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Encyclopedia > Broca's area
Brain: Broca's area
Approximate location of Broca's area highlighted in gray
Broca's area visible but not labeled.
NeuroNames ancil-251
Dorlands/Elsevier a_59/12150965

Broca's area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. Broca's and Wernicke's areas are found unilaterally in the brain. Drawing of human brain with Brocas and Wernicke area highlighted. ... Image File history File links Inferior_frontal_gyrus. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Elseviers logo. ... For more specific information about the human brain, see its main article at human brain A sketch of the human brain by artist Priyan Weerappuli, imposed upon his sketch of the profile of Michaelangelos David In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Language processing refers to the way human beings process speech or writing and understand it as language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Unilateralism, (one+side-ism) is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action. ...


It comprises Brodmann area 44,[1] and some authorities also include Brodmann area 45[2][3][4]); Broca's Area is connected to Wernicke's area by a neural pathway called the arcuate fasciculus. The corresponding area in macaque monkeys is responsible for high-level control over orofacial actions.[5] Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Approximate location of Wernickes area highlighted in gray Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the central sulcus (part of the brain where... A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... Type Species Simia inuus Linnaeus, 1758 = Simia sylvanus Linnaeus, 1758 Species See text. ...

Contents

Parts

There are two main parts of Broca's area, which express different roles during language comprehension and production:

  • Pars triangularis (anterior), which is thought to support the interpretation of various 'modes' of stimuli (plurimodal association) and the programming of verbal conducts
  • Pars opercularis (posterior), which is thought to support the management of only one kind of stimulus (unimodal association) and the coordination of the speech organs for the actual production of language, given its favorable position close to motor-related areas.

The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... Stimulation is the irritating action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ...

Broca's area and Universal Grammar

Broca's area has been proven to react selectively to languages that follow the set of universal syntactic principles discovered by generative grammarians especially within the transformational grammar model pioneered by Noam Chomsky and that characterize all and only human languages. For example, if one construes an artificial language where syntactic rules are based on the linear order of words rather than the hierarchical structure of phrases, Broca's area does not play an active role when managing this rule. In fact, in all human languages only hierarchy matters rather than linear order in each and every syntactic rule. A simple example is given by the rule of question formation in English sentences involving the copula such as "John is a friend of the girl who is sitting in front of me." The corresponding interrogative question is "is John a friend of the girl who is sitting in front of me?" vs. *"is John is a friend of the girl who sitting in front of me?" It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ... Avram Noam Chomsky, Ph. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


But the rule governing the formation of questions in this way cannot be captured by assuming that it is the first occurrence of the verb that is fronted. In fact, in a simple sentence like "John who is a good cook is a friend of mine" the rule would be falsified, for the correct question sentence would be the one wherein the second occurrence of the verb is fronted: *"is John who a good cook is a friend of mine?" vs. "is John who is a friend of mine a good cook?" To know which verb is to be moved, we must rely on the notion of phrase structure - distinguishing, for example, between the matrix clause vs. the embedded one (a relative clause) - rather than the linear order of words in the sequence.


Summarizing, it is only with phrase structure rules like those that govern human speech that Broca's area is activated, it is not activated by linear rules.


[6] [7]


Aphasia

People suffering from damage to this area may show a condition called Broca's aphasia (sometimes known as expressive aphasia, motor aphasia, or nonfluent aphasia), which makes them unable to create grammatically-complex sentences: their speech is often described as telegraphic and contains little but content words. Patients usually are aware that they cannot speak properly. Comprehension in Broca's aphasia is relatively normal, although many studies have demonstrated that Broca's aphasics have trouble understanding certain kinds of syntactically complex sentences.[8] Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ...


This type of aphasia can be contrasted with Wernicke's aphasia, named for Karl Wernicke, which is characterized by damage to more posterior regions of the left hemisphere (in the superior temporal lobe). Wernicke's aphasia manifests as a more pronounced impairment in comprehension. Thus, while speech production remains normal grammatically, it is nonetheless often roundabout, vague or meaningless. It is therefore also known as receptive aphasia. Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and neologistic jargonaphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ... Carl Wernicke -- 1848-1905. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernickes aphasia, Fluent aphasia or sensory aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychology, is a type of aphasia often (but not always) caused by neurological damage to Wernickes area in the brain. ...


For example, in the following passage, a Broca's aphasic patient is trying to explain how he came to the hospital for dental surgery.

"Yes... ah... Monday... er... Dad and Peter H... (his own name), and Dad.... er... hospital... and ah... Wednesday... Wednesday, nine o'clock... and oh... Thursday... ten o'clock, ah doctors... two... an' doctors... and er... teeth... yah."[9]

PET and functional MRI have found decreases in activity in the Broca's area in stuttering.There is greater activation of the right hemisphere homologue of the Broca's area (area of Ross) which is believed to be a compensatory response to the hypoactivity in the Broca's area proper. Volumetric MRI has shown that the pars triangularis is smaller in people who stutter. The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ...


See also

Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Expressive aphasia, known as Brocas aphasia in clinical neuropsychology and agrammatic aphasia in cognitive neuropsychology, is an aphasia caused by damage to Brocas area in the brain. ... A sketch of the human brain, imposed upon the profile of Michelangelos David. ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... Approximate location of Wernickes area highlighted in gray Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the central sulcus (part of the brain where...

References

  1. ^ Mohr JP in Studies in Neurolinguistics (eds. Witaker H & Witaker NA) 201–235 (Academic, New York, 1976)
  2. ^ Penfield W & Roberts L Speech and Brain Mechanisms (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, 1959)
  3. ^ Ojemann GA, Ojemann JG, Lettich E, Berger MS (1989). "Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. An electical stimulation mapping investigation in 117 patients". J Neurosurg 71: 316–26. 
  4. ^ Duffau H et al. (2003). "The role of dominant premotor cortex in language: a study uding intraoperative functional mapping in awake patients". Neuroimage 20: 1903–14. 
  5. ^ Petrides M, Cadoret G, Mackey S (2005). "Orofacial somatomotor responses in the macaque monkey homologue of Broca's area". Nature 435: 1235–38. DOI:10.1038/nature03628. 
  6. ^ A. Moro, M. Tettamanti, D. Perani, C. Donati, S. F. Cappa, F. Fazio “Syntax and the brain: disentangling grammar by selective anomalies”, NeuroImage, 13, January 2001, Academic Press, Chicago, pagg. 110-118
  7. ^ Musso, M., Moro, A. , Glauche. V., Rijntjes, M., Reichenbach, J., Büchel, C., Weiller, C. “Broca’s area and the language instinct,” Nature neuroscience, 2003, vol.6, pp. 774-781.
  8. ^ Caramazza A & Zurif E (1976). "Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: evidence from aphasia". Brain and Language 3: 572–82. 
  9. ^ Goodglass H & Geschwind N. Language disorders. In E. Carterette and M.P. Friedman (eds.) Handbook of Perception: Language and Speech. Vol II (New York, Academic Press, 1976)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Broca's area - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (761 words)
Broca's area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension.
Broca's and Wernicke's areas are found unilaterally in the brain, most commonly on the left side, due to the majority of the population being "Left dominant".
Broca's area is named after Pierre Paul Broca, who first described it in 1861, after conducting a post mortem study on a speech-impaired patient.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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