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Encyclopedia > Bromine
35 seleniumbrominekrypton
Cl

Br

I
General
Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35
Chemical series halogens
Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p
Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown
solid: metallic cluster
Standard atomic weight 79.904(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 7
Physical properties
Phase liquid
Density (near r.t.) (Br2, liquid) 3.1028 g·cm−3
Melting point 265.8 K
(-7.3 °C, 19 °F)
Boiling point 332.0 K
(58.8 °C, 137.8 °F)
Critical point 588 K, 10.34 MPa
Heat of fusion (Br2) 10.571 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (Br2) 29.96 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (Br2)
75.69 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 185 201 220 244 276 332
Atomic properties
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Oxidation states ±1, 5
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.96 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1139.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2103 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3470 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 115 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 94 pm
Covalent radius 114 pm
Van der Waals radius 185 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 7.8×1010 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 0.122 W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (20 °C) ? 206 m/s
CAS registry number 7726-95-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of bromine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
79Br 50.69% Br is stable with 44 neutrons
81Br 49.31% Br is stable with 46 neutrons
References

Bromine (pronounced /ˈbroʊmiːn/, /ˈbroʊmaɪn/, /ˈbroʊmɪn/, Greek: βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "stench (of he-goats)" [1]), is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Br and atomic number 35. A halogen element, bromine is a red volatile liquid at standard room temperature which has a reactivity between chlorine and iodine. This element is corrosive to human tissue in a liquid state and its vapours irritate the eyes and throat. Bromine vapours are very toxic upon inhalation. A horse drawn Bromo-Seltzer wagon. ... View into the Mount Bromo crater Mount Bromo (also known as Tengger Caldera) is one of the most popular tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Bromine table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 26, 2003, 11:14 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Bromine User:Femto/elements e3 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Bromine sample (liquid). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Bromine (Br) Standard atomic mass: 79. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature and one of only six elements on the periodic table that are liquid at or close to room temperature. The pure chemical element has the physical form of a diatomic molecule, Br2. It is a heavy, mobile, reddish-brown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures in a red vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strong disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. Bromine is a halogen, and is less reactive than chlorine and more reactive than iodine. Bromine is slightly soluble in water, and highly soluble in carbon disulfide, aliphatic alcohols (such as methanol), and acetic acid. It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action. Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A computer rendering of the Nitrogen Molecule, which is a diatomic molecule. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ...


Bromine is highly reactive and is a powerful oxidizing agent in the presence of water. It reacts vigorously with amines, alkenes and phenols as well as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones and acids (these are brominated by either addition or substitution reactions). With many of the metals and elements, anhydrous bromine is less reactive than hydrated bromine; however, dry bromine reacts vigorously with aluminium, titanium, mercury as well as alkaline earth metals and alkali metals. European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... An addition reaction, in chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one. ... Substitution in the context of organic chemistry has the general meaning of replacing an atom, a functional group, or a substituent in a molecule. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ...


Certain bromine-related compounds have been evaluated to have an ozone depletion potential or bioaccumulate in living organisms. As a result many industrial bromine compounds are no longer manufactured, are being restricted, or scheduled for phase out of manufacturing processes. The ODP, or Ozone Depletion Potential, of a compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with R-11 being fixed at an ODP of 1. ...


Chemistry

Electrophilic addition

Bromine undergoes electrophilic addition to the double-bonds of alkenes, via a cyclic bromonium intermediate. In non-aqueous solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, this gives the di-bromo product. For example, reaction with ethylene will produce 1,2-dibromoethane. When used as bromine water, the corresponding bromohydrin is formed instead. This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... 1,2-Dibromoethane is a manufactured chemical. ... A halohydrin formation reaction is an organic chemical reaction where a halogen is added to an alkene in aqueous solution to form a halohydrin. ...


Bromine also undergoes electrophilic addition to phenols and anilines, which are activated at the ortha and para positions. When added to either, the 2,4,6-tribromophenol or aniline product which is usually a white solid, will precipitate. Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. ...


Apart from organic synthesis, bromine water is thus used as a qualitative test for alkenes, phenols, and anilines.


Bromine, sometimes with a catalytic amount of phosphorus, easily brominates carboxylic acids at the α-position. This is the Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky halogenation reaction halogenates carboxylic acids at the α carbon. ...


Oxidation

Like the other halogens, bromine is an oxidizer, and it will oxidize iodide ions to elemental iodine, being itself reduced to bromide ions. An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ...


Free radical reaction

Like the halogens, bromine undergoes free radical reactions. In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Bromine analogs

N-Bromosuccinimide is commonly used as a substitute for elemental bromine, being easier to handle, and reacting more mildly and thus more selectively. Flash point None R/S statement R: ? S: ? RTECS number  ? Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Applications

Elemental bromine is used to manufacture a wide variety of bromine compounds used in industry and agriculture. A common use of bromine was in the production of 1,2-dibromoethane which in turn was used as an anti-knock agent for leaded gasolines, but this application has been largely phased out due to environmental considerations. 1,2-Dibromoethane is a manufactured chemical. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... Petrol redirects here. ...


Bromine is also used to form intermediates in organic synthesis, in which it is somewhat preferable over iodine due to its lower cost. For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ...


Bromine is used to make brominated vegetable oil, which is used as an emulsifier in many citrus-flavored soft drinks. Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is vegetable oil that has had atoms of the element bromine bonded to it. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ...


Bromine is also used in the manufacture of:

Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Brominated flame-retardants are produced synthetically in ca 70 variants with very varying chemical properties. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ...

History

Bromine was discovered by Antoine Balard at the salt marshes of Montpellier in 1826, but was not produced in quantity until 1860. The French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name bromine due to the characteristic smell of the vapors. Some also suggest that it may have been discovered by Bernard Courtois, the man who discovered iodine. Antoine Jerome Balard (September 30, 1802 - April 30, 1876), was a French chemist, and the discoverer of bromine. ... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... Montpellier (Occitan Montpelhièr) is a city in the south of France. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (December 6, 1778–May 10, 1850) was a French chemist and physicist. ... Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777–27 September 1838) was a French chemist who discovered iodine in 1811. ...


Occurrence

World bromine production trend
World bromine production trend

Bromine occurs in nature as bromide salts in very diffuse amounts in crustal rock. Due to leaching, bromide salts have accumulated in sea water (85 ppm), and may be economically recovered from brine wells and the Dead Sea (up to 50000 ppm). Image File history File links Bromine_-_world_production_trend. ... Image File history File links Bromine_-_world_production_trend. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Leaching is the process of extracting a substance from a solid by dissolving it in a liquid. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


Approximately 500,000 metric tons (worth around US$350 million) of bromine are produced per year (2001) worldwide with the United States and Israel being the primary producers. The largest bromine reserve in the United States is located in Columbia and Union County, Arkansas. Israel's bromine reserves are contained in the waters of the Dead Sea. Bromine production has increased sixfold since the 1960s. Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ...


See also Halide minerals.


Safety

Elemental bromine is a strong irritant, oxidizing and, in concentrated form, will produce painful blisters on exposed skin and especially mucous membranes. Even low concentrations of bromine vapor (from 10 ppm) can affect breathing, and inhalation of significant amounts of bromine can seriously damage the respiratory system. The word irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation, often a chemical substance. ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ...


Accordingly, one should always wear safety goggles and ensure adequate ventilation when handling bromine. Watersport goggles Blowtorching goggles and safety helmet Goggles are a form of protective eyewear that usually enclose the eye area to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. ...


A chronic overdose of bromides can lead to bromism (also called brominism) characterized by mental dullness, loss of muscular coordination, and possibly skin eruptions.


In laboratory settings, bromine should always be stored separately from acetone, as the two chemicals can react and create bromoacetone, a potentially hazardous lachrymatory agent. The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Bromoacetone, or bromo-2-propanone, is a lachrymatory agent. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ...


Compounds

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bromine.

Aluminium bromide (AlBr3), ammonium bromide (NH4Br), bromine monofluoride (BrF), bromine pentafluoride (BrF5), bromine trifluoride (BrF3), ethidium bromide (C21H20BrN3), tetrabromomethane (CBr4), hydrobromic acid (HBr), iron(III) bromide (FeBr3), lithium bromide (LiBr), phosphorus pentabromide (PBr5), phosphorus tribromide (PBr3), potassium bromide (KBr), potassium bromate (KBrO3), silver bromide (AgBr), sodium bromide (NaBr), sodium bromate (NaBrO3). Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Aluminum bromide (CAS registry number: 7727-15-3) is a hygroscopic compound and appears as white to yellow-red lumps. ... Ammonium bromide, NH4Br, can be prepared by the direct action of hydrogen bromide on ammonia. ... Bromine pentafluoride, BrF5, is a fluoride of bromine. ... Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point > 100 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Absorption spectrum of ethidium bromide Ethidium bromide (sometimes abbreviated as EtBr) is an intercalating agent commonly used as a nucleic... R-phrases , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Tetrabromomethane, CBr4, also known as carbon tetrabromide, is a carbon bromide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... Iron tribromide is the chemical compound with the formula FeBr3, also known as ferric bromide or Iron(III) bromide. ... Lithium bromide, or LiBr, is chemical compound of lithium and bromide that is extremely hygroscopic and often used as a dessicant. ... Phosphorus pentabromide is a yellow solid of formula PBr5, which has the structure PBr4+ Br− in the solid state. ... Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3. ... Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the 1800s. ... Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder. ... Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light. ... Sodium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula NaBr. ... Sodium bromate is a strong oxidant, mainly used as printing and dyeing auxiliary, hair-permagent, chemical agent, or gold solvent in gold mines when used with sodium bromide. ...


See also Bromine compounds.


See Also

References

  1. ^ Gemoll W, Vretska K: Griechisch-Deutsches Schul- und Handwörterbuch ("Greek-German dictionary"), 9th ed., published by öbvhpt, ISBN 3-209-00108-1

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemistry : Periodic Table : bromine : key information (286 words)
Bromine is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory.
In this treatment, bromide is oxidized to bromine by the chlorine gas.
The principle of oxidation of bromide to bromine is shown by the addition of a little chlorine water to aqueous solutions of bromide.
Bromine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (706 words)
Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element at room temperature and one of five elements on the period table that are liquid at or close to room temperature.
Bromine is slightly soluble in water, and highly soluble in carbon disulfide, aliphatic alcohols (such as methanol), and acetic acid.
Bromine is also used in the manufacture of fumigants, brominated flame-retardants, water purification compounds, dyes, medicines, sanitizers, inorganic bromides for photography, etc. It is also used to form intermediates in organic synthesis, where it is preferred to iodine due to its much lower cost.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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