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Encyclopedia > Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults. Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the four aspects of marketing. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a longitudinal wave, and therefore is a mechanical wave. ... Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ...


There are wide variety of broadcasting systems, all of which have different capabilities. The smallest broadcasting systems are institutional public address systems, which transmit verbal messages and music within a school or hospital, and low-powered broadcasting systems which transmit radio stations or television stations to a small area. National radio and television broadcasters have nationwide coverage, using retransmitter towers, satellite systems, and cable distribution. Satellite radio and television broadcasters can cover even wider areas, such as entire continents, and Internet channels can distribute text or streamed music worldwide. A public address system, abbreviated PA system, is an electronic amplification system used as a communication system in public areas. ...


The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. As with all technological endeavors, a number of technical terms and slang have developed. A list of these terms can be found at list of broadcasting terms. Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable, often both simultaneously. By coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, the latter also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services. Television scheduling is the practice of using variety, repetition, connection and originality within an evenings schedule (and within a weeks schedule, and the whole television season) to create harmonious and mutually supportive arrangements (Ellis 2000). ... With every new technology a number of terms and slang words develop to assist in the rapid communication of ideas between the users of the technology. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... Look up home in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ...


The term "broadcast" was coined by early radio engineers from the midwestern United States. Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To send data to a specific list of recipients. ...

Contents

Business models of broadcasting

There are several dominant business models of broadcasting. Each differs in the method by which stations are funded: The term business model describes a broad range of informal and formal models that are used by enterprises to represent various aspects of business, such as operational processes, organizational structures, and financial forecasts. ...

  • in-kind donations of time and skills by volunteers (common with community broadcasters)
  • direct government payments or operation of public broadcasters
  • indirect government payments, such as radio and television licenses
  • grants from foundations or business entities
  • selling advertising or sponsorships
  • public subscription or membership
  • fees charged to all owners of TV sets or radios, regardless of whether they intend to receive that program or not (an approach used in the UK)

Broadcasters may rely on a combination of these business models. For example, National Public Radio, a non-commercial network within the United States, receives grants from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (which in turn receives funding from the U.S. government), by public membership, and by selling "extended credits" to corporations. A television licence is an official licence required in some countries for all owners of a television receiver. ... Look up Grant, grant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Foundation is a type of philanthropic organization set up by either individuals or institutions as a legal entity (either as a corporation or trust) with the purpose of distributing grants to support causes in line with the goals of the foundation. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Commercialism redirects here. ... The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ... Membership can refer to: Set membership - comprising part of a set in mathematics Social group membership - in sociology, the process of socialisation aims/results in achieving membership of a social group This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... One pays a fee as renumeration for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer or member of a learned profession. ... The term business model describes a broad range of informal and formal models that are used by enterprises to represent various aspects of business, such as operational processes, organizational structures, and financial forecasts. ... Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... The Corporation for Public Broadcasting logo, used from 1969 to 2002. ... Corporate redirects here. ...


Recorded broadcasts and live broadcasts

One can distinguish between recorded and live broadcasts. The former allows correcting errors, and removing superfluous or undesired material, rearranging it, applying slow-motion and repetitions, and other techniques to enhance the program. However some live events like sports telecasts can include some of the aspects including slow motion clips of important goals/hits etc in between the live telecast. Slow motion is an effect resulting from running film through a movie camera at faster-than-normal speed. ...


American radio network broadcasters habitually forbade prerecorded broadcasts in the 1930s and 1940s, requiring radio programs played for the Eastern and Central time zones to be repeated three hours later for the Pacific time zone. This restriction was dropped for special occasions, as in the case of the German dirigible airship Hindenburg at Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1937. During World War II, prerecorded broadcasts from war correspondents were allowed on U.S. radio. In addition, American radio programs were recorded for playback by Armed Forces Radio stations around the world. A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... Lakehurst is a borough located in Ocean County, New Jersey. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... American Forces Network, or AFN - the acronym that its most commonly known as, is the brand name used by the United States Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS) for its networks worldwide. ...


A disadvantage of recording first is that the public may know the outcome of an event from another source, which may be a spoiler. In addition, prerecording prevents live announcers from deviating from an officially-approved script, as occurred with propaganda broadcasts from Germany in the 1940s and with Radio Moscow in the 1980s. A spoiler is a summary or description of a narrative (or part of a narrative) that relates plot elements not revealed early in the narrative itself. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A screenplay or script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


Many events are advertised as being live, although they are often "recorded live" (sometimes this is referred to as "live-to-tape"). This is particularly true of performances of musical artists on radio when they visit for an in-studio concert performance. This intentional blurring of the distinction between live and recorded media is viewed with chagrin among many music lovers. Similar situations have sometimes appeared in television ("The Cosby Show is recorded in front of a live studio audience"). A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ... The Cosby Show is an American television sitcom that ran from 1984 to 1992. ...


Distribution methods

A broadcast may be distributed through several physical means. If coming directly from the studio at a single radio or tv station, it is simply sent through the air chain to the transmitter and thence from the antenna on the tower out to the world. Programming may also come through a communications satellite, played either live or recorded for later transmission. Networks of stations may simulcast the same programming at the same time, originally via microwave link, and now mostly by satellite. For a one-room apartment, see Apartment. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... In biology, antenna (plural: antennae) refers to the sensing organs of several arthropods. ... Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Simulcast is a contraction of simultaneous broadcast, and refers to programs or events broadcast across more than one medium at the same time. ... Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. ...


Distribution to stations or networks may also be through physical media, such as analogue or digital videotape, CD, DVD, and sometimes other formats. Usually these are included in another broadcast, such as when electronic news gathering returns a story to the station for inclusion on a news programme. Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording television pictures and accompanying sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (commonly known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... In 1974, Joseph Flaherty, then vice-president at CBS Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The final leg of broadcast distribution is how the signal gets to the listener or viewer. It may come over the air as with a radio station or TV station to an antenna and receiver, or may come through cable TV [1] or cable radio (or "wireless cable") via the station or directly from a network. The Internet may also bring either radio or TV to the recipient, especially with multicasting allowing the signal and bandwidth to be shared. A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... A television station is a type of radio station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna or aerial is an arrangement of aerial electrical conductors designed to transmit or receive radio waves which is a class of electromagnetic waves. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (and often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio waves transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in... Cable radio or cable FM is a complementary concept to that of cable television, bringing radio transmissions into homes and businesses via coaxial cable. ... Multichannel multipoint distribution service, also known as MMDS or wireless cable, is a wireless telecommunications technology, used for general-purpose broadband networking or, more commonly, as an alternative method of cable television programming reception. ... Routing Schemes anycast broadcast multicast unicast Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The term "broadcast network" is often used to distinguish networks that broadcast an over-the-air television signal that can be received using a television antenna from so-called networks that are broadcast only via cable or satellite television. The term "broadcast television" can refer to the programming of such networks.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The United States government requires users of radio spectrum to obtain a broadcast license to use the airwaves, except for low-powered transmitters like CBs and Walkie Talkies. ... A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a group of radio or television stations. ... Dead air is a phenomenon whereby a broadcast which normally carries audio or video unintentionally becomes silent or blank (also known as unmodulated carrier). ... <marquee bgcolor=white><text color=lime> sup --> The European Broadcasting Union (EBU), known in French as LUnion Européenne de Radio-Télévision (UER), and unrelated to the European Union, was formed on 12 February 1950 by 23 broadcasting organisations from Europe and the Mediterranean at a conference... // Broadcasting around the World United States Broadcasting pioneer Frank Conrad in a 1921 portrait. ... Internet radio (aka e-Radio) is a broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ... It has been suggested that IPTV be merged into this article or section. ... This is the list of broadcast satellites &#8212; communications satellites used primarily for radio and television networks and backhauls, and for DBS. Listings are from west to east (increasing longitude) by orbital position, starting and ending with the International Date Line. ... NaSTA, the National Student Television Association, is an informal group of student television stations based at universities throughout the United Kingdom. ... In computing, a Nonbroadcast Multiple Access Network, or NBMA, is a network to which multiple computers and devices are attached, but data is transmitted directly from one computer to another over a virtual circuit or across a switching fabric, NBMA do not support multicast or broadcast traffic. ... Outside broadcasting is the production of television programmes (typically to cover sports events) from a mobile television studio. ... Streaming media is media that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user whilst it is being delivered by the provider. ... A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. ...

References

  • Kahn Frank J., ed. Documents of American Broadcasting, fourth edition (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1984).
  • Lichty Lawrence W., and Topping Malachi C., eds. American Broadcasting: A Source Book on the History of Radio and Television (Hastings House, 1975).

External links

Further reading

  • Barnouw Erik. The Golden Web (Oxford University Press, 1968); The Sponsor (1978); A Tower in Babel (1966).
  • Briggs Asa. The BBC--the First Fifty Years (: Oxford University Press, 1984).
  • Briggs Asa. The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom (Oxford University Press, 1961).
  • Covert Cathy, and Stevens John L. Mass Media Between the Wars (Syracuse University Press, 1984).
  • Douglas B. Craig. Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920-1940 (2005)
  • Tim Crook; International Radio Journalism: History, Theory and Practice Routledge, 1998
  • John Dunning; On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio Oxford University Press, 1998
  • Ewbank Henry and Lawton Sherman P. Broadcasting: Radio and Television (Harper & Brothers, 1952).
  • Gibson George H. Public Broadcasting; The Role of the Federal Government, 1919-1976 (Praeger Publishers, 1977).
  • Maclaurin W. Rupert. Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry (The Macmillan Company, 1949).
  • Robert W. McChesney; Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy: The Battle for the Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-1935 Oxford University Press, 1994
  • Gwenyth L. Jackaway; Media at War: Radio's Challenge to the Newspapers, 1924-1939 Praeger Publishers, 1995
  • Lazarsfeld Paul F. The People Look at Radio (University of North Carolina Press, 1946).
  • Tom McCourt; Conflicting Communication Interests in America: The Case of National Public Radio Praeger Publishers, 1999
  • Peers Frank W. The Politics of Canadian Broadcasting, 1920- 1951 (University of Toronto Press, 1969).
  • Alan Taylor. We, the media...", The Hollywood Representation of News Broadcasting, 1976-1999, Peter Lang, 2005, pp. 418, ISBN 3631518528
  • Ray William B. FCC: The Ups and Downs of Radio-TV Regulation (Iowa State University Press, 1990).
  • Rosen Philip T. The Modern Stentors; Radio Broadcasting and the Federal Government 1920-1934 (Greenwood Press, 1980).
  • William A. Rugh; Arab Mass Media: Newspapers, Radio, and Television in Arab Politics Praeger, 2004
  • Scannell, Paddy, and Cardiff, David. A Social History of British Broadcasting, Volume One, 1922-1939 (Basil Blackwell, 1991).
  • Schramm Wilbur, ed. Mass Communications (University of Illinois Press, 1960).
  • Schwoch James. The American Radio Industry and Its Latin American Activities, 1900-1939 (University of Illinois Press, 1990).
  • Slater Robert. This . . . is CBS: A Chronicle of 60 Years (Prentice Hall, 1988).
  • F. Leslie Smith, John W. Wright II, David H. Ostroff; Perspectives on Radio and Television: Telecommunication in the United States Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998
  • Sterling Christopher H. Electronic Media, A Guide to Trends in Broadcasting and Newer Technologies 1920-1983 (Praeger, 1984).
  • Sterling Christopher, and Kittross John M. Stay Tuned: A Concise History of American Broadcasting (Wadsworth, 1978).
  • White Llewellyn. The American Radio (University of Chicago Press, 1947).

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The principal interpreter of the Act is the Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), set up to report to Parliament through the Secretary of State (and thus to be under the control of Parliament rather than of the government of the day).
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