tremont is a neighborhood in the Bronx, in New York City. ...


Based on sample data from the same census, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that 47.29% of the population five and older speak only English at home. 43.67% speak Spanish at home, either exclusively or along with English. Other languages or groups of languages spoken at home by more than 0.25% of the population of the Bronx include Italian (1.36%), Albanian (1.07%), Kru, Ibo, or Yoruba (0.72%), French (0.54%). Major European ancestries of Bronx residents include Italian (5.67%), Irish (3.69%), German (1.50%), English (0.53%) (2000). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Kru languages belong to the Niger-Congo language family and are spoken in the area ranging from the south-east of Liberia to the east of Côte dIvoire. ... Igbo is a language spoken in Nigeria by about 18 million speakers (the Ibo), especially in the southeastern region once identified as Biafra. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ...


According to an estimate by the Census Bureau, the population increased to 1,357,589 in 2005.


The African American and Puerto Rican population have recently began to decrease, with some relocating to cities elsewhere in New York State such as Rochester and Albany. The Dominican population has increased significantly in the last five years, and by 2010 are expected to be doubled in population compared to 2000. The White population is seeing growth in some neighborhoods of the Bronx but also losses in others. Some neighborhoods, such as Kingsbridge Heights and Riverdale (both located in the Northwest and already White-Majority neighborhoods) are becoming homes to many ex-Manhattanites (mostly Whites) looking for cheaper rent. Albanians and Russians are some of the recently arrived European immigrants located mainly in the east Bronx. The size of southern Asian-origin ethnicities has grown, as many immigrants are from Bangladesh and other countries are moving to the Bronx. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... In English literary history, the name Rochester refers to John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. ... The name Albany is an ancient and literary name for Scotland, north of the Firth of Forth (east) and Firth of Clyde (west). ...


There were 463,212 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.4% were married couples living together, 30.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.0% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.37. Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


The age distribution of the population in the Bronx was as follows: 29.8% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 87.0 males.


The median income for a household in the borough was $27,611, and the median income for a family was $30,682. Males had a median income of $31,178 versus $29,429 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $13,959. About 28.0% of families and 30.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.5% of those under age 18 and 21.3% of those age 65 or over. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Despite the stereotype that the Bronx (especially South Bronx) is a typical poor urban area of New York City, it is not true of the entire borough. The Bronx has much affordable housing (as compared to most of the rest of the New York metropolitan area, as well as upscale neighborhoods like Riverdale, City Island, Pelham Bay, Kingsbridge Heights, Woodlawn, and Country Club). This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The New York metropolitan area is the most populous in the United States and the fourth most populous in the world (after Tokyo, Seoul, and Mexico City). ... Riverdale Riverdale (population approximately 45,000, according to the 2000 U.S. Census) is a middle- and upper-class residential neighborhood in the northwest Bronx, New York City. ... City Island is a small island approximately 1. ... Pelham Bay Pelham Bay is a neighborhood in the borough of the Bronx, in New York City. ... Kingsbridge Heights, sometimes considered as separate from Kingsbridge proper, is a neighborhood in the West Bronx in New York City. ... Woodlawn (population 7,741) is a neighborhood in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... Country Club is a predominantly middle-class neighborhood located in the East Bronx, New York City. ...


Shopping

The Bronx is home to several known shopping areas such as Fordham Shopping center, Bay plaza, The Hub, River/Kingsbridge Shopping center, Bruckner Blvd and many other streets especially those aligned underneath the Westchester Avenue, White Plains Road, Jerome Avenue, and Broadway elevated transit lines. The Bronx is home to trend setting,cheap styles sometimes not found anywhere else in New York city.


Culture: from Poe to hip-hop

The Bronx's P.L.A.Y.E.R.S. Club Steppers are the only step team to perform at The White House, and have won numerous titles.
The Bronx's P.L.A.Y.E.R.S. Club Steppers are the only step team to perform at The White House, and have won numerous titles.[13]

Author Edgar Allan Poe spent the last years of his life (1846 to 1849) in the Bronx at Poe Cottage, now located at Kingsbridge Road and the Grand Concourse. A small wooden farmhouse built about 1812, the cottage once commanded unobstructed vistas over the rolling Bronx hills to the shores of Long Island.[14] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 8. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 8. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Grand Boulevard and Concourse (almost universally referred to as the Grand Concourse) is likely the most famous street in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


In recent years, the Bronx has become an important center of African-American culture. Hip hop first emerged in the West Bronx in the early 1970s. The New York Times has identified 1520 Sedgwick Avenue "an otherwise unremarkable high-rise just north of the Cross Bronx Expressway and hard along the Major Deegan Expressway" as the starting point, where DJ Kool Herc presided over parties in the community room.[15] Beginning with the advent of beat match DJing, in which Bronx DJs including Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa and DJ Kool Herc extended the breaks of funk records, a major new musical genre emerged that sought to isolate the percussion breaks of hit funk, disco and soul songs. As hip hop's popularity grew, performers began speaking ("rapping") in sync with the beats, and became known as MCs or emcees. The Herculoids, made up of Herc, Coke La Rock, and Clark Kent, were the earliest to gain major fame. The Bronx is referred to in hip-hop slang as "The Boogie Down Bronx", or just "The Boogie Down". This was hip-hop pioneer KRS-One's inspiration for his thought provoking group BDP, or Boogie Down Productions, which included DJ Scott La Rock. Newer hip hop artists from the Bronx include Fat Joe, Big Pun (deceased), Terror Squad. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... The Cross-Bronx Expressway is a highway in New York City. ... Interstate 87 is a 346 mile (558 km) intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of New York. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: People stubs | Hip hop musicians | Hip hop DJs | 1955 births ... Jose Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an Puerto Rican-American rapper. ... Christopher Lee Rios (November 9, 1971–February 7, 2000), better known as Big Punisher or Big Pun, was a New York rapper of Puerto Rican descent who emerged from the underground rap scene in The Bronx in the late 1990s. ... The Terror Squad is a hip hop crew and a Record label from The Bronx, New York that is best known for its members Big Pun and Fat Joe. ...


The Bronx is home to several Off-Off-Broadway theaters, many staging new works by immigrant playwrights from Latin America and Africa. The Pregones Theater, which produces Latin American work, opened a new 130-seat theater in 2005 on Walton Avenue in the South Bronx. Artists from elsewhere in New York City have begun to converge in the area, and housing prices have nearly quadrupled in the area since 2002. Off-Off-Broadway refers to theatrical productions including plays, musicals or performance art pieces performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway productions or off-Broadway productions. ...


The Bronx Museum of the Arts, founded in 1971, exhibits 20th-century and contemporary art through its central museum space and 11,000 square feet (1,000 m²) of galleries. Many of its exhibitions are on themes of special interest to the Bronx. Its permanent collection features more than 800 works of art, primarily by artists from Africa, Asia and Latin America, including paintings, photographs, prints, drawings, and mixed media. The museum was temporarily closed in 2006 while it underwent a major expansion designed by the architectural firm Arquitectonica. Arquitectonica is a post-modern architecture, interior design and planning firm that began in Miami in 1977 as an experimental studio. ...


Other major cultural sites in the Bronx include The New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo, and the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, a national landmark overlooking the Harlem River and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White. Yankee Stadium is the home of the New York Yankees, and houses "Monument Park", a tribute to great Yankees of the past. One of the premiere botanical gardens in the United States, the New York Botanical Garden [located at East 200th Street & Kazimiroff Boulevard] spans some 240 acres (1 km²) in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City. ... The Bronx Zoo is a world-famous zoo located within the Bronx Park, in the Bronx borough of New York City. ... Stanford White (1853-1906) Washington Square Arch New York American on June 25, 1906 Stanford White (November 9, 1853 – June 25, 1906) was an American architect and partner in the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms. ... This is about the stadium the New York Yankees currently play in. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... The entrance to the monuments and plaques, at the end of the retired numbers display. ...


The Bronx in the movies

Originally, movies set in the Bronx portrayed densely-settled, working-class, urban culture. Paddy Chayefsky's Academy-award winning Marty is the epitome of this, with its tag line, "What are you doing, Marty? Nothing." This thematic line has continued to some extent as in the 1993 Robert De Niro/Chazz Palminteri film, A Bronx Tale and Spike Lee's 1999 movie Summer of Sam, centered in an Italian-American Bronx community. Other movies have used the term, "Bronx" for comic effect, such as the 1995 Jackie Chan film Rumble in the Bronx (Hong faan kui in Cantonese) -- which had nothing to do with the real Bronx, and "Bronx," the character on the Disney animated series Gargoyles. Sidney Aaron Chayefsky (January 29, 1923 – August 1, 1981) known as Paddy Chayefsky was an acclaimed dramatist who transitioned from the golden age of American live television in the 1950s to have a successful career as a playwright and screenwriter for Hollywood. ... For other uses, see Marty (disambiguation). ... The year 1993 in film involved many significant films. ... Robert Mario De Niro Jr. ... Chazz Palminteri (born May 15, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and writer, best known for his performances in The Usaul Suspects, A Bronx Tale and Mulholland Falls. ... A Bronx Tale is a 1993 film set in New York City during the turbulent era of the 1960s. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... The year 1999 in film involved some significant events. ... Summer of Sam is a 1999 film about the Son of Sam serial murders. ... The year 1995 in film involved some significant events. ... Chan Kong-Sang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Jackie Chan Sing Lung (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or Jackie Chan SBS, (born on April 7, 1954) is a Chinese martial artist, action star, actor, director, screenwriter, film producer, singer and stunt performer. ... Rumble in the Bronx (紅番區; Hong faan kui in Cantonese) is an action-comedy movie starring Jackie Chan and Anita Mui. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, starting in the 1970s, the Bronx often symbolized violence, decay, and urban ruin. In casual French "c'est le Bronx" stands for "what a mess". The wave of arson in the South Bronx in the 1960s and 1970s launched the phrase "the Bronx is burning": in 1974 it was the title of both a New York Times editorial and a BBC documentary film. However, the line entered the pop-consciousness with Game Two of the 1977 World Series, when a fire broke out near Yankee Stadium as the team was playing the Los Angeles Dodgers. As the fire was captured on live television, announcer Howard Cosell intoned, "There it is, ladies and gentlemen: The Bronx is burning". Historians of New York City frequently point to Cosell's remark as a sign of both the city and the borough's decline.[16] A new feature-length documentary film by Edwin Pagan called "Bronx Burning" is in production[17] in 2006, chronicling what led up to the arson-for-insurance fraud fires of the 1970s and the subsequent rebirth of the community. The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Editorial and Op-ed. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... 1977 World Series Logo The 1977 World Series matched the New York Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers, with the Yankees winning in six games to capture their first title since 1962, and their 21st overall. ... This is about the stadium the New York Yankees currently play in. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899-1910), (1913) Brooklyn Grooms... Howard William Cosell, born Howard William Cohen (March 25, 1918 – April 23, 1995) was an American sports journalist on American television. ...


These themes have been especially pervasive in representations of the Bronx in cinema. There are good depictions of Bronx gangs in the 1974 novel The Wanderers by Bronx native Richard Price and the 1979 movie of the same name. They are set in the heart of the Bronx, showing apartment life and the then-landmark Krums ice cream parlor. In the 1979 film The Warriors (film), the eponymous gang go to a meeting in Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx, and have to fight their way back to Coney Island in Brooklyn. The 2005 video game adaptation features levels called Pelham, Tremont, and "Gunhill" (an apparent corruption of the name Gun Hill Road). // Many cities and times have seen active gangs and gang members congregating and controlling territory, however in the 1950s and 60s the youth gangs in the Bronx, New York, emerged with a particular notoriety. ... Peredvizhniki (Передвижники, in Russian) - the Russian artists-realists entering into Company of mobile art exhibitions (1870-1923). ... Richard Price (February 23, 1723 – April 19, 1791), was a Welsh moral and political philosopher. ... // Events March 5 - Production begins on Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. ... The Warriors is a 1979 film directed by Walter Hill and based on the 1965 novel by Sol Yurick. ... Van Cortlandt Park is a large urban park in the Bronx, NY. It has an area of 1,146 acres (4. ... For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


A somewhat ironic use of this theme is the title of The Bronx is Burning: an eight-part ESPN TV mini-series (2007) about the New York Yankees' drive to winning baseball's 1977 World Series championship. The TV series emphasizes the boisterous nature of the team, led by manager Billy Martin, catcher Thurman Munson and outfielder Reggie Jackson. ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... 1977 World Series Logo The 1977 World Series matched the New York Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers, with the Yankees winning in six games to capture their first title since 1962, and their 21st overall. ... Alfred Manuel Billy Martin (May 16, 1928 – December 25, 1989) was an American second baseman and manager in Major League Baseball who was best known as the manager of the New York Yankees five different times. ... Thurman Lee Munson (June 7, 1947 – August 2, 1979) was an American catcher in Major League Baseball who played with the New York Yankees from 1969 to 1979. ... Reggie Jacksons number 44 was retired by the New York Yankees in 1993 Reggie Jacksons number 9 was retired by the Oakland Athletics in 2004 Reginald Martinez Reggie Jackson (born May 18, 1946), nicknamed Mr. ...


The 1981 film Fort Apache, The Bronx also portrayed the Bronx as gang- and crime-ridden. The film's title is from the nickname for the 41st Police Precinct in the South Bronx. This movie was condemned by community leaders for condoning police brutality, and for unflattering depiction of the borough; former Young Lords member and Puerto Rican activist Richie Perez formed a protest group, "The Committee Against Fort Apache". By contrast, Knights of the South Bronx, a true story of a teacher who worked with disadvantaged children, is also set in the Bronx. // January 19 - Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquires beleaguered concurrent United Artists. ... Fort Apache, The Bronx is a 1981 in film crime drama film directed by Daniel Petrie starring Paul Newman, Ken Wahl, Danny Aiello, Rachel Ticotin, Edward Asner and Pam Grier. ... The Young Lords, later Young Lords Organization and in New York (notably Spanish Harlem), Young Lords Party, was a Puerto Rican Hispanic nationalist group in several United States cities, notably New York City and Chicago. ... Categories: | ...


The Bronx was the setting for the 1983 film Fuga dal Bronx, (also known as Bronx Warriors 2 and Escape 2000,) an Italian B-movie best known for its appearance on the television series Mystery Science Theatre 3000. The plot revolves around a sinister construction corporation's plans to depopulate, destroy and redevelop the Bronx, and a band of rebels who are out to expose the corporation's murderous ways and save their homes. The film is memorable for its almost incessant use of the phrase, "Leave the Bronx!" From left to right, Crow T. Robot, Joel Robinson, and Tom Servo. ...


Media

The Bronx has featured in much fiction. One rich tale is Avery Corman's The Old Neighborhood (1980) in which the upper-middle class white protagonist returns to his birth neighborhood (Fordham Road and Grand Concourse, and learns that even though the folks are poor Hispanic and African-American, they are good people. By contrast, Tom Wolfe's Bonfire of the Vanities (1987) starts with an account of a similar upper-middle class white protagonist getting lost and off the Deegan Expressway in the South Bronx and having a vicious altercation with a local gang. A substantial piece of the last part of the book is set in the resulting riotous trial at the Bronx County Court House. Avery Corman is an American novelist and screenwriter. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Fordham Road is a major street in The Bronx, one of the boroughs of New York City. ... The Grand Concourse is likely the most famous street in The Bronx borough of New York City. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Thomas Kennerly Wolfe (born March 2, 1931 in Richmond, Virginia), known as Tom Wolfe, is a best-selling American author and journalist. ... Bonfire of the Vanities refers to an event on 7 February 1497 when followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Major William Francis Deegan Expressway (sometimes called the Major Deegan or the Deegan) is an 8. ... // Many cities and times have seen active gangs and gang members congregating and controlling territory, however in the 1950s and 60s the youth gangs in the Bronx, New York, emerged with a particular notoriety. ...


The Bronx has several local newspapers, including The Riverdale Press, Riverdale Review, The Bronx Times Reporter, Inner City Press and Co-Op City Times. Four non-profit news outlets, Norwood News, Mount Hope Monitor, Highbridge Horizon and The Hunts Point Express serve the borough's poorer communities. The editor and co-publisher of The Riverdale Press, Bernard Stein, won the Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing for his editorials about Bronx and New York City issues in 1998. (Stein graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1959.) The Bronx High School of Science, commonly called Bronx Science, Bronx Sci, or just Science, is a specialized New York City public high school located in the Bedford Park section of the Bronx, with no tuition charges and admission by exam (reportedly taken by more than 20,000 students). ...


The Bronx once had its own daily newspaper, The Bronx Home News, started January 20, 1907 and merged into the New York Post in 1948. It became a special section of the Post, sold only in the Bronx, and eventually disappeared from view. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ...


One of New York City's major non-commercial radio broadcasters is WFUV, a 50,000 watt station broadcasting from Fordham University's Rose Hill campus in the Bronx. The radio station's antenna is atop Montefiore Medical Center, the borough's tallest building. WFUV, 90. ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... Montefiore Medical Center, in the Bronx, New York, the university hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, is one of the 50 largest employers in New York State[1]. Located in Norwood, it was founded in 1884 as the Home for Chronic Invalids, housing mainly tuberculosis patients. ...


The City of New York has an official television station run by the NYC Media Group and broadcasting from Bronx Community College, and Cablevision operates News 12 The Bronx, both of which feature programming based in the Bronx. Co-op City was the first area in The Bronx to have its own cable provider outside of Manhattan. The local cable access station BRONXNET provides public affairs programming in addition to programming produced by Bronx residents. Its website showcases Bronx Music Vol.1; a CD featuring the sounds and artists of The Bronx. [3] NYC Media Group is a newly formed entity responsible for managing and programming the City of New York’s media assets, as of 2004. ... The Bronx Community College of The City University of New York is a community college in the City University of New York system. ... For other uses, see Cablevision (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In poetry, The Bronx has been immortalized by one of the world's shortest:

The Bronx
No Thonx
Ogden Nash, The New Yorker, 1931

See also: Culture of New York City, Music of New York City, and List of people from The Bronx Frederic Ogden Nash (August 19, 1902 – May 19, 1971) was an American poet best known for writing pithy and funny light verse. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... Graffiti and street art emerged in New York as part of the Zoo York subculture in the 1970s. ... Carnegie Hall, a major music venue in New York The music of New York City is a diverse and important field in the world of music; no American city has as central a place in music history as New York City. ... These famous people all resided in The Bronx at some time in their lives. ...


Transportation

Roads

The Bronx street grid is irregular. Much of the west Bronx follows the Manhattan street grid, and some of the streets are numbered (the numbering comes from the Manhattan grid, but does not match it exactly). The west Bronx's hilly terrain, however, leaves a relatively free street grid that closely resembles that of extreme upper Manhattan, which has similar terrain. Because the street numbering carries over from upper Manhattan, the lowest numbered street in the Bronx is East 132nd Street. The east Bronx is considerably flatter, and the street layout tends to be more regular. However, only the Wakefield neighborhood picks up the street numbering. Upper Manhattan is an area in New York City consisting of the thin, northern neck of the island of Manhattan. ... Wakefield is a residential and middle-class section of the northern borough of the Bronx in New York City, bounded by the New York city line with Westchester County to the north, 222nd Street to the south, and the Bronx River, Bronx River Parkway and Metro-North Railroad tracks to...


Three major north-south thoroughfares run between Manhattan and the Bronx: Third Avenue, Park Avenue, and Broadway. Other major north-south roads include the Grand Concourse, Jerome Avenue , Webster Avenue , and White Plains Road. Major east-west streets include Gun Hill Road, Fordham Road, Pelham Parkway, Boston Road and Tremont Avenue. Many east-west streets are prefixed with either "East" or "West," to indicate on which side of Jerome Avenue they lie (continuing the similar system in Manhattan, which uses Fifth Avenue as the dividing line). Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of Manhattan in New York City, running in that borough from East 4th Street north for over 120 blocks. ... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue, looking north toward the Metlife building from the Union Square Area Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries traffic north and south in Manhattan in New York City. ... A view of Broadway in 1909 Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City. ... The Grand Boulevard and Concourse (almost universally referred to as the Grand Concourse) is likely the most famous street in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fordham Road is a major street in The Bronx, one of the boroughs of New York City. ... The Bronx and Pelham Parkway (usually referred to simply as Pelham Parkway) is a parkway in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. ... Tremont Avenue is a two-lane, two-way road in The Bronx, New York. ... Street sign at corner of Fifth Avenue and East 57th Street Fifth Avenue, early morning photograph, looking south from Thirty-eighth Street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the center of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. ...


Several major expressways and highways traverse the Bronx. These include:

The Bronx River Parkway was one of the earliest limited access automobile highways. ... The Bruckner Expressway is a freeway in The Bronx. ... Interstate 278 (abbreviated I-278) is an Interstate Highway in the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York. ... Interstate 95, the major Interstate Highway along the East Coast of the United States, runs 23. ... The Cross-Bronx Expressway is a major expressway in New York City. ... Interstate 95, the major Interstate Highway along the East Coast of the United States, runs 23. ... Interstate 295 (abbreviated I-295) is a connector route within New York City. ... The New England Thruway is a portion of the U.S. Interstate highway system and of the New York State Thruway, within and operated by the state of New York, and linking New York City with New England, specifically with southwestern Connecticut. ... Interstate 95, the major Interstate Highway along the East Coast of the United States, runs 23. ... The Henry Hudson Parkway is a New York City parkway that stretches from West 72nd Street in Manhattan to the Bronx-Westchester County boundary, where it meets the Saw Mill River Parkway. ... Route 9A is a 47. ... The Hutchinson River Parkway, colloquially called The Hutch by many Westchester and Bronx residents, is a parkway that runs through Westchester County, New York and the Bronx in New York City. ... Interstate 87 (abbreviated I-87) is a 346 mile (558 km) intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of New York. ...

Bridges

Many bridges connect the Bronx to Manhattan and Queens. These include, from west to east: Download high resolution version (1024x562, 36 KB)Aerial view of the Throgs Neck Bridge. ... Download high resolution version (1024x562, 36 KB)Aerial view of the Throgs Neck Bridge. ... The Throgs Neck Bridge is a suspension bridge opened on January 11, 1961 carrying Interstate 295 over the East River where it meets the Long Island Sound. ... This article is about the New York City borough. ...


To Manhattan: the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge, the Henry Hudson Bridge, the Broadway Bridge, the University Heights Bridge, the Washington Bridge, the Alexander Hamilton Bridge, the High Bridge, the Concourse Tunnel, the Macombs Dam Bridge, the 145th Street Bridge, the 149th Street Tunnel, the Madison Avenue Bridge, the Park Avenue Bridge, the Lexington Avenue Tunnel, the Third Avenue Bridge (southbound traffic only), and the Willis Avenue Bridge (northbound traffic only). The Spuyten Duyvil Bridge is a Swing bridge that carries Amtraks Empire Corridor line across the Harlem River between Manhattan and the Bronx, in New York City. ... The Henry Hudson Bridge is a steel arch toll bridge in New York City across the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, a tidal strait. ... The Broadway Bridge in New York City crosses the Harlem Ship Canal between Inwood and Marble Hill, both parts of Manhattan (the latter on the mainland, attached to the Bronx, due to the rerouting of the Harlem River). ... The University Heights Bridge crosses the Harlem River, connecting West 207th Street in the Inwood neighborhood of Manhattan to West Fordham Road in the University Heights section of the Bronx. ... Three of the bridges that cross the Harlem River are visible in this photo of the river: the High Bridge (closed to traffic) in the foreground; the Alexander Hamilton Bridge (part of Interstate 95); and the Washington Bridge furthest away. ... Three of the bridges that cross the Harlem River are visible in this photo of the river: the High Bridge (closed to traffic) in the foreground; the Alexander Hamilton Bridge (part of Interstate 95); and the Washington Bridge furthest away. ... The High Bridge over the Harlem River as seen in 1890. ... The Concourse Tunnel carries the B and D lines of the New York City Subway under the Harlem River between Manhattan and the Bronx, in New York City. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The 145th Street Avenue Bridge, located in New York City, USA, is a four-lane swing bridge that crosses the Harlem River, connecting Lenox Avenue in Manhattan with East 149th Street and River Avenue in the Bronx. ... The 149th Street Tunnel carries the 2 line of the New York City Subway under the Harlem River between Manhattan, New York and Bronx, New York. ... The Madison Avenue Bridge crosses the Harlem River from Manhattan to the Bronx. ... The Park Avenue Bridge carries the Metro-North Railroad across the Harlem River between Manhattan, New York and Bronx, New York. ... The Lexington Avenue Tunnel carries the 4, 5 and 6 lines of the New York City Subway under the Harlem River between Manhattan, New York and Bronx, New York. ... The Third Avenue Bridge carries southbound road traffic over the Harlem River from Manhattan to the Bronx. ... The Willis Avenue Bridge carries northbound road traffic over the Harlem River from Manhattan to the Bronx. ...


To Manhattan or Queens: the Triborough Bridge The Triborough Bridge is a complex of three bridges connecting the New York City boroughs of the Bronx, Manhattan, and Queens, using what were two islands, Wards Island and Randalls Island as intermediate rights-of-way between the water crossings. ...


To Queens: the Bronx Whitestone Bridge and the Throgs Neck Bridge Bronx Whitestone Bridge © 2004 Metropolitan Transportation Authority Aerial view of the Bronx Whitestone Bridge Ground view of its sister bridge, the Throgs Neck Bridge, from Queens The Bronx Whitestone Bridge, colloquially referred to as the Whitestone Bridge, is a suspension bridge that crosses the East River and connects the boroughs... The Throgs Neck Bridge is a suspension bridge opened on January 11, 1961 carrying Interstate 295 over the East River where it meets the Long Island Sound. ...


Mass transit

The Bronx is served by six lines of the New York City Subway: Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ...

Two Metro-North Railroad commuter rail lines (the Harlem Line and the Hudson Line) serve 12 stations in the Bronx. In addition, trains serving the New Haven Line stop at Fordham Road. The Concourse Line is a subway branch line of the New York City Subway system, extending from 205th Street in the Norwood section of the Bronx to join with the Eighth Avenue Line at 145th Street in the Harlem neighborhood of Manhattan. ... The B Sixth Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The D Sixth Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line, also known as the IRT West Side Line, is one of the lines of the IRT division of the New York City Subway. ... The 1 Broadway–Seventh Avenue Local is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The Dyre Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway, as part of the IRT division. ... The 5 Lexington Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... Stations 139th Street-Grand Concourse 149th Street-Grand Councourse 161st Street-Yankee Stadium 167th Street 170th Street Mt. ... The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... Stations Third Avenue-138th Street Brook Avenue Cypress Avenue East 143rd Street-St. ... The 6 Lexington Avenue Local is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The 6 Lexington Avenue Local is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The White Plains Road Line is a rapid transit line of the IRT division of the New York City Subway, serving the central Bronx. ... The 2 Seventh Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The 5 Lexington Avenue Express is a service of the New York City Subway. ... The Metro-North Commuter Railroad Company, or MTA Metro-North Railroad, or, more commonly, Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service that is run and managed by an authority of New York State, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or, more simply, the MTA. Metro-North runs service between New York... Metro-Norths Harlem Line, originally the New York Central Railroads New York and Harlem Railroad, is a commuter rail line running north from New York City into Dutchess County. ... Metro-North Railroads Hudson Line is a commuter rail line running north from New York City along the east shore of the Hudson River. ... Metro North Railroads New Haven Line runs from New Haven, Connecticut southwest to Woodlawn, New York on the Harlem Line, where New Haven Line trains continue south to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. ... The Fordham Metro-North Railroad station serves the residents of the Fordham neighborhood of the Bronx, New York via the Harlem Line and New Haven Line. ...

See also: Transportation in New York City

The Transportation System of New York City is a unique cooperation of complex, unique and grandiose systems of infrastructure. ...

Education

Fordham University's Keating Hall.
Fordham University's Keating Hall.

Education in the Bronx is provided by a large number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education. Private schools range from elite independent schools to parochial schools run by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York and Jewish organizations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x876, 321 KB) Summary Keating Hall, Rose Hill, Fordham University Photograph by Chriscobar Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fordham University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x876, 321 KB) Summary Keating Hall, Rose Hill, Fordham University Photograph by Chriscobar Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Fordham University Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... The Official Seal of the City of New York The New York City Department of Education is the branch of municipal government in New York City that manages the citys public school system. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many high schools are located in the borough including the Bronx High School of Science, American Studies, Clinton, and the Grace H. Dodge Vocational & Technical H.S.. Parochial (Catholic-linked) high schools include St. Raymond High School for Boys, All Hallows High School, Cardinal Hayes, Cardinal Spellman High School, Fordham Preparatory School, Academy of Mount Saint Ursula, Aquinas High School, Preston, St. Catharines Academy, and Mount Saint Michael Academy. The Bronx is home to three of New York City's most elite private schools: Fieldston, Horace Mann, and Riverdale Country School. The Bronx High School of Science, commonly called Bronx Science, Bronx Sci, or just Science, is a specialized New York City public high school located in the Bedford Park section of the Bronx, with no tuition charges and admission by exam (reportedly taken by more than 20,000 students). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint Raymond High School for Boys is a parochial high school affiliated with the New York, U.S.A. Archdiocesan Association of Catholic Schools. ... All Hallows High School is a Catholic boys high school in The Bronx, New York. ... Cardinal Hayes High School is a Catholic high school in the Bronx, New York City. ... Cardinal Spellman is a private high school of Catholic denomination located in Brockton, Massachusetts. ... Fordham Preparatory School (also known as Fordham Prep) is a private Jesuit all-boys high school located in the Bronx, New York City, with an enrollment of approximately 900 students. ... Aquinas High School is an all-girls, private, Roman Catholic high school in The Bronx, New York. ... Image:Preston logo. ... Mount Saint Michael Academy is an all-boys Roman Catholic high school in the Bronx, New York (in the Archdiocese of New York). ... The Ethical Culture Fieldston School, known as Fieldston, is a private independent school in New York City and a member of the Ivy Preparatory School League. ... The Horace Mann School is a private college preparatory school in New York City. ... The Lower Campus of Riverdale Country School Riverdale Country School is a co-educational college preparatory day school in New York City. ...


Starting in the 1990s New York City began closing large, public high schools in The Bronx and replacing them with small high schools. Cited reasons for the changes include poor graduation rates and concerns about safety. Schools that have been closed or reduced in size include James Monroe, Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Adlai Stevenson, Evander Childs, Christopher Columbus, Morris, Walton, and South Bronx High Schools. More recently the City has started phasing out large middle schools, also replacing them with smaller schools. William Howard Taft High School was a high school in South Bronx, New York City. ... Theodore Roosevelt High School was a public secondary school located in The Bronx, New York City, United States. ... Christopher Columbus High School is a public secondary school located in the Pelham Parkway, northeast section of the Bronx, New York. ... Walton High School is a large comprehensive secondary school located in the Bronx borough of New York, comprising 1191 students. ...


Several colleges and universities are located in The Bronx. Fordham University, a coeducational undergraduate and graduate university, was founded in 1841. It is officially an independent institution but strongly embraces its Jesuit heritage. The Bronx campus, known as Rose Hill is the main campus of the university. Addionally, the main campus of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, part of Yeshiva University, is in Morris Park. Three campuses of the City University of New York are in The Bronx, including Bronx Community College (occupying the former University Heights Campus of New York University), Hostos Community College, and Lehman College (formerly the uptown campus of Hunter College). The College of Mount Saint Vincent is a Catholic liberal arts college located Riverdale and is under the direction of the Sisters of Charity of New York. Founded in 1847 as a school for girls, the academy became a degree-granting college in 1911 and began admitting men in 1974. The school serves 1,600 students. Manhattan College is a Catholic college in Riverdale. Manhattan College offers undergraduate programs in the arts, business, education, engineering, and science. Graduate programs are offered for education and engineering. Monroe College is a private college with a campus in the Bronx. It offers both two-year and four-year programs. The State University of New York Maritime College is a national leader in maritime education. Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... Albert Einstein College of Medicine logo For the engineering company, see AECOM The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM) is a graduate school of Yeshiva University. ... Yeshiva University is a private Jewish university in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: ), is the public university system of New York City. ... The Bronx Community College of The City University of New York is a community college in the City University of New York system. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... Eugenio María de Hostos Community College of The City University of New York is a community college in the City University of New York system. ... Lehman College is one of the constituent colleges of the City University of New York, USA. Founded in 1931 as the Bronx campus of Hunter College, the school became an independent college within the City University in 1968. ... See also: Hunter College High School Hunter College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as simply Hunter College) is a senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY), located on Manhattans Upper East Side. ... The main entrance of the College of Mount Saint Vincent The College of Mount Saint Vincent is a Catholic liberal arts college located in the Riverdale section of The Bronx, New York. ... The main entrance to Manhattan College Manhattan College is a Roman Catholic liberal arts college in the Lasallian tradition in New York City. ... Monroe College is a private college with campuses in the Bronx and New Rochelle, New York. ... SUNY Maritime College SUNY Maritime College Seal SUNY Maritime College is located in the Bronx, New York City in historic Fort Schuyler on the Throggs Neck peninsula where the East River meets Long Island Sound. ...

See also: Education in New York City

Education in New York City is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. ...

References

  1. ^ Bronx County, New York, United States Census Bureau, accessed December 30, 2006
  2. ^ See, for example, New York City Administrative Code § 2–202
  3. ^ See, for example, references on the New York City website
  4. ^ Lloyd Ultan, Bronx Borough Historian, in "Notes & Asides", National Review, January 28, 2002
  5. ^ Steven Hess, "From the Hague to the Bronx: Definite Articles in Place Names," Journal of the North Central Name Society Fall 1987
  6. ^
  7. ^ New York City Department of Parks and Recreation: Harding Park, accessed December 1, 2006
  8. ^ Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books, p. 55. 
  9. ^ From North of Manhattan by Harry Hansen (Hastings House, 1950), excerpted at http://www.bronxmall.com/cult/series/2.html
  10. ^ Joyce Cohen, "A Pleasant Surprise in the Bronx", New York Times, July 13, 2007
  11. ^ Cornell Law School Supreme Court Collection: Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, accessed June 12, 2006
  12. ^ "Chilly Coexistence." The Columbia Spectator, Spring 2000.[1]
  13. ^ 2007 Fort Greene Park Summer Literary Festival website
  14. ^ Edgar Allan Poe Cottage, accessed October 9, 2006
  15. ^ David Gonzalez,"Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplce of Hip-Hop?" New York Times, May 21, 2007.
  16. ^ Mahler, Jonathan (2005). Ladies and Gentlemen, The Bronx is Burning. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 
  17. ^ See for the call for source material.

Briggs, Xavier de Souza, Anita Miller and John Shapiro. 1996. "CCRP in the South Bronx." Planners' Casebook, Winter. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Farrar, Straus and Giroux is a book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. ...


External links

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

See also


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