FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
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Encyclopedia > Broadcaster
Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing.

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range.

The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable, often both simultaneously. By coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, the latter also enables subscription_based channels and pay-per-view services.

A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs at the same time, through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the other hand, two or more organisations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble.

When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used.

Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media.

Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting.


Business models of broadcasting

There are several dominant business models of broadcasting. Each differs in the method by which stations are funded:

Broadcasters may rely on a combination of these business models. For example, National Public Radio, a non-commercial network within the United States, receives grants from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (which in turn receives funding from the U.S. government), by public membership, and by selling "extended credits" to corporations.

Recorded or live

One can distinguish between recorded and live broadcasts. The former allows correcting errors, and removing superfluous or undesired material, rearranging it, applying slow-motion and repetitions, and other techniques to enhance the program.

American radio network broadcasters habitually forbade prerecorded broadcasts in the 1930s and 1940s, requiring radio programs played for the Eastern and Central time zones to be repeated three hours later for the Pacific time zone. This restriction was dropped for special occasions, as in the case of the German dirigible airship Hindenburg at Lakehurst, New Jersey in 1937. During World War II, prerecorded broadcasts from war correspondents were allowed on U.S. radio. In addition, American radio programs were recorded for playback by Armed Forces Radio stations around the world.

A disadvantage of recording first is that the public may know the outcome of an event from another source, which may be a spoiler. In addition, prerecording prevents live announcers from deviating from an officially-approved script, as occurred with propaganda broadcasts from Germany in the 1940s and with Radio Moscow in the 1980s.

An intermediate form is a delay of a few seconds, to suppress obscenity and technical failures, or even coughing.

Distribution methods

A broadcast may be distributed through several physical means. If coming directly from the studio at a single broadcast station, it is simply sent through the airchain to the transmitter. Programming may also come through a communications satellite, played either live or recorded for later transmission. Networks of stations may simulcast the same programming at the same time, originally via microwave link, and now mostly by satellite.

Distribution to stations or networks may also be through physical media, such as analogue or digital videotape, CD, DVD, and sometimes other formats. Usually these are included in another broadcast, such as when electronic news gathering returns a story to the station for inclusion on a news programme.

The final leg of broadcast distribution is how the signal gets to the listener or viewer. It may come over the air as with a radio station or TV station to an antenna and receiver, or may come through cable TV or cable radio (or "wireless cable") via the station or directly from a network. The Internet may also bring either radio or TV to the recipient, especially with multicasting allowing the signal and bandwidth to be shared.

Related topics

See also

  • NBMA Nonbroadcast Multiple Access Network

External links

  • www.eurotv.com, a West-European TV guide
  • Waveguide (http://www.waveguide.co.uk/latest/news.htm) Broadcasting News
  • Vernon Corea The Golden Voice of Radio Ceylon (http://www.vernoncorea.info)The story of broadcasting in Sri Lanka(Ceylon)
  • Lyngsat.com (http://www.lyngsat.com/) Lyngsat Global Satellite Listings
  • www.vizrt.com The world’s leading provider of real-time 2D and true 3D broadcast graphics
  • Broadcasting Timeline (http://www.infoplease.com/ipea/A0151956.html)

  Results from FactBites:
Baseball Broadcasting from Another Day by Pat Doyle (2242 words)
WVET was known for broadcasting popular music of the day through a signal strength that dropped precipitously after sunset, and many of the WingsÂ’ fans had to wait for the late news or the morning paper to learn how the locals had fared after the first few innings.
To the broadcaster, however, they were the contrast between the breezes of the ballpark and the confinement of a studio, the telling of what you see and what you read.
Broadcasters quickly learned to stay two or three batters behind the play in case a correction was made after the play had been completed.
Broadcasting (271 words)
The principal interpreter of the Act is the Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), set up to report to Parliament through the Secretary of State (and thus to be under the control of Parliament rather than of the government of the day).
By about 1970 the CRTC had begun to draft and to implement regulations to ensure that Canadian broadcasters would use 'predominantly Canadian creative and other resources,' as required by the Act.
Since for many years most radio broadcasting of music had consisted of playing records, and since the Canadian recording industry until recently (with the partial exception of the Province of Quebec) had been an importing industry only, such regulations were bound to encourage Canadian recording, though probably more of popular than of serious music.
  More results at FactBites »



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